Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin, it traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, is part of the international boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Saint Lawrence River begins at the outflow of Lake Ontario and flows adjacent to Gananoque, Morristown, Massena, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City before draining into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the largest estuary in the world. The estuary begins at the eastern tip of just downstream from Quebec City; the river becomes tidal around Quebec City. The Saint Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario; these numbers include the estuary. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Minnesota.
Its drainage area, which includes the Great Lakes, the world's largest system of freshwater lakes, is 1,344,200 square kilometres, of which 839,200 km2 is in Canada and 505,000 km2 is in the United States. The basin covers parts of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, parts of Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, nearly the entirety of the state of Michigan in the United States; the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s; the average discharge at the river's source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s. The Saint Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield and Lac Saint-Pierre east of Montreal, it encompasses four archipelagoes: the Thousand Islands chain near Alexandria Bay, New York and Kingston, Ontario. Other islands include Île d'Orléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé, it is the second longest river in Canada.
Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Saint-Maurice, Saint-François and Saguenay rivers drain into the Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is in a seismically active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; the faults in the area comprise the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Saint Lawrence Valley is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain and Northern physiographic section. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is instead considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division, not part of the Appalachian division at all; the Norse explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the 11th century and were followed by fifteenth and early sixteenth century European mariners, such as John Cabot, the brothers Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real. The first European explorer known to have sailed up the Saint Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier.
At that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; because Cartier arrived in the estuary on Saint Lawrence's feast day, he named it the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Saint Lawrence River is within the U. S. and as such is that country's sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf and River in pursuit of whales from the early 16th century; the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencible's disaster, when the Spanish Basque whaling fleet was confiscated by King Philip II of Spain and destroyed; the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat. Until the early 17th century, the French used the name Rivière du Canada to designate the Saint Lawrence upstream to Montreal and the Ottawa River after Montreal.
The Saint Lawrence River served as the main route for European exploration of the North American interior, first pioneered by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. Control of the river was crucial to British strategy to capture New France in the Seven Years' War. Having captured Louisbourg in 1758, the British sailed up to Quebec the following year thanks to charts drawn up by James Cook. British troops were ferried via the Saint Lawrence to attack the city from the west, which they did at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the river was used again by the British to defeat the French siege of Quebec under the Chevalier de Lévis in 1760. In 1809, the first steamboat to ply its trade on the St. Lawrence was built and operated by John Molson and associates, a scant two years after Fulton's steam-powered navigation of the Hudson River; the Accommodation with ten passengers made her maiden voyage from Montreal to Quebec City in 66 hours, for 30 of which she was at anch
La Grande-4 generating station
The La Grande-4 is a hydroelectric generating station on the La Grande River, part of Hydro-Québec's James Bay Project. The station can generate 2,779 MW and was commissioned in 1984–1986, it generates electricity through the dam system. List of hydroelectric stations in Quebec List of power stations in Canada Reservoirs and dams in Canada
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is known as quicksilver and was named hydrargyrum. A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element, liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world as cinnabar; the red pigment vermilion is obtained by synthetic mercuric sulfide. Mercury is used in thermometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales.
It is used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light, which causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury, by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury. Mercury is a silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a fair conductor of electricity, it has a freezing point of −38.83 °C and a boiling point of 356.73 °C, both the lowest of any stable metal, although preliminary experiments on copernicium and flerovium have indicated that they have lower boiling points. Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3.59% and its density changes from 13.69 g/cm3 when liquid to 14.184 g/cm3 when solid. The coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C, 181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C. Solid mercury can be cut with a knife. A complete explanation of mercury's extreme volatility delves deep into the realm of quantum physics, but it can be summarized as follows: mercury has a unique electron configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 6s subshells.
Because this configuration resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus; the absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc, although both these metals still melt and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points. Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate and chloride. Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes. Mercury dissolves many metals such as silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury.
Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese and zinc are resistant in forming amalgams. Other elements that do not form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Sodium amalgam is a common reducing agent in organic synthesis, is used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact. Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth small amounts of mercury can corrode aluminium. For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft. Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. There are seven stable isotopes of mercury, with 202Hg being the most abundant; the longest-lived radioisotopes are 194Hg with a half-life of 444 years, 203Hg with a half-life of 46.612 days. Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives.
199Hg and 201Hg are the most studied NMR-active nuclei, having spins of 1⁄2 and 3⁄2 respectively. Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury, it comes from hydrargyrum, a Latinized form of the Greek word ὑδράργυρος, a compound word meaning "water-silver" – since it is liquid like water and shiny like silver. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury, known for his mobility, it is associated with the planet Mercury. Mercury is the only metal for which the al
The Caniapiscau River is a tributary of the Koksoak River in Nunavik, Canada. In Cree the name of the river means rocky point. Starting from Lac Sevestre on the Canadian Shield, the Caniapiscau River flows northward through a wide, timbered glacial valley until it makes a sharp turn at its confluence with the Rivière aux Mélèzes. At this point, the river becomes the Koksoak River; the total length of the Caniapiscau River is 737 kilometres. Since 1985, the headwaters of the Caniapiscau River have been diverted into the La Grande hydroelectric complex; the headwaters of the Caniapiscau River, representing about 45% of the total flow, now drain into the La Grande River of James Bay. The Caniapiscau Reservoir, which covers about 4,300 km2, or about nine times the size of the natural Lake Caniapiscau, fills a depression in the highest part of the Canadian Shield; the total catchment basin is about 36,800 km2. Important variations in the water flow of the Caniapiscau River from 1981 to 1984, during the period when the Caniapiscau Reservoir was being filled, may have contributed to the death by drowning of 9,600 migratory woodland caribou in September 1984 at Chute du Calcaire.
The Caniapiscau River basin has no permanent inhabitants, although Cree from the James Bay region as well as southern hunters do travel to the area by bush plane and via the Trans-Taiga Road. From time to time, the river is visited by canoeists. In 1820, James Clouston, an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, went down the river to its mouth and named it Caniapuscaw River in his diary and map. In 1828, explorer William Hendry identified it as Canniappuscaw. In 1898, the geologist Albert Peter Low used Kaniapiskau, by the middle of the 20th century, the current spelling came in use; the Inuit call the river Adlait Kuunga or Allait Kuunga, meaning "Indian River". It was known as Wauguash River. Caniapiscau River has several spectacular canyons and waterfalls: Chute de Facolli - 53°16′35″N 68°18′24″W Chute Chambeaux - 53°43′38″N 68°36′52″W Upper Gorge - 55°1′34″N 69°39′1″W Gorge d'en Bas - 55°30′53″N 68°21′23″W Eaton Canyon - 55°33′23″N 68°12′15″W Chute au Granite - 55°50′38″N 68°25′18″W Chute aux Schistes - 56°44′39″N 69°1′5″W Chute de la Pyrite - 57°26′0″N 69°14′33″W Chute du Calcaire - 57°28′48″N 69°18′30″W Manitou Gorge - 57°33′2″N 69°26′38″W Rivière Bras de Fer Rivière du Sable Goodwood River Rivière Sérigny Rivière Pons Rivière Beurling Rivière de la Mort Rivière Châteauguay Swampy Bay River Situraviup River Forbes River
Laforge-1 generating station
The Laforge-1 is a hydroelectric power station on the Laforge River, a tributary of the La Grande River, is part of Hydro-Québec's James Bay Project. The station can generate 878 MW and was commissioned in 1993-1994, it generates electricity through the dam system. List of power stations in Canada Reservoirs and dams in Canada Hydro-Québec's La Grande Complex La Grande System Laforge-1
The Rupert River is one of the largest rivers in Quebec, Canada. From its headwaters in Lake Mistassini, the largest natural lake in Quebec, it flows 556 kilometres west into Rupert Bay on James Bay; the Rupert drains an area of 43,400 square kilometres. There is some large whitewater on the river, but paddlers can avoid much of it by portage routes on the side; the most impressive falls, which cannot be avoided except by portaging, are the "Oatmeal Rapids" right at the James Bay Road and "The Fours" near the end of the river. The Rupert has long been an important river for the Cree of the area; every year, a group of Cree youth from the village of Waskaganish, at the mouth of the Rupert, travel up the river to Lake Nemiscau. Major tributaries of the Rupert are: Natastan River Lemare River - 1,290 km2 subbasin Marten River - 4,505 km2 subbasin Nemiscau River - 3,015 km2 subbasin In 1668, an expedition led by Médard des Groseilliers came to the mouth of the Rupert River in order to bypass French controlled areas along the St. Lawrence River and in doing so, trying to break the French hold on the fur trade.
They named the river after the sponsor of Prince Rupert. A fort was established at the mouth of the river, which became the trading post Rupert House, the oldest trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company. From on, the Rupert River played a vital role in supplying inland trading posts with regular canoe brigades, right until the beginning of the twentieth century when supplies started to come from the south via rail and road. While having lost its importance as a trade route, the Rupert River has long been a popular destination for recreational canoe camping and whitewater canoeing; the Rupert, together with the Nottaway and Broadback Rivers, was considered to be dammed and diverted as part of the James Bay Project. But in 1972, hydro-electric development began on the more northerly La Grande and Eastmain Rivers, the NBR Project was shelved; the plan to divert the Rupert's headwaters into the La Grande hydroelectric complex was revived in 2002 when a landmark agreement between the Government of Quebec and the Grand Council of the Crees was signed.
In this agreement, known as La Paix des braves, the two parties agreed to authorize the completion of a long-delayed hydroelectric project on the Eastmain River, just to the north of the Rupert River. A subsequent agreement in April 2004 put an end to all litigation between the two parties and opening the way to the joint environmental assessment of the diversion of about 50% of the total water flow of the Rupert River northwards to the Eastmain River and into the La Grande hydroelectric watershed; the Grand Chief of the Crees, Matthew Mukash, elected in late 2005, opposed the Rupert diversion project, preferring the development of wind turbines in the region. After completion of the joint environmental assessments by the Cree and Canadian authorities, the governments of Quebec and Canada authorized the diversion and construction of hydroelectric installations on the Rupert River in late 2006; the diversion of water from the river began in November, 2009. 29,600 square kilometres or 68% of its basin will be diverted through a 2.9 kilometres long transfer tunnel from the Rupert Forebay to the Rupert Tailbay in the Nemiscau basin and onward to the Eastmain 1 Reservoir.
The remaining work was complete in 2012. List of longest rivers of Canada Royal eponyms in Canada List of rivers of Quebec The Rupert River website The James Bay Road website - the James Bay region of Quebec Save the Rupert Rupert Reverence The Rupert Hydroelectric Diversion Environmental assessment process and documents Environmental assessment process and documents "Hydro-Electric Project to Reshape Wilderness" July 14, 2008 NPR radio report Rezmutt's Flickr.com Rupert River Archive The Rupert River
Radisson is a small unconstituted locality situated near the Robert-Bourassa hydroelectric power station on the La Grande River in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. Geographically, Radisson is located halfway between the southern and northern most points in Quebec and is, besides Schefferville, the only non-native town north of the 53rd parallel in this province. Despite its remoteness, Radisson has plenty of services for its residents and travellers: two fuel stations, motel, campground, a general store, gift shops, a school and a hospital, it is home to a huge Hydro-Québec employee facility, from where guided tours to the Robert-Bourassa power station start. It houses employees of Air Inuit who are stationed at La Grande Riviere Airport; the Cree village of Chisasibi is about 100 kilometres to the west, near the mouth of the La Grande River. To the East is the Trans-Taiga Road that leads to the Caniapiscau Reservoir and the former construction camp of Caniapiscau. Radisson was founded in 1974 to accommodate workers for the James Bay hydroelectric project and named by the Société de développement de la Baie James after Pierre-Esprit Radisson, a 17th-century French explorer and founder of the Hudson's Bay Company.
During the peak construction period in 1977, its population reached about 2,500 and has fluctuated since that time. It is a community of about 300 people; the main employer is Hydro-Québec and its main subsidiary, the Société de l'énergie de la Baie James. Many locals are employed in the tourism/hospitality industry that caters to the outdoor sports, such as hunting and camping. Radisson referred to on some unofficial maps as "La Grande", is part of the Municipality of Baie-James which covers most of the territory of James Bay region, with the exception of the Cree villages as well as towns of Chapais, Chibougamau and Lebel-sur-Quévillon, all of which are enclaves; the town is accessible by road from Matagami, 620 kilometres to the south. The road is known as the James Bay Road and was built during the construction of the James Bay Project in the mid-1970s. No services whatsoever are available along this road with the exception of a 24-hour service station, complete with cafeteria and lodging, at kilometre 381.
The road is paved, well maintained and ploughed during the winter, making Radisson accessible year-round. It is accessible via La Grande Rivière Airport. Media related to Radisson, Quebec at Wikimedia Commons Virtual tour of Radisson, photos