A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Edgewood, New Mexico
Edgewood is a town in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. Through annexations, its town boundaries now extend into Torrance counties, it is part of the Santa Fe Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although in Santa Fe County, Edgewood is geographically closer to Albuquerque and in recent years has become a popular bedroom community for commuters; the town's population grew 97% between 2000 and 2010, from 1,893 to 3,735. Edgewood boasts a median household income of over $50,000 per year, a high number compared to the state averages. Homesteaders moving into the American West created the initial settlements that grew into what is now the town of Edgewood. Taking advantage of the federal Homestead Acts, pioneer families obtained land claims and began farming and ranching in the Edgewood area during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Edgewood was founded by a group of southern Santa Fe County landowners. After the incorporation of the town in 1999, large areas of land were annexed. Efforts by the town government to avoid annexing properties whose owners did not wish to be brought within the town boundaries resulted in a checkerboard pattern of incorporated and unincorporated properties, one of the issues to be resolved in the town's Comprehensive Plan.
One controversial annexation enlarged the municipal boundaries and was the source of vigorous public debate. Despite two appeals and one lawsuit, the annexation was upheld. Recent construction projects have brought in a Tractor Supply Co. store, an O'Reilly Auto Parts, a Denny's, a Comfort Inn & Suites, the town's first hotel. Edgewood is located at 35°4′4″N 106°11′29″W, 33 miles east of Albuquerque along Interstate 40. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 48.7 square miles, all land except for 0.015 square miles of water, covering 0.03% of the town. It is located within the Estancia Valley, east of the Sandia Mountains and Manzano Mountains of central New Mexico. Most of the land cover in the area is grassland; the town's commercial district lies along New Mexico Highway 66 and Highway 344. The town is 15 miles east of the east base of the Sandia Mountains; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,893 people, 676 households, 529 families residing in the town.
The population density was 217.2 people per square mile. There were 755 housing units at an average density of 86.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.53% White, 0.32% African American, 2.17% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 8.24% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.34% of the population. There were 676 households out of which 44.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families. 18.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.18. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,500, the median income for a family was $45,952. Males had a median income of $33,365 versus $24,135 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,146. About 8.4% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Edgewood is governed by a mayor-council system; the mayor is John Bassett, who defeated the then-incumbent mayor Brad Hill in the April, 2016 election. Edgewood is administered by the Bernalillo County Metropolitan Court system. Donald Cerrone - American professional mixed martial artist Jason Anderson - 2018 AMA Monster Energy Supercross Champion Each summer from mid-June to early July the Greater Edgewood Area Chamber puts together a series of events and activities spread throughout the area. Whether you're celebrating the cowboy spirit of old or the maverick in all of us, there is something for everyone.
Key events include: the World Championships of Cowboy Action Shooting, Wildlife Festival & Chuckwagon BBQ Shows, Car Shows, Music & Brews Nites, Arts in the Field. Local businesses offer a variety of activities, our local restaurants features some "Best of NM" foods, don't miss the "Trinkets & Treasures Trail," and make time for our hiking trails and starry night skies, too. Other events include water play days, outdoor movie nights, historical presentations. It's a busy time with a small town vibe -- lots to do, so make reservations early for area hotels and other lodging options. Edgewood is located on Historic Route 66 just 20 minutes east of Albuquerque, NM. Full calendar of events is posted online at Greater Edgewood Area Chamber website. Edgewood's Father's Day Car Show has been an annual tradition for the families of Edgewood on Father's Day for over a decade and has over time grown to become one of the largest free car shows in the Southwest; the event features a wide variety of cars entered at no cost to the exhibitor, free
Española, New Mexico
Española is a city in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, in the United States. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Founded as a capital for Nuevo México in 1598 as San Juan de los Caballeros, it was renamed Española in 1880 when it became a railroad village, the city was incorporated in 1925, it has been called the first capital city in America. At the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 10,495. Española is within the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. Española was referred to as La Vega de los Vigiles before the presence of railroads, it is believed. At the time of railroad construction, a small restaurant in the area was nicknamed "La Española"; this was because of the large presence of Spanish women in the area. The name became official by 1900 and Española became a small railroad town. Before the railroads, this is where Spanish and Native American people had settled for hundreds of years, making a living from farming along the Rio Grande.
The Española area is described as the first European-founded capital of the "New World". This designation refers to a capital within the boundaries of the United States since Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic predates the establishment of Española by 100 years as a European-established capital in the Americas; the region was explored in 1598 by Don Juan de Oñate. Oñate arrived in the Española area on July 11, 1598, at the confluence of the Chama River and the Rio Grande, where he established a camp at a place called Yunque-Yunque, he created the Spanish settlement in an area inhabited by indigenous descendants of the Anasazi. A century near the same region, Don Diego de Vargas established his villa at Santa Cruz. Prior to the arrival of the narrow gauge Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad in 1880, the hamlet on the west-side of the Rio Grande was known as La Vega de los Vigiles in reference to the Vigil family who settled that area; the earliest document found indicates that La Vegas de los Vigiles had been populated by 1751, over 100 years before the Chili Line's arrival.
With the coming of the railroad the name of the hamlet was changed to Española. The Chili Line running predominantly through the Rocky Mountain region announced a route extension of its narrow gauge into northern New Mexico; the line was built along the Rio Grande, was known as the Chili Line. The route would extend into what today is the downtown Española area, the railroad began selling lots in the area. Anglo merchants, mountain men, settlers filtered into Española. Frank Bond and his brother George, who were Canadian emigrants, would arrive in the city. Together they established a multi -- million dollar wool empire. With them came economic growth and prominence. Española was the headquarters for all the Bond family interests which included over 12 businesses across New Mexico. Many residents of the nearby town of Santa Fe were not happy with the decision and failure of connection of the railroad, prompting protest; the Española station, included an engine facility station along with a roundhouse and turntable so it could service the locomotives.
The facilities were torn down or no longer in use after six years. The railroad would reach Santa Fe to connect with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in late 1887. Frank R. Frankenburger, a business man born in Fort Scott, was the first "elected" mayor; the first mayor, chosen in "popularity" was Frank Bond, in 1907. In 1925 Española was incorporated as a city; as the population rose, there was a high demand for public education in the city. Española High School was established; the first high school in the area, was Santa Cruz High School. Two miles away from downtown Española, it opened in 1906 in the historic Santa Cruz area. Neither high school operates after a merger of school districts in 1975; the existence of the railroad began to dissipate as minimal passenger traffic and low shipments forced the railroad to close in the early 1940s. Many locals would become unemployed and would follow the railroad to Santa Fe, Albuquerque and central Colorado for jobs. Española's population would fall and many homes in the downtown became abandoned.
Most of the locals who remained would turn to farming as a way of life. Many people saw Española as another failed railroad town; the city removed the railroad tracks and the train depot in the 1960s, the railroads vanished. With the beginnings of Manhattan Project in nearby Los Alamos, many locals found jobs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory; as much as nearly 9% of Española's population have been employed at LANL. In the 1980s, many historical buildings and homes of historical significance were torn down for urban renewal. Española followed many other New Mexico cities in this trend. More modern business began to move into town, but the growth of Española had now expanded east across the Rio Grande. Although several buildings of historical significance remain in downtown Española, many are unused or abandoned. Strip malls became visible in Española, the first being the'Big Rock shopping center', founded by oil tycoon Roy Honstein. In the 1990s, a controversial plan to build a "plaza" and mission church where many historic buildings once stood was up for consideration.
The city agreed to the plan, locals supported the plaza. Although a plaza never exi
Caja del Rio
Caja del Rio is a dissected plateau, of volcanic origin, which covers 84,000 acres of land in northern Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. The region is known as the Caja, Caja del Rio Plateau, Cerros del Rio; the center of the area is 15 miles west of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Most of the Caja is owned by the United States Forest Service and managed by the Santa Fe National Forest. Access is through New Mexico Highway 599, Santa Fe County Road 62, Forest Service Road 24; the landscape of the Caja del Rio Plateau is flat to rolling terrain, with numerous steep cones rising up to 800 feet above the plains. The highest points in the immediate area are Cerro Micho, Montoso Peak, Ortiz Mountain, Cerro Rito The entire plateau is within the watershed of the Rio Grande, although portions of the Caja drain into the larger river through two tributaries: the Santa Fe River and Cañada Ancha; the entire perimeter of the Caja is ringed by cliffs or escarpments. White Rock Canyon forms the northwestern edge of the plateau.
This canyon, through which the Rio Grande flows, has a maximum depth of over 1000 feet. Bandelier National Monument lies directly across the river to the west of the plateau. Along the eastern edge is Canada Ancha, an ephemeral stream that flows northward into the Rio Grande near Buckman. Another deep canyon runs along the southern edge of the Caja, is cut by the Santa Fe River; the canyon of the Santa Fe River separates the Caja from another land grant to the south: the Mesita de Juana Lopez Grant. The western edge of the plateau is a large escarpment, visible to highway traffic traveling north on Interstate 25 from Albuquerque to Santa Fe. After crossing the Santo Domingo Basin and the reservations of Cochiti and Santo Domingo Pueblo, the freeway makes a steep climb up the escarpment along a stretch of highway known locally as La Bajada; this part of the plateau is dominated by Tetilla Peak. The Caja del Rio plateau is a monogenetic volcanic field, which includes 60 cinder cones, spatter cones, basalt outflows.
The volcanism can be explained by the field's location, close to the intersection of the Rio Grande Rift and the Jemez Lineament. The Rio Grande Rift is a result of tectonic forces exerted upon the American Southwest; this feature runs southward from the vicinity of Leadville, through the entire state of New Mexico, through the vicinity of El Paso and into Chihuahua, Mexico. The Rift began forming 30 million years ago during the late Oligocene Epoch; the Jemez Lineament is another, older feature, which represents a linear weakness in the crust. The Lineament trends southwest to northeast, underlies a string of volcanic features across Arizona and New Mexico; those features include the San Carlos volcanic field, Springerville volcanic field, Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, Mount Taylor volcanic field and the Raton-Clayton volcanic field. These structural weaknesses create a thinned crust, pathways for intrusion by magma originating in the mantle; the result has been a series of intercontinental basaltic eruptions.
The Caja is not the only volcanic feature in this part of New Mexico. 20 miles to its northwest is the Valles Caldera, a spectacular caldera which lies at the heart of the Jemez Mountains. This mountain range has been created by a series of eruptions since the Miocene; the ages of the first eruptions are difficult to determine, since the older rocks have been entirely buried by the material from younger eruptions. The oldest exposed volcanic rocks in the vicinity are 16 million years old; the Jemez area experienced an intense pulse of basalt volcanism between 11 million years ago. The lavas from this cycle had little silica, originated in the mantle. Additional pulses of volcanism occurred between 7-10 million years ago, between 6-7 million years ago, between 3-6 million years ago, between 2-3 million years ago; the last of these pulses is believed to have created the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which covers the entire Caja del Rio Plateau. Several of the eruptions involved not only basalts, but lavas made of rhyolite or dacite.
Such lavas contain greater amounts of silica, are more viscous than basalt. These eruptions created most of the highest peaks in the Jemez Mountains, including Chicoma Mountain, Polvadera Peak and Pajarito Mountain. Weathering of the igneous rocks resulted in alluvial fans, which spread eastward into the Rio Grande Rift. By 2 million years ago, the sediments had displaced the Rio Grande eastward from an earlier location near Los Alamos to its current location in White Rock Canyon. Two more eruptive cycles took place 1.6 and 1.25 million years ago. The first eruption created the Toledo Caldera, but this feature was obliterated by the Valles eruption; each eruption involved pyroclastic flows and produced some of the welded tuff now found west of the Rio Grande. There have been numerous eruptions of sticky lavas in the last 1.25 million years ago, but all have been within the Valles Caldera. The most recent eruptions took place about 40-50,000 years ago, formed the El Cajete Crater; this crater lies at the foot of Redondo Peak, a resurgent dome that rises to 11,254 feet within the Valles Caldera.
Lying between White Rock Canyon and the rim of the Valles Caldera is the Pajarito Plateau, the many canyons of which have been cut by recent erosion. The climate of the Caja del Rio is continental; the average daily maximum temperature at White Rock, New Mexico varies f
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Chupadero, New Mexico
Chupadero is a census-designated place in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 362 at the 2010 census. Chupadero is located at 35°49′23″N 105°55′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 318 people, 125 households, 93 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 219.8 people per square mile. There were 145 housing units at an average density of 100.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 64.15% White, 1.26% African American, 1.26% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 29.56% from other races, 3.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47.80% of the population. There were 125 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.4% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were non-families.
15.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.83. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 34.9% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $59,231, the median income for a family was $58,077. Males had a median income of $60,833 versus $25,179 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $26,915. About 22.1% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 25.0% of those age 65 or over
Chimayo, New Mexico
Chimayó is a census-designated place in Rio Arriba and Santa Fe counties in the U. S. state of New Mexico. The town is unincorporated and includes many neighborhoods, called plazas or placitas, each with its own name, including El Potrero de Chimayó and the Plaza del Cerro; the cluster of plazas called. The population was 3,177 at the 2010 census; the Potrero plaza of Chimayó is known internationally for a Catholic chapel, the Santuario de Nuestro Señor de Esquipulas known as El Santuario de Chimayó. A private individual built it by 1816 so that local people could worship Jesus as depicted at Esquipulas; the chapel is now managed by the Archdiocese as a Catholic church. For its reputation as a healing site, it has become known as the "Lourdes of America," and attracts close to 300,000 visitors a year, including up to 30,000 during Holy Week, it has been called "no doubt the most important Catholic pilgrimage center in the United States." The sanctuary was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970.
Chimayó is known for the weaving traditions of the Ortega and Trujillo families, who have been weaving in the Spanish Colonial tradition for many generations and now operate weaving businesses near the Plaza del Cerro and in the placita of Centinela. Their traditional craft is but one of several still practiced in the region, including tin smithing, wood carving, making religious paintings; these activities, along with the local architecture and the landscape of irrigated fields, create a historic ambiance that attracts much tourism. The town is famous for its heirloom chile, the Chimayo pepper. In 2003 the Native Hispanic Institute's founder Marie Pilar Campos authored the Chimayo Chile Project to replenish the 300-year-old native seed stock and revive the industry; the Chimayo Chile Project began planting in the spring of 2005, the foundation of its ongoing seed-distribution services to local farmers. The project's job development operations were funded by the United States Office of Community Services from 2005 through 2008.
As part of the project's work with the state to revive the industry, two joint memorials have passed the New Mexico State Legislature. The Chimayo Chile Project incorporated Chimayo Chile Farmers, Inc.. Chimayo Chile Farmers, Inc. applied for the certification mark "Chimayo" with the USPTO in 2006 and was granted registration in 2009. The 2008 New Mexico State Legislature, via New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs, appropriated preservation support that resulted in the June 2009 publication, "Chimayo Chile, A Living History of Faith and Art," written by Marie Pilar Campos of the Native Hispanic Institute. Chimayó figures prominently in an opera by Robert Ashley. Ashley describes Chimayó in his foreword to the libretto as "the spiritual center of the lowrider world... Now Eleanor conceives of a television documentary program to study the exotic lowrider community...in the car shops" of Chimayó. Act II, Scene 2 is a recorded interview with Chimayó residents Joan Medina. Chimayó is located at 36°0′12″N 105°56′25″W.
Chimayó is sited in a valley within the Sangre de Cristo Mountains 24 miles north of Santa Fe. Chimayó is 6075 ft above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,924 people, 1,150 households, 808 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 535.9 people per square mile. There were 1,323 housing units at an average density of 242.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 48.60% White, 0.14% African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 44.84% from other races, 5.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 90.83% of the population. There were 1,150 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.05. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $31,474, the median income for a family was $35,938. Males had a median income of $28,009 versus $24,357 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,023. About 14.1% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 28.6% of those age 65 or over. Chimayó has an elementary school, Chimayó Elementary, part of the Española Public Schools. Chimayó is part of Rio Arriba County, it has two small private schools, the John Hyson Memorial School and the Camino de Paz School and Farm. Chimayó and nearby areas of Rio Arriba County are known for a half century of drug problems, including heroin d