Liverpool Lime Street railway station
Liverpool Lime Street is a terminus railway station, the main station serving the city centre of Liverpool. Opened in August 1836, it is the oldest grand terminus mainline station still in use in the world. A branch of the West Coast Main Line from London Euston terminates at the station, as does the original Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Services from this station serve a wide range of destinations across England, with direct services to Welsh and Scottish destinations to be reintroduced in 2019. Having realised that their existing Crown Street Station was too far away from the city centre, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway commenced construction of the more central Lime Street Station in October 1833. Designed by John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr, it was opened in August 1836. Proving to be popular with the railway-going public, within six years of its opening, expansion of the station had become necessary; the first expansion, collaboratively produced by Joseph Locke, Richard Turner, William Fairbairn and John Kennedy, was completed during 1849 at a total cost of £15,000.
During 1867, work upon a further expansion of Lime Street Station commenced, during which time the present northern arched train shed was built. Designed by William Baker and Francis Stevenson, upon completion, the train shed was the largest such structure in the world, featuring a span of 200 feet, as well as the first to make extensive use of iron. During 1879, a second parallel southern train shed was completed. Following the nationalisation of the railways during 1948, Lime Street Station was the subject of various upgrades and alterations, installing new signalling systems in and around the station, a redeveloped concourse, along with the building of new retail and office spaces. In 1962, regular electric services between Lime Street and Crewe were started and in 1966, the station hosted the launch of its first InterCity service, which saw the introduction of a regular 100 mph service between Liverpool and London. During the 1970s, a new urban rail network, known as Merseyrail was developed, while all other long-distance terminal stations in Liverpool were closed, resulting such services being centralised at Lime Street for the whole city.
In October 2003, the Pendolino service operated by private rail operator Virgin Trains, introducing a faster service between Liverpool and London, was ceremonially unveiled at the station. During May 2015, the electrification of the former Liverpool and Manchester Railway's route was completed, as well as the line to Wigan via St Helens Central. Lime Street Station is fronted by a large building designed in the Renaissance Revival style, the former North Western Hotel, which has since been converted to apartments. Since the 1970s, the main terminal building has provided direct access to the underground Lime Street Wirral Line station on the Merseyrail network. Between the 1960s and 2010, an office tower block named Concourse House, along with several retailers, stood outside the southern train shed. Lime Street is the largest and oldest railway station in Liverpool, is one of 18 stations managed by national infrastructure maintenance company Network Rail. During 2017, work commenced at Lime Street Station upon a £340 million remodelling programme.
In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations, written by columnist and editor Simon Jenkins, Lime Street Station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars. The original terminus of the 1830 Liverpool and Manchester Railway was located at Crown Street, in Edge Hill, to the east of and outside the city centre; however before Edge Hill had been opened, it was apparent that there was a pressing need for another station to be built, which would this time be closer to the city centre. Accordingly, during October 1833, the construction commenced on a purpose-built station at Lime Street in the city centre; the means of connecting the new station to L&MR's network came in the form of a twin-track tunnel, constructed between Edge Hill and the site of the new Lime Street station a year prior to work being started on the station itself. The station was designed by the architects John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr. During August 1836, Lime Street Station was opened to the public, although the construction process was not completed until the following year.
This building was designed with four large gateways. For its early operations, as a consequence of the steep incline uphill from Lime Street to Edge Hill, trains would be halted at Edge Hill and the locomotives detached from the trains; the return journey was achieved via the use of a stationary steam engine located at Edge Hill, which would be used to haul the carriages up to Edge Hill by rope. This system was constructed by the local engineering firm Mather and Company, who worked under the direction of the engineer John Grantham. During 1870, this practice came to an end. Lime Street Station was a near-instant success with the railway-going public. Within six years of its opening, the rapid growth of the railways had necessitated the expansion of the original station. An early plan for the enlarged station would have involved th
West Coast Railways
West Coast Railways, is a railway spot-hire company and charter train operator based at Carnforth MPD in Lancashire. Using buildings and other facilities owned by the Steamtown Carnforth visitor attraction, in June 1998 the company became the first owned company to be given a licence as a train operating company. Subsequently it was prohibited from running on mainlines for a period due to safety concerns After British Rail closed the Lakeside branch to passengers on 6 September 1965, a group of enthusiasts chaired by Dr Peter Beet formed the Lakeside Railway Estates Company, with the idea of preserving both the line and Carnforth MPD, to provide a complete steam operating system. After agreeing to rent out part of the Carnforth MPD site, but with the counter the development of the A590 road meaning that the complete vision was unsuccessful, Beet developed the visitor attraction Steamtown Carnforth, which became a mecca for steam enthusiasts from 1967. In 1974 Sir Bill McAlpine became a shareholder in the company, allowing his LNER A3 Pacific No. 4472 Flying Scotsman to make Carnforth its home.
McAlpine subsequently acquired a controlling interest in the company, in order to fund the purchase of the complete site including the track from British Rail. In light of McAlpine's declining interest, in 1990 his controlling interest in Steamtown Railway Museum Ltd was sold to David Smith, who over the following years has bought out most of the minority shareholders. With increasing Health & Safety Executive regulations, an increased reliance on revenue from supplying and servicing steam locomotives to power enthusiast trains, the commercial decision was taken not to reopen Carnforth as a museum or visitor attraction for the 1998 season. Steamtown Railway Museum Ltd still exists today as the holding company, operates an extensive railway repair and operating facility on the site. In June 1998, West Coast Railway Company was granted an operating licence to become a train operating company. WCR is a spot hire company which provides locomotives and crews to other companies within the rail industry.
The company operates charter trains. The company provides stock and crews for steam workings on the national network, for diesel tours; the headquarters, engineering base and depot are at Carnforth, where locomotives and stock are stored and maintained, where contract work is undertaken for other operators. WCR own and operated steam locomotive 5972 Olton Hall under the guise of Hogwarts Castle for the Harry Potter film series, with the Hogwarts Express. On 7 March 2015, the 16:35 return up/east bound Cathedrals Express 1Z67 operated by WCR approaching from Chippenham, headed by Battle of Britain class No. 34067 Tangmere and 13 coaches passed signal SN45 at danger at Wootton Bassett Junction on the Great Western Main Line, overrunning the signal by 700 yards. The incident occurred around one minute after the up/east bound First Great Western service 1L76, the 15:28 Swansea to London Paddington passenger service approaching via the South Wales Main Line from Badminton and operated by an InterCity 125 set, had cleared the junction at 100 miles per hour.
The signal was being maintained at danger to ensure the safety of train 1L76 after it had passed through the junction, as is signalling practice. The incident was investigated by track owner Network Rail, the Office of Rail Regulation and the Rail Accident Investigation Branch; the RAIB launched an investigation into the incident on 27 March, releasing a statement in which they described the incident as a "dangerous occurrence". According to the RAIB, the SPAD was caused by driver error, after the driver isolated the Automatic Warning System and Train Protection & Warning System on approach to a temporary speed restriction in the area of line after signal SN43, the signal before signal SN45; these were not reinstated on approach to signal SN45. 700 yards down the line, the train was manually brought to a stop by the driver. Following an initial response by WCR to NR over the incident, NR expressed "concern at the WCR demonstrated controls and commitment" considering them inadequate. Following a further meeting on 30 March 2015 between both parties, in an unprecedented reaction NR suspended WCR's operator's licence effective from midnight 3 April 2015.
Operators have been banned from certain routes, but this was the first total network ban since privatisation. The suspension notice states: Network Rail has had concerns about WCR's performance of its Safety Obligations for some time, recent events lead Network Rail to believe that the operations of WCR are a threat to the safe operation of the railway. If five of the seven required remedies are completed by May 15, with demonstrable progress towards completion of the other two, the suspension notice will be withdrawn; the required steps include introducing a risk-based driver monitoring regime, demonstrating that there is an effective and secure system of tamper-evident seals for train protection isolator cocks on all relevant traction. WCR stated that it was in negotiations with NR regarding the terms of the suspension, with other train operating companies in order to prevent the cancellation of many scheduled WCR operated railtours during the period of suspension. On 8 May 2015, Network Rail lifted the track access ban off the company.
This meant that the company could continue its scheduled tours for the coming months including the first of the Jacobite railtours. Network Rail has confirmed that
Preston is a city and the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble. The City of Preston local government district obtained city status in 2002, becoming England's 50th city in the 50th year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. Preston has a population of 114,300, the City of Preston district 132,000 and the Preston Built-up Area 313,322; the Preston Travel To Work Area, in 2011, had a population of 420,661 compared to 354,000 in the previous census. Preston and its surrounding area have provided evidence of ancient Roman activity in the form of a Roman road which led to a camp at Walton-le-Dale; the Angles established Preston. In the Middle Ages, Preston was a parish and township in the hundred of Amounderness and was granted a Guild Merchant charter in 1179, giving it the status of a market town. Textiles have been produced since the mid-13th century when locally produced wool was woven in people's houses. Flemish weavers who settled in the area in the 14th century helped develop the industry.
In the early-18th century, Edmund Calamy described Preston as "a pretty town with an abundance of gentry in it called Proud Preston". Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born in the town; the most rapid period of growth and development coincided with the industrialisation and expansion of textile manufacturing. Preston was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, becoming a densely populated engineering centre, with large industrial plants; the town's textile sector fell into terminal decline from the mid-20th century and Preston has subsequently faced similar challenges to other post-industrial northern towns, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. Preston is the seat of Lancashire County Council, houses the main campus of the University of Central Lancashire and is home to Preston North End F. C. a founder member of the Football League and the first English football champions. Preston is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Prestune" in 1086.
Various other spellings occur in early documents: "Prestonam", "Prestone", "Prestona", "Presteton", "Prestun". The modern spelling occurs in 1094, 1176, 1196, 1212 and 1332; the town's name is derived from the Tun of the Presta. During the Roman period, Roman roads passed close to. For example, the road from Luguvalium to Mamucium crossed the River Ribble at Walton-le-Dale, 3⁄4 mile southeast of the centre of Preston, a Roman camp or station may have been here. At Withy Trees, 1 1⁄2 miles north of Preston, the road crossed another Roman road from Bremetennacum to the coast. An explanation of the origin of the name is that the Priest's Town refers to a priory set up by St Wilfrid near the Ribble's lowest ford; this idea is supported by the similarity of the Paschal lamb on Preston's crest with that on St Wilfrid's. When first mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book, Preston was the most important town in Amounderness; when assessed for tax purposes in 1218 – 19 it was the wealthiest town in the whole county.
The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred by King Henry II upon the burgesses of Preston in a charter of 1179. It is the only guild still celebrated in the UK. Before 1328, celebrations were held at irregular intervals, but at the guild of that year it was decreed that subsequent guilds should be held every 20 years. After this, there were breaks in the pattern for various reasons, but an unbroken series were held from 1542 to 1922. A full 400-year sequence was frustrated by the cancellation of the 1942 guild due to World War II, but the cycle resumed in 1952; the expression' every Preston Guild', meaning'very infrequently', has passed into common use in Lancashire. Guild week is always started by the opening of the Guild Court, which since the 16th century has traditionally been on the first Monday after the feast of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist celebrated on 29 August; as well as concerts and other exhibitions, the main events are a series of processions through the city. Numerous street parties are held in the locality.
In 1952 the emphasis was on the bright new world emerging after the war. The major event, held in the city's Avenham Park, had every school participating, hundreds of children, from toddlers to teenagers, demonstrated different aspects of physical education in the natural amphitheatre of the park. In 1972 participants at the Avenham Park celebrations were treated to a low level, low speed, flypast by Concorde; the 2012 guild formally opened on 2 September with a mayoral proclamation and the return of "friendship scrolls" that had travelled the world. Highlights in the programme for the 2012 celebration included two concerts in Avenham Park - one by Human League and another, a "Proms In The Park", featuring José Carreras, Katherine Jenkins and the Manchester Camerata. In the mid-12th century, Preston was in the hundred of Amounderness, in the deanery of Amounderness and the archdeaconry of Richmond; the name "Amounderness" is more ancient than the name of any other "Wapentake" or hundred in the County of Lancashire, the fort at Tulketh, strengthened by William the Conqueror, shows that the strategic importance of the area was appreci
S&DJR 7F 2-8-0
The Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway 7F 2-8-0 is a class of steam locomotive designed for hauling heavy coal and goods trains. Eleven were built in two batches in 1914 and 1925, were used until withdrawal between 1959 and 1964. Two are preserved; the Midland Railway, joint owners of the S&DJR with the London and South Western Railway, were in charge of locomotive policy on the line. The S&DJR was graded and required power over and above what was available from the Midland's small engines. M. H. Ryan, S&DJR locomotive superintendent argued for a type specific to the line. Two plans for 0-8-0s would have been too heavy. A special exception to the small engine policy, James Clayton the draughtsman at Derby was given a free hand to design the engine, produced something unlike any other Derby-designed locomotive of the time; the design used the G9AS boiler from the Midland Compounds, with a Belpaire firebox and Walschaerts valve gear. A leading pony truck was added, to distribute the weight, making it a 2-8-0.
The cylinders were mounted high on the frame, sloped, to avoid fouling platforms. Because of the gradients that the loco would face, Clayton provided two steam brake cylinders on the engine and a further one on the tender. In service, the cast iron brake blocks fitted wore quickly, Ferodo blocks were substituted; the Derby standard axle boxes were fitted, so the engines were still subject to the hot boxes that were a fact of life on the Midland. As the locomotives were too large for some of the turntables, it was envisaged that they would spend half their time travelling in reverse, they were fitted with tablet exchanging apparatus on both sides of the locomotive. In addition, the first six were equipped with cab tenders, but these were removed circa 1920; the 1914-built locomotives were right-hand drive. In all cases the vacuum brake ejector was located on the driver's side of the smokebox. Six were built in 1914 and numbered 80–85 by the S&DJR. In 1925 an additional 5 were ordered from Robert Stephenson and Company in Darlington and built with the larger G9BS boilers, becoming numbers 86–90.
Two locomotives, 9679 and 9680 received the smaller G9AS boiler in 1930, while the remaining three retained the larger boiler until it was replaced in the 1950s – 53808 in 1953. These locomotives gained a packing piece between original smokebox saddle; the exception was 53807, the smokebox saddle being rotten and replaced with a one-piece unit like the 1914-built locomotives. This locomotive was therefore unique, as only left-hand drive locomotive with a one piece smokebox saddle. On 20 November 1929, locomotive No. 89 Was taking a freight train north towards Bath and when traveling through Combe Down Tunnel due to the train moving the crew of the engine were overcome by the smoke resulting in the train running away down the hill crashing in the goods yard outside Bath Green Park, the driver Henry Jennings and two shunters in the yard were killed in the accident. Their success on the Mendip hills prompted the Midland to try them on the East Midlands coal trains, but they were not so satisfactory.
They were, after all, designed for climbing hills, but the reasons were fuel efficiency, for they consumed considerable amounts of high quality coal. The S&DJR locos were taken into London and Scottish Railway stock in 1930, renumbered 9670–9680, they were renumbered as 13800–13810 in 1932. On nationalisation in 1948 British Railways added 40000 to their numbers making them 53800–53810. Withdrawals of the 1914-built locomotives occurred between 1959 and 1962 and the five 1925-built engines were all withdrawn between 1963 and 1964. Two of the 1925-built locos have survived, these being No. 88 and No. 89. No. 88/53808 is owned based on the West Somerset Railway. Purchased for preservation in 1969, it returned to service following restoration in August 1987 in BR Black, ran up to Spring 1996 when it was withdrawn for overhaul, during which time it only made one visit away from the WSR, to the Severn Valley Railway in September 1995. After overhaul it returned to service in December 2005 in S&DJR blue livery, which it never carried in service.
Again based at the WSR it made three return visits to the SVR in March 2007, March 2008 and September 2014, as well as first time visits to the Mid-Hants Railway in September 2010, the Great Central Railway in October 2011, before being withdrawn for overhaul in October 2014. This second overhaul was completed in February 2016, with the engine being repainted back into BR black and the number 53808. No. 89/53809 is operated by the 13809 Preservation Society Ltd.. Following restoration at Swanwick in 1980 in LMS livery as 13809, it worked through the 1980s and early 1990s, reverting to its BR Number 53809 in 1987, before being withdrawn for overhaul in 1994. During this time, it visited the SVR in 1987, the East Lancashire Railway in 1993 alongside working at Butterley, worked on the mainline for a period; the locomotive emerged in January 2006 in BR Black Livery as No. 53809, entering service in early February at the Midland Railway - Butterley. Shortly after this overhaul was finished, the loco made a poignant return to the site of Bath Green Park Station in March 2006, to celebrate 40 years since the S&D closed, after which it was reunited with No. 88 a
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
York railway station
York railway station is on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom, serving the city of York, North Yorkshire. It is 188 miles 40 chains north of London King's Cross and on the main line it is situated between Doncaster to the south and Thirsk to the north; as of June 2018 the station is operated by London North Eastern Railway. York's station is a key junction halfway between London and Edinburgh, it is five miles north of the point where the Cross Country and TransPennine Express routes via Leeds join the main line, connecting Scotland and the North East, North West and southern England. The junction was a major site for rolling stock manufacture and repair. In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars; the first York railway station was a temporary wooden building on Queen Street outside the walls of the city, opened in 1839 by the York and North Midland Railway. It was succeeded inside the walls, by what is now York old railway station.
In due course, the irksome requirement that through trains between London and Newcastle needed to reverse out of the old York station to continue their journey necessitated the construction of a new through station outside the walls. The present station, designed by the North Eastern Railway architects Thomas Prosser and William Peachey, opened on 25 June 1877, it was at that time the largest in the world. As part of the new station project, the Royal Station Hotel, designed by Peachey, opened in 1878. In 1909 new platforms were added, in 1938 the current footbridge was built and the station resignalled; the building was bombed during the Second World War. On one occasion, on 29 April 1942, 800 passengers had to be evacuated from a King's Cross-Edinburgh train which arrived during a bombing raid. On the same night, two railway workers were killed, one being station foreman William Milner, who died after returning to his burning office to collect his first aid kit, he was posthumously awarded the King's commendation for gallantry.
A plaque in his memory has been erected at the station. The station was extensively repaired in 1947; the station was designated as a Grade II* listed building in 1968. The track layout through and around the station was remodelled again in 1988 as part of the resignalling scheme, carried out prior to the electrification of the ECML shortly afterwards; this resulted in several bay platforms being taken out of the track to them removed. At the same time a new signalling centre was commissioned on the western side of the station to control the new layout and take over the function of several other signal boxes on the main line; the IECC here now supervises the main line from Temple Hirst through to Northallerton, along with sections of the various routes branching from it. It has taken over responsibility for the control area of the former power box at Leeds and thus signals trains as far away as Gargrave and Morley. In 2006–7, to improve facilities for bus and car users as well as pedestrians and cyclists, the approaches to the station were reorganised.
The former motive power depot and goods station now house the National Railway Museum. On 31 March 1920, a passenger train was derailed as it entered platform 8. On 5 August 1958, a passenger train crashed into the buffers at platform 12. All the platforms except 9, 10 and 11 are under the large, curved and iron roof, they are accessed via lifts and either of two pedestrian tunnels. Between April 1984 and 2011 the old tea rooms housed the Rail Riders World/York Model Railway exhibition; the station was renovated in 2009. Platform 9 has been extensive lighting alterations were put in place. New automated ticket gates were planned, but the City of York Council wished to avoid spoiling the historic nature of the station; the operator National Express East Coast planned to appeal the decision but the plans were scrapped altogether upon handover to East Coast. The southern side of the station has been given new signalling systems. An additional line and new junction was completed in early 2011; this work has helped take away one of the bottlenecks on the East Coast Main Line.
The station has become the site of one of Network Rail's modern Rail Operation Centres, which opened in September 2014 on land to the west of the station This took over the functions of the former IECC in December 2018 and will control much of the East Coast Main Line from London to the Scottish border and various subsidiary routes across the North East and South, North and West Yorkshire. The platforms at York have been renumbered several times, the most recent being in the late 1980s to coincide with a reduction in the number of platforms from 15 to 11; the current use is: Platform 1: South-facing bay platform used for services to Hull or Sheffield via Moorthorpe and for stabling empty stock. Platform 2: North-facing bay platform connected only to the Scarborough branch, used for stabling a spare TransPennine Express unit. Platform 3: Main southbound platform, accessible directly from the station concourse. Fast and semi-fast southbound London North Eastern Railway for London King's Cross use this platform.
CrossCountry services, Grand Central, some westbound TransPennine Express services use it. Platform 4: Northward continuation of platform 3 connected only to the Scarborough branch
Night Mail is a 1936 English documentary film directed and produced by Harry Watt and Basil Wright, produced by the General Post Office film unit. The 24-minute film documents the nightly postal train operated by the London and Scottish Railway from London to Glasgow and the staff who operate it. Narrated by John Grierson and Stuart Legg, the film ends with a "verse commentary" written by W. H. Auden to score by composer Benjamin Britten; the locomotive featured in the film is Royal Scot Class No. 6115 Scots Guardsman. Night Mail premiered on 4 February 1936 at the Cambridge Arts Theatre in Cambridge, England in a launch programme for the venue, its general release gained critical praise and became a classic of its own kind, much imitated by adverts and modern film shorts. Night Mail is considered a masterpiece of the British Documentary Film Movement. A sequel was released in 1987 entitled Night Mail 2; the film follows the distribution of mail by train in the 1930s, focusing on the so-called Postal Special train, a train dedicated only to carrying the post and with no members of the public.
The night train travels on the mainline route from Euston station in London to Glasgow, Scotland, on to Edinburgh and Aberdeen. External shots include the train itself passing at speed down the tracks, aerial views of the countryside, interior shots of the sorting van. Much of the film highlights the role of postal workers in the delivery of the mail. In 1933, Stephen Tallents left his position as a secretary and director of the Empire Marketing Board, a government advertising agency that decided to cease operations, began work as the first Controller of Public Relations for the General Post Office. In the wake of the EMB's demise, Tallents secured the transfer of the EMB Film Unit to the control of the GPO, with EMB employee John Grierson transitioning from head of the EMB Film Unit to head of the newly formed GPO Film Unit, bringing most of its film staff with him. By 1936 the GPO was the nation's largest employer with 250,000 staff and Tallents had begun to improve its public image, making the GPO spending more money on publicity than any other government entity at the time with a significant portion allocated to its film department.
Despite early GPO films educating and promoting the public about its services, as with The Coming of the Dial, they were largely intended to ward off privatisation and promote a positive impression of the post office and its employees. Night Mail originated from the desire to produce a film that would serve as the public face of a modern, trustworthy postal system, in addition to boosting the low morale of postal workers at the time; the postal sector had seen an increase in profits in the late 1920s, but by 1936 wages had fallen 3% for the working class GPO employees. The Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 had curtailed postal union power, the Great Depression fostered a general mood of pessimism; the liberal-minded Watt, Wright and other GPO film unit members, wanted Night Mail to focus not only on the efficiency of the postal system but its reliance on its honest and industrious employees. In 1935, directors Harry Watt and Basil Wright were called into Grierson's office who informed them of the GPO's decision to make a documentary film about the postal train that travels overnight from London Euston to Glasgow, operated by the London and Scottish Railway.
Watt had no knowledge of the service, claimed the idea was instigated by Wright. Wright prepared a rough shooting outline and script by travelling on the railway and used conversations picked up by a stenographer to write the dialogue, all of, used in the film. Watt used the rough version to write a full script as the outline had lacked enough detail, "but there was a shape", he contacted the LMS and was amazed to find the railway had its own film director who offered assistance. Watt described the research process as "reasonably straightforward", which included multiple trips along the railway, soon completed a full treatment. Wright said that Watt changed his dialogue towards "a more human and down-to-earth" style which he praised him for doing. Early into development, Wright had to dedicate more time to other projects and left Watt in charge as director, yet both are credited as the film's two writers and producers. Grierson sent his team to observe the postal train staff at work with the aim of producing an information film on the train's operations, but little of the information reported back was used.
Its synopsis developed into a more ambitious one, taking "considerable licence with the truth to portray a picture of the'reality' of working life". The script developed, a film crew was assembled that included Wright and cameramen Pat Jackson, Jonah Jones, Henry "Chick" Fowle. Brazilian-born Alberto Cavalcanti became involved as sound director who mixed the sound and music. Soon after, Grierson hired poet W. H. Auden for six months to gain film experience at the GPO and assigned him as Watt's assistant director with "starvation wages" of £3 a week, less than what Auden had earned as a school teacher. Auden made ends meet by living with Wright before moving in with fellow GPO employee and teacher William Coldstream. Watt cared little for Auden's fame and well known work, calling him "a half-witted Swedish deckhand" and complained of his frequent lateness during filming. Watt wrote: " was to prove how wrong my estimation of him was, leave me with a lifetime's awe of his talent"; the GPO secured a £2,000 budget for the film's production, calculated staff travel allowances by the accounts department totalling the salaries