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La Malinche

Marina or Malintzin, more popularly known as La Malinche, was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a key role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés. She was one of 20 women slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519, she gave birth to Cortés's first son, Martín, considered one of the first Mestizos. The historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends, her reputation has been altered over the years according to changing social and political perspectives after the Mexican Revolution, when she was portrayed in dramas and paintings as an evil or scheming temptress. In Mexico today, La Malinche remains iconically potent, she is understood in various and conflicting aspects as the embodiment of treachery, the quintessential victim, or as symbolic mother of the new Mexican people. The term malinchista refers to a disloyal compatriot in Mexico; because of her controversial symbolization, a statue of La Malinche, Cortés, their son Martín was removed soon after it was erected in Coyoacan, in the outskirts of Mexico City, in 1982.

The statue was intended to be respectful of her trials and to emphasize the mestizo character of the nation. However, student protests erupted: the protesters wanted no monument that presented La Malinche in a positive light, for in their minds she was too associated with domination by outsiders and with betrayal. Malinche is known by many names, she was baptized as Marina, was referred to as such by the Spaniards preceded with honorific doña. The Nahuas called the honorific suffix - tzin. According to the historian Camilla Townsend, the vocative suffix -e is sometimes added at the end of the name, giving the form Malintzine, which would be shortened to Malintze, heard by the Spanish as Malinche. Another possibility is that the Spaniards did not hear the “whispered” -n of the name Malintzin, her name at birth is unknown. It has been popularly assumed since at least the 19th century that she was named “Malinalli”, after the day sign on which she was born, that Marina was chosen as her Christian name on account of phonetic similarity, but modern historians have rejected these propositions.

The Nahuas associate the day sign Malinalli with bad or “evil” connotations, they are known to avoid using such day signs as personal names. Moreover, there would be little reason for the Spaniards to ask the natives what their personal names were before christening them with similar-sounding Spanish names. Another title, assumed to be part of her original name is “Tenepal”. This, according to the linguist and historian Frances Karttunen, originated as an annotation made by the Nahua historian Chimalpahin on his copy of Gómara's biography of Cortés, which says that Marina was known as "Malintzin Tenepal". Tenepal is derived from the Nahuatl root tene which means “lip-possessor, one who speaks vigorously” or “one who has a facility with words”, postposition -pal, which means “by means of”. Thus, Malintzin Tenepal is most intended to be a direct translation of Spanish doña Marina la lengua, with la lengua being her Spanish sobriquet. Malinche's birthdate is unknown, but it is estimated to be around 1500, no than 1505.

She was born in an altepetl, either a part or a tributary of a Mesoamerican state whose center was located on the bank of the Coatzacoalcos River to the east of the Aztec Empire. Records disagree about the exact name of the altepetl. In three unrelated legal proceedings that occurred not long after her death, various witnesses who claimed to have known her including her own daughter, said that she was born in Olutla; the probanza of her grandson mentioned Olutla as her birthplace. Her daughter added that the altepetl of Olutla was related to Tetiquipaque, although the nature of this relationship is unclear. In the Florentine Codex, Malinche's homeland is mentioned as "Teticpac", which could be the singular form of Tetiquipaque. Gómara writes that she came from “Uiluta”, although he departs from other sources by writing that it was in the region of Jalisco. Díaz, on the other hand, gives "Painalla" as her birthplace, her family is reported to be of noble background. Townsend notes that while Olutla at the time had a Popoluca majority, the ruling elite, which Malinche belonged to, would have been Nahuatl-speaking.

Another hint that supports her noble origin is her apparent ability to understand the courtly language of tecpillahtolli, a Nahuatl register, different from the commoner's speech and has to be learned. The fact that she was referred to as a doña, at the time when it was not used in Spain indicates that she was viewed as a noblewoman, although it is possible that the honorific was attributed to her because of her important role in the conquest. Between the age of 8 and 12, Malinche was either sold or kidnapped into slavery. Díaz famously wrote that after her father's death, she was given away to merchants by her mother and stepfather so that their own son could succeed a

B. O. Flower

Benjamin Orange Flower, known most by his initials "B. O.", was an American muckraking journalist of the Progressive era. Flower is best remembered as the editor of the liberal commentary magazine The Arena, published in Boston, New York City, Trenton, New Jersey by the Arena Publishing Co. from 1889 until 1909. Benjamin Orange Flower was born in Albion, Illinois, on October 19, 1858, the son of Alfred Flower, a Disciples of Christ minister, his wife Elizabeth, née Orange, his grandfather George Flower had emigrated from England with his friend Morris Birkbeck after speaking with Edward Coles, with their followers founded the English settlement in the Illinois Territory. Benjamin Flower was first educated in a religious school in Albion before moving with his family to Evansville, where he attended the public high school. Following his high school graduation, Flower wished to become a Protestant minister, like his father and an older brother before him, he thus began studies at the Disciples of Christ's School of the Bible at Transylvania University in Lexington.

Flower's religious and philosophical views evolved, however. He abandoned his religious career. After college, Flower returned to Albion where he launched a short-lived journal, the Albion American Sentinel, terminated in 1880, he moved to Philadelphia, where he worked for a time as a secretary for his brother, a physician who operated a successful mail-order business. In September 1886, B. O. Flower married Hattie Cloud of Indiana. Tragically, not long after their marriage his wife was stricken with mental illness which forced her permanent institutionalization. In 1886, Flower's brother moved there with him. At this time, Flower returned to the world of publishing, launching a new literary magazine called The American Spectator; this venture proved successful, achieving a circulation of more than 10,000 copies within three years. In December 1889, Flower merged this publication into a new social reform magazine he launched called The Arena. Flower was an advocate of bolstering public morality as a means of social improvement.

In 1893, he proposed the establishment of a "League of Love" or "Federation of Justice" to better mobilize progressive-minded individuals for the betterment of humanity. This effort led to the formation of a new organization called the Union for Practical Progress, which attempted to establish itself on a national basis through the organization of local clubs. Local groups such as the Baltimore Union for Public Good received favorable coverage of their activities and publicity in The Arena; this effort failed to achieve critical mass and soon failed, however. The Arena was an eclectic magazine, its pages open to writers of a wide range of ideological perspectives, ranging from advocates of cooperatives and populists to philosophical anarchists and devotees of Henry George and the Single Tax. Uniting it all was Flower's evolutionary rather than revolutionary view of social change and his deep-seated faith in the perfectibility of mankind through enlightenment about the world and reasoned response to its problems.

Flower advocated for kindergartens and improved housing. He criticized ostentatious and encumbering women's clothing, "materialistic commercialism," and the wealthy class which monopolized society's economic resources; the magazine advocated for initiative and referendum, for prison reform, against capital punishment, for the prohibition of alcohol. Multiple articles were dedicated to women's suffrage, reform of divorce law, the relationship between poverty and crime, race relations between the white and black populations of the United States. Long an advocate of free silver and currency reform, Flower came out for the candidacy of William Jennings Bryan during the heated election of 1896. Flower portrayed Bryan as the defender of freedom and the Republic. Flower urged Arena readers to support Bryan as the last best chance to stave off encroaching plutocracy in America; the year 1896 marked the end of Flower's first stint at the helm of The Arena, with the magazine being transferred to the editorship of historian John Clark Ridpath and the writer Helen Hamilton Gardener.

Under its new editors, Flower's magazine continued to pursue the same political and ethical mission envisioned by its founder. Flower continued to contribute articles to the journal throughout the subsequent interval. From the latter part of the 1890s and into the first decade of the 20th Century, Flower was associated with a number of radical reform magazines, he was the co-editor of former Unitarian Charles H. Kerr's Chicago magazine The New Time — a forerunner of International Socialist Review — from 1897 to 1898, working with Frederick Upham Adams, he edited the St. Louis, Missouri-based magazine The Coming Age, moving it to Boston where it merged with The Arena in 1900; the Arena was sold in 1903 to Charles A. Montgomery, a short-lived ownership situation which abruptly ended in 1904 with the magazine's sale to book publisher Albert Brandt. Upon purchasing the magazine, Brandt brought back Flower as Editor-in-Chief of the publication that the latter had founded fifteen years before. Flower would remain in this position until the journal went bankrupt in 1909.

As has been noted by the historian Louis Filler, B. O. Flower was not himself a socialist. Flower believed that the body of socialist ideas was utopian and unachievable, that revolution would result only in chaos and destruction. Instead, Flower advocated for a neo-Christianity based upon the re-establishment of personal character, the rejection of greed and inequality and its propagation by se

David Williams (archbishop)

David Williams was the Anglican Bishop of Huron and Metropolitan of Ontario in the 20th century. Born in 1853 and educated at St David’s College, Lampeter, he was ordained in 1885, his first post was a Curate at Blaenau Ffestiniog. In 1887 he became a professor at Huron Theological College, he was the rector of St James’ Stratford from 1892 to 1904 Archdeacon of Perth. He was ordained to the episcopate as the Bishop of Huron in 1905 and became the Metropolitan of the Province of Ontario in 1926, he died in post on 7 October 1931

2007–08 Toronto Maple Leafs season

The 2007–08 Toronto Maple Leafs season began October 4, 2007. It is the 91st season of 81st season as the Maple Leafs. In an effort to return to the playoffs in 2007–08, the Leafs made two significant moves during the off-season; the first was to acquire goaltender Vesa Toskala from the San Jose Sharks in exchange for three draft picks. Toronto signed free agent Jason Blake to a five-year, $20 million contract. Blake reached the 40-goal mark for the first time in 2006–07. With the Leafs struggling in the Northeast Division, the future of John Ferguson Jr.'s tenure as general manager has been debated after club president Richard Peddie admitted that hiring Ferguson was "a mistake". According to TSN, the Leafs asked former Toronto general manager Cliff Fletcher to serve as interim general manager early in January. On January 22, it was announced that Ferguson's time with the club had ended, as the board of directors at Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment voted to make a change. Fletcher was named interim general manager of the team.

Defenceman Tomas Kaberle was selected to represent the Maple Leafs and the Eastern Conference at the 2008 All-Star Game in Atlanta, Georgia. He hit all four targets in four shots to become the winner of the accuracy competition. On October 8, 2007, newly acquired winger Jason Blake announced that he had chronic myelogenous leukemia, a treatable form of cancer, he continued playing during treatment. In mid-November 2007, Jiri Tlusty was caught in a scandal when nude photos of him appeared on the Internet. Tlusty admitted that he made a mistake; the Maple Leafs struggled on the penalty kill during the regular season, allowing an NHL-high 77 power-play goals. Divisions: AT – Atlantic, NE – Northeast, SE – Southeast bold – qualified for playoffs, y – division winner, z – placed first in conference For the third straight year, the Leafs did not qualify for the playoffs. Record: 5–5–3. Final stats †Denotes player spent time with another team before joining Maple Leafs. Stats reflect time with Maple Leafs only.

‡Traded mid-season. Bold/italics denotes franchise record. On October 11, 2007, in an 8–1 victory over the New York Islanders, Mats Sundin scored his 390th goal as a Leaf, earned his 917th point in a Leaf uniform breaking Darryl Sittler's team record as the all-time points and goals leader; the Maple Leafs have been involved in the following transactions during the 2007–08 season. Toronto's picks at the 2007 NHL Entry Draft in Ohio. 2007–08 NHL season

Awesome Again Stakes

The Awesome Again Stakes is an American thoroughbred horse race run annually since 1982 during the Oak Tree Racing Association at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. Known as the Goodwood Breeders' Cup Handicap and the Goodwood Stakes, it is open to horses, age three and up, willing to race ​1 1⁄8 miles on the dirt, it had been raced at 11/16 miles from 1982 through 1984 and again in 1986. In 2007 the race was upgraded by the American Graded Stakes Committee to a Grade I event from its previous Grade II status; the Awesome Again offers a purse of $300,000. The race was named for Oak Tree Racing Association's sister operation at Goodwood Racecourse near Chichester, England; the race reverted to the Goodwood Stakes in 2008, as all Breeders' Cup Stakes Funded races lost the Breeders' Cup name. In 2012, the race was named in honor of 1998 Breeders' Cup Classic winner Awesome Again. Time record: 1:46.72 - Bertrando Most wins: 2 - Lord At War 2 - Pleasantly Perfect 2 - Game On Dude Most wins by an owner: 2 - Peter Perkins 2 - Diamond A Racing Most wins by a jockey: 5 - Gary Stevens Most wins by a trainer: 5 - Bob Baffert 5 - Charles Whittingham Find out more about the Awesome Again Stakes at Hello Race Fans

Amberpet (Assembly constituency)

Amberpet Assembly constituency is a constituency of Telangana Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 15 constituencies in Capital city of Hyderabad, it is part of Secunderabad Lok Sabha constituency. Kaleru Venkatesh is the MLA Member of Legislative Assembly TRS Candidate from Amberpet Constuency won in 2018 Elections in Telangana. G. Kishan Reddy BJP Leader didnot Won From Amberpet Constuency in 2018 Elections, he won 3 times as MLA being a BJP Candidate. Amberpet was carved out of Himayat Nagar Assembly constituency before the 2009 elections as per Delimitation Act of 2002; the Assembly Constituency presently comprises the following neighbourhoods: Amberpet List of constituencies of Telangana Legislative Assembly