GCR Class 1
The GCR Class 1 was a class of steam locomotives designed by John G. Robinson for the Great Central Railway, introduced to service between December 1912 and 1913. In the 1923 grouping, they all passed to the London and North Eastern Railway who placed them in class B2, their classification was changed to B19 in 1945, all had been retired by the end of 1947. Although believed that they were intended as express passenger locomotives, the Great Central classified and used them as mixed traffic locomotives; the minutes of the Locomotive Committee show that they were ordered as a superheated version of the 8F class mixed traffic locomotives. They were described as mixed traffic locomotives in the contemporary Great Central publication'Per Rail' which promoted the company's goods services; when new, three of the class – 423, 425 and 428 were painted in GCR's standard green passenger livery, while the other three – 424, 426 and 427 were painted in the lined black goods livery. Their initial allocations included the'Pipe trains', the vacuum-brake fitted express goods services between Manchester and London, among the most important services on the Great Central.
There is no evidence that they were intended to challenge the contemporary 11E class 4-4-0s for the light express passenger services of the pre-1914 years on the London Extension. There is no evidence to support the claims that they had problems in service which led to their alleged demotion from express passenger use; the design of the fire grate and ash pan was similar to, for example, the Gresley K3 2-6-0s, their fireboxes were deep and large for their 26.5 square feet grate area. Overheating troubles with axleboxes have been alleged, related to the large force from the inside cylinders. Robinson in fact took care to make the coupled boxes as large as possible, 9 by 9 inches on the two leading axles and 8 by 12 inches on the trailing set. In fact a more source of initial trouble was the marine-type big ends fitted to the first five, since the sixth reverted to strap and cotter type. Per Rail. Kingston-on-Thames: Knapp, Drewett & Sons. 1913. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N.
E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8. Casserley, H. C.. Locomotives at the Grouping 2: London and North Eastern Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Limited. ISBN 0-7110-0553-2. LNER Encyclopedia
Route Availability is the system by which the permanent way and supporting works of the railway network of Great Britain are graded. All routes are allocated an RA number between 1 and 10. Rolling stock is allocated an RA and the RA of a train is the highest RA of any of its elements; the train must have a route availability lower than or equal to the RA of a line to be allowed to use it. The RA is related to the axle load of the vehicle, although axle spacing is taken into consideration. In practice it is the locomotive which governs where trains may operate, although many high capacity 4 axle wagons have high RAs when loaded; the system was first devised by the London and North Eastern Railway, perpetuated by British Rail to ascertain which locomotives can work on which lines throughout the rail network in Great Britain. Exemptions may be obtained to allow locomotives to operate on lines from which they may otherwise be banned. An exemption might be granted by placing a speed restriction for example.
The route availability for a line is calculated by taking into account bridge strength, track condition, structural issues and so on. A route availability of one is the most restricted line, open to one type of locomotive specially designed for it. A route availability of 10 is the most open, usable by any locomotive that fits within the GB loading gauge that has been'passed' for it. Route availability for a vehicle is based upon its axle loading; that is, how much of the laden weight of the vehicle is distributed on each axle. The more weight on each axle, the higher the RA number, the more restricted the vehicle is; the uneven weight distribution of the class 28 Co-Bo forced the use of a six-wheel bogie at one end in order to stay within RA 8. For wagons it is normal to have different RAs when running full. A locomotive with RA 1 is able to work on any line, although it will have a light axle loading. An RA 10 locomotive could only work upon an RA 10 line, placing severe restrictions on where it can be used.
The RA of a locomotive must not exceed the RA of the track except under controlled circumstances. If a vehicle has wheels that require significant balance weights found on steam locomotives, the dynamic loading resulting in what is termed the hammer blow action may affect the RA of the vehicle. Network Rail gives the allowed axle loadings as follows: The information regarding route availability in this article comes from the British Rail Route Availability Guide and the Freight Train Loads Book, both issued in 1969. Several routes will have had their RA numbers changed since that time. * Depending on sub-class, see individual article for details. $ Discrepancy with original data. Before nationalisation the Big Four railway companies had their own classification systems; each locomotive had a coloured disc painted on the cab side to indicate its route availability: U. S. Track Classification system British Railways Board Group Standard for Route Availability Network Rail infrastructure capacity 2D53 Introduction to Route Availability and tables Route availability tables for Scotland Network Rail Information GE/RT8006 Assessment of Compatibility of Rail Vehicle Weights and Underline Bridges at RGS Online
GCR Class 11E
The GCR Class 11E was a type of 4-4-0 steam locomotive used by the Great Central Railway for express passenger services. Ten were built in the railway's own workshops at Gorton, Manchester during 1913. In the early part of the 20th century, the Great Central Railway had favoured the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement for express passenger services, they had bought 40 such locomotives to the design of their Locomotive Engineer, John G. Robinson, between 1901 and 1904, these formed class 11B; these were found to be too small, subsequently several classes of 4-4-2 and 4-6-0 locomotive were introduced for express passenger trains, with the 4-4-2 type predominating. After the class 1 4-6-0, which were larger than any of the others, proved disappointing, Robinson decided to reduce the size of these and designed a 4-4-0 which became Class 11E. Ten were built in 1913, were successful. Compared to the class 1 4-6-0, the omission of one coupled axle allowed a longer wheelbase between two adjacent axles of a 4-4-0 than with the 4-6-0, so the firebox could be positioned between the axles instead of on top of one of them.
The shorter overall length meant that the boiler tubes were shorter, which improved draughting. Unusually, outside admission was used for the piston valves of the cylinders. Conventionally, piston valve locomotives had inside admission, whereas outside admission was used with slide valve locomotives. Outside admission gives a shorter exhaust passage, with the consequent advantages of a lower back pressure and sharper blast, but with the disadvantage that the valve spindle glands must be made to withstand much higher pressures and temperatures. Robinson had used outside admission for his class 11D rebuilds from class 11B, the new class 11E used the same cylinder casting as those rebuilds; when further 4-4-0s of similar capability to class 11E were required after World War I, these were given normal cylinders with inside admission for the piston valves, so were placed in class 11F. Withdrawal occurred between March 1953 and November 1955. On 27 February 1927, locomotive No. 5437 Prince George was hauling an express passenger train, involved in a collision with a light engine at Penistone Yorkshire.
The original names were those of directors of the GCR. At the time, there were twelve members of the GCR Board. However, the latter's name was used on class 11E no. 429, so one director was not honoured at this stage. Two locomotives had their names altered subsequently, one of them twice. Sir Alexander Henderson was created Baron Faringdon in 1916, but his new name was used on a class 9P 4-6-0, so in 1917 no. 429 was renamed Sir Douglas Haig after the Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force. In turn, Sir Douglas was created Earl Haig in 1919 and his new name used on another class 9P 4-6-0, so no. 429 was renamed a second time, becoming Prince Henry c. 1920 after the fourth child of King George V. When Charles Stuart-Wortley was raised to the peerage as Baron Stuart of Wortley in 1917, his name was used on a further class 9P, so no. 437 was renamed Prince George c. 1920 after the fifth child of King George V. After the 1923 Grouping, the LNER increased the GCR numbers by 5000, this occurring in 1924–5.
Under the 1946 renumbering, they became 2650–9 in the same order. During 1948–50, British Railways increased these numbers by 60000. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8. Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 3B: Tender Engines—Classes D1 to D12. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-46-0. Hoole, Ken. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 3. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-05-2
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
GCR Class 8K
The Great Central Railway Class 8K 2-8-0 is a class of steam locomotive designed for heavy freight. Introduced in 1911, designed by John G. Robinson, 126 were built for the GCR prior to the First World War. Including wartime construction for the British Army ROD and the post-war GCR Class 8M, the class and its derivatives totalled 666 locomotives; the first of the 8K class was outshopped from the GCR's Gorton workshops in 1911. It was a superheated version of an earlier 0-8-0, the 8A class, with the addition of a pony truck; this both gave a steadier ride. The 8K was introduced to anticipate the increased traffic from the GCR's vast new docks complex at Immingham in North East Lincolnshire and by June 1914 126 were in traffic. During the First World War there were experiments with oil burning 8Ks with larger bogie tenders. Post-war, a further 19 locomotives were built in 1918–21 to a modified design with a larger boiler. In 1922 the GCR rebuilt two Class 8M to Class 8K. Robust and straightforward, the Class 8K 2-8-0 steamed well and proved outstandingly reliable, qualities that commended the design to the Ministry of Munitions.
Sir Sam Fay ensured that it became the standard locomotive during the First World War as the ROD 2-8-0, used by the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers. 521 ROD locomotives were built in 1917-19 to the same design as the GCR's 8K locomotives, differing only in minor details, such as the fitting of Westinghouse Air Brakes and the use of steel for the boiler tubes and inner firebox. After the war, the surviving ROD locomotives were sold to various railway companies, with the GCR itself purchasing 3 in 1919, which were added to its indigenous 8K fleet. Other surplus ROD locomotives were sold to the London and North Western Railway, its successor the London and Scottish Railway, the Great Western Railway, to various purchasers in Australia and China. Many of these had short lives with their new owners – the LMS locomotives were all scrapped or sold by the 1930s, half of the GWR fleet was gone by 1930. However, other GWR engines survived well into the 1950s; the last of 13 locomotives sold to J & A Brown for use on the Richmond Vale railway line, in Australia, was retired in 1973, 3 locomotives in China were only retired in 1990.
Upon its formation in 1923 the London and North Eastern Railway inherited a total of 131 class 8K and 17 class 8M locomotives from the Great Central Railway. Under the LNER's ownership the 8Ks became known as Class O4, the 8Ms as Class O5, although all of the O5s were converted to Class O4s by 1946, they were joined by a further 273 former ROD locomotives purchased in 1923-27, bringing the total LNER O4 fleet to 421 locomotives. Some 92 of these were requisitioned by the War Department in 1941 for use in support of Commonwealth forces in the Middle East, none of which would return to Britain; the O4 locos served throughout the LNER system, many being modified to help extend their useful working life on heavy freight trains. Fifty-eight of the class were rebuilt into LNER Thompson Class O1s in 1944-49. 329 LNER O4 locomotives passed to British Railways ownership in 1948. Five locomotives were sold to the Government in 1952 for use in Egypt, routine withdrawals of BR's class O4s commenced in December 1958.
The last examples of the class were withdrawn from operations in the Doncaster area in April 1966, not long before the abandonment of steam altogether. One of the GCR-built 8Ks, BR number 63601, is preserved in Great Britain where it runs on the preserved Great Central Railway at Loughborough. There are three ROD 2-8-0s in New South Wales, Australia. Two are stored at the Dorrigo Steam Railway and Museum and one is being restored on the Richmond Vale Railway. In 2009 Bachmann Branchline announced a ready-to-run'00' scale model of the Class 8K, marketing it under the LNER class name of O4; the models being of preserved 63601, 2 long-gone examples BR 63635 and LNER 6190, -these have since been released. In October 2012 RailSimulator.com released a pay-ware add-on of the GCR 8K, again marketed under its LNER O4 classification, for Train Simulator 2013. It was released as a companion to the Woodhead Line add-on, released earlier in the year, features sounds from the preserved O4 63601 before its boiler ticket ran out, includes 4 scenarios for the Woodhead Line and Quickdrive compatibility.
Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 6B: Tender Engines—Classes O1 to P2. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-54-1. Railuk database LNER Encyclopedia
GCR Class 8B
GCR Class 8B was a class of 25 two-cylinder steam locomotives of the 4-4-2 wheel arrangement built between 1903 and 1906 for the Great Central Railway. Facing a potential rise in passenger traffic, the Great Central Railway placed an order for 2 pairs of different locomotives - one pair being the 4-6-0 GCR Class 8C, the other pair being this 4-4-2 locomotive; the two locomotives shared as many common components as possible to allow easy conversion of the 8Bs to the 4-6-0 configuration - and both designs borrowed from John G. Robinson's earlier GCR Class 8. However, due to a much smaller than anticipated traffic increase, no further Class 8Cs were built, instead a further 25 Class 8Bs were ordered and built between 1904 and 1906 - built with larger fireboxes as there was no longer a need to convert the locomotives to a 4-6-0 configuration. In 1909 and 1910, the original locomotives received this larger firebox. Despite Robinson commencing the conversion to superheaters in 1912, the conversion was not completed until 1936.
At the same time, any locomotive requiring cylinder replacement saw both larger cylinders and piston valves being fitted - 20 of the class would receive this modification. From 1921, the Ramsbottom safety valves were phased out and removed, to be replaced by Ross pop safety valves. Following a high-speed incident that caused severe damage to its frame and cylinders, No. 1090 was rebuilt with 3 simple expansion cylinders in 1908, as a comparison to the GCR Classes 8D and 8E. These cylinders had their Stephenson valve gear replaced with Walschaerts valve gear, the only application of this valve gear, excluding railcars, on a GCR locomotive; the experiment was reverted in 1922 when No. 1090 was rebuilt, with the original 2 cylinders and Stephenson valve gear being refitted. Following the merger of the GCR into the London & North Eastern Railway, the class became known as the LNER Class C4. In 1925, several C4s were fitted with the LNER's trademark "Flowerpot" chimney, with one locomotive, No. 6085 modified to fit the LNER composite gauge - a modification that the remainder of the class underwent between 1936 and 1939.
In 1929, a further LNER classification change was made - the non-superheated locomotives were designated Class C4/1, those fitted with superheaters but still utilized slide valves Class C4/2, those with both superheaters and piston valves became Class C4/3. By 1932, the re-gauged No. 6085 had been given the designation Class C4/4 - which became more populated as Class C4/3s were cut down. By 1939, all Class C4/1s and Class C4/3s had been redesignated as either Class C4/2s or Class C4/4s - by this time all locomotives were both superheated and had been cut down to the LNER composite gauge. Following an accident at Banbury in 1939, the first locomotive, No. 6090, was withdrawn from service. The rest of the class began being withdrawn from 1945, although 20 locomotives made it into British Rail hands following the nationalisation of the British railways; the last locomotive was withdrawn in 1950, none survived into preservation. The Robinson C4 4-4-2 Atlantics
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa