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La Noche Triste

La Noche Triste was an important event during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, wherein Hernán Cortés, his invading army of Spanish conquistadors, their native allies were driven out of the Aztec capital at Tenochtitlan. Cortés' expedition arrived at Tenochtitlan, the Mexica capital, on November 8, 1519, taking up residence in a specially designated compound in the city. Soon thereafter, suspecting treachery on the part of their hosts, the Spaniards took Moctezuma II, the king or Hueyi Tlatoani of the Mexica, hostage. Though Moctezuma followed Cortés' instructions in continually assuring his subjects that he had been ordered by the gods to move in with the Spaniards and that he had done so willingly, the Aztecs suspected otherwise. During the following 98 days, Cortés and his native allies, the Tlaxcaltecas, were unwelcome guests in the capital. In June 1520, news from the Gulf coast reached Cortés that a much larger party of Spaniards had been sent by Governor Velázquez of Cuba to arrest Cortés for insubordination.

Leaving Tenochtitlan in the care of his trusted lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado, Cortés marched to the coast, where he defeated the Cuban expedition led by Pánfilo de Narváez sent to capture him. When Cortés told the defeated soldiers about the riches of Tenochtitlan, they agreed to join him. Reinforced by Narvaez's men, Cortés headed back to Tenochtitlan. During Cortés' absence, Pedro de Alvarado in Tenochtitlan obtained information that the Aztecs were planning to attack him. In response, de Alvarado ordered a preemptive slaughter of Aztec nobles and priests celebrating a festival in the city's main temple. In retaliation, the Aztecs laid siege to the Spanish compound, in which Moctezuma was still being held captive. By the time Cortés returned to Tenochtitlan in late June, the Aztecs had elected a new Hueyi Tlatoani named Cuitláhuac. Cortés ordered Moctezuma to address his people from a terrace in order to persuade them to stop fighting and to allow the Spaniards to leave the city in peace; the Aztecs, jeered at Moctezuma, pelted him with stones and darts.

By Spanish accounts, he was killed in this assault by the Mexica people, though they claim he had been killed instead by the Spanish. With Moctezuma dead, Cortés and Alvarado knew. Under constant attack, with gunpowder and water in short supply, Cortés decided to break out of the city by night. In order to put the Aztecs off their guard, he sent messengers asking for a one-week ceasefire, at the end of which the Spaniards would return any treasure of which they were in possession and would be permitted to leave the city peacefully. Since the Aztecs had damaged bridges on four of the eight causeways into the island city, the Spaniards devised a portable bridge they could use in order to cross any unspanned sections of water. Cortés ordered that as much of the accumulated gold and other booty as was feasible be packed and carried away, invited the Spanish soldiers to take and carry away as much as they wished of the remainder; this invitation would lead to the demise of many soldiers who, overburdened with treasure, found it impossible to navigate the causeways and other obstacles encountered on the way out of the city.

On the night of July 1, 1520, Cortez's large army left their compound and headed west, toward the Tlacopan causeway. The causeway was unguarded, the Spaniards made their way out of their complex unnoticed, winding their way through the sleeping city under the cover of a rainstorm. Before reaching the causeway, they were noticed by Aztec warriors known as the Eagle Warriors, who sounded the alarm. First by a woman drawing water, by the priest of Huitzilopochtli from atop Templo Mayor; the fighting was ferocious. As the Spaniards and their native allies reached the causeway, hundreds of canoes appeared in the waters alongside to harry them; the Spaniards fought their way across the causeway in the rain. Weighed down by gold and equipment, some of the soldiers lost their footing, fell into the lake, drowned. Amid a vanguard of horsemen, Cortés pressed ahead and reached dry land at Tacuba, leaving the rest of the expedition to fend for itself in the treacherous crossing. Seeing the wounded survivors straggle into the village, Cortés and his horsemen turned back to the causeway, where they encountered Pedro de Alvarado and badly wounded, in the company of a handful of Spaniards and Tlaxcaltecas.

According to Bernal Díaz del Castillo, it was at this point that tears came to Cortés' eyes, as he realized the extent of the debacle. Cortés, Alvarado and the strongest and most skilled of the men had managed to fight their way out of Tenochtitlan, although they were all bloodied and exhausted. Cortés himself had been injured in the fighting. All of the artillery had been lost; the sources are not in agreement as to the total number of casualties suffered by the expedition. Cortés himself claimed. Thoan Cano, another eyewitness to the event, said that 1170 Spaniards died, but this number exceeds the total number of Spaniards who took part in the expedition. Francisco López de Gómara, not himself an eyewitness, estimated that 450 Spaniards and 4,000 allies died. Montezuma's son, Chimalpopoca was killed and the Tepanec prince Tlaltecatzin, King Cacamatzin, his three sisters and two brothers were killed. Diaz states the Spaniards suffered 860 soldiers killed, which included those from the Battle of Otumba.

The Tlaxcaltecas lost a thousand. The noncombatants attached to the expedition suffered 72 casualties, including five Spanish women; the few women who survived included La Malinche the interpreter, Dona Luisa, María Estrada

Preston (1798 EIC ship)

Preston was launched in 1798 as an East Indiaman. She made six voyages for the British East India Company, between 1805 and 1819. In 1810 and 1811 she participated as a transport in two British military campaigns, she instead became a transport and a West Indiaman. She disappeared after a gale in August 1815. Captain Thomas Garland Murray acquired a letter of marque on 26 January 1799, he sailed from Portsmouth on 2 April 1799, bound for Bengal. Preston arrived at Diamond Harbour on 23 August. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 19 November, she reached Madras on 20 December, Colombo on 11 January 1800, Point de Galle on 6 February, St Helena on 27 April. She arrived at The Downs on 5 July. Captain Murray sailed from Portsmouth on 23 April 1801, bound for Madras and Bencoolen. Preston was at St Augustine's Bay on 3 August, she arrived at Diamond Harbour on 13 October. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 15 December and Bencoolen on 24 February 1802, she reached The Downs on 31 August. Captain Henry Sturrock acquired a letter of marque on 16 July 1803.

He sailed from The Downs 27 April 1803, bound for Madras and Bencoolen. Preston reached Madras on 19 August and arrived at Diamond Harbour on 26 August and Kedgeree on 19 September. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 2 April 1804, Bencoolen on 17 May, St Helena on 14 August, she arrived at The Downs on 9 November. Captain Sturrock sailed from Portsmouth on 25 April 1805, bound for Madras and Bombay. On 7 August 1805, HMS Blenheim, Captain Austin Bissell and Rear-Admiral Thomas Troubridge, was escorting a fleet of East Indiamen consisting of Castle Eden, Devonshire, Exeter, Ganges and Preston, they were at 19°3′S 17°15′E when they encountered the French ship of the line Marengo and frigate Belle Poule. There was a brief exchange of fire. Troubridge reprimanded the captains of Cumberland and Preston for having acted too boldly in exchanging fire with the French. Preston arrived at Diamond Harbour on 11 September, she was at Saugor on 31 October. She sailed to Colombo, which she reached on 20 December, Cochin on 3 January 1806, Bombay on 18 January.

She returned to Diamond Harbour on 31 March. Homeward bound she was at Saugor at 30 July, she reached Madras on 7 Trincomalee on 18 October. She reached the Cape of Good Hope 30 December and St Helena on 23 January 1807, she arrived at The Downs on 12 April. Captain Sturrock sailed from Portsmouth on 5 March 1808, bound for Bengal. Preston reached the Cape on 31 Madras on 3 August, she arrived at Diamond Harbour on 12 August. Preston was at Saugor on 28 August. Homeward bound, she was at Madras on 16 October, she joined a convoy that departed Madras on 25 October. HMS Albion provided the escort for the nine East Indiamen of the convoy. A gale commenced around 20 November at 10°S 90°E and by 22 November had dispersed the fleet. By 21 February 1809 three of the Indiamen — Lord Nelson and Experiment had not arrived at Cape Town. All three had foundered without a trace. Preston was at the Cape on 19 January 1809, reached St Helena on 24 February, arrived at The Downs on 23 May; the Court of Directors of the EIC held an inquiry on another loss the next year.

Phoenix was the last to see the missing vessels and all the captains of the surviving ships agreed that the missing vessels must have foundered from the violence of the hurricane. Captain Sturrock sailed from Portsmouth on 13 April 1810. Preston arrived at Madras on 28 August. There the British government hired her as a transport for the Île de France. Preston was at Rodrigues on 6 November, Mauritius on 29 November; the invasion took place on 3 December. By 10 February Preston was back at 1811 Diamond Harbour. There the government again hired her, this time for the invasion of Java. Preston was at Saugor on 15 Malacca on 6 May. Preston was in the 4th division, she was at Batavia by 8 August. She was back at Diamond Harbour on 22 Calcutta on 15 November. Homeward bound, she was at Colombo on 19 February, she arrived at The Downs on 4 August. One source states. However, in actuality she appeared in Lloyd's Register with Hewland, Murray & Co. owners, trade London transport. On 2 August 1815 as Preston was sailing from Jamaica to London in a convoy she encountered a gale that cost her her main and mizzen masts.

A report stated that Preston, master, had been seen since the gale. The last report concerning the convoy of which Preston Of the 89 vessels in the convoy that left Jamaica on 19 July, Grierson, was one of the eight still missing. Preston was no longer listed in the 1816 Lloyd's Register. Citations References Biden, Christopher Naval Discipline: Subordination Contrasted with Insubordination: Or, A View of the Necessity for Passing a Law Establishing an Efficient Naval Discipline on Board Ships in the Merchant-service..... Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7. Hardy, Horatio Charles A register of ships, employed in the service of the Honorable the United East India Company, from the year 1760 to 1810: with an appendix, containing a variety of particulars, useful information interesting to those concerned with East India commerce.. Select Comm

After Hours (John Pizzarelli album)

After Hours is a 1996 studio album for Novus Records by jazz guitarist John Pizzarelli and his trio. Most of the album consists of old standards, features guests like Randy Sandke and Harry Allen. "Coquette" "Guess I'll Hang My Tears Out to Dry" "I'll Never Be The Same" "They Can't Take That Away from Me" "You're Lookin' at Me" "Mam'selle" "But Not for Me" "Lullaby" "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning" "Sometimes I'm Happy" "It Might as Well Be Spring" "Be My Baby Tonight" "Stringbean" John Pizzarelli Martin Pizzarellidouble-bass Ray Kennedypiano Randy Sandke – guest Harry Allen – guest, saxophone

Awards and decorations of the State Defense Forces

Awards and decorations of the state defense forces are presented to members of the state defense forces in addition to regular United States military decorations and state National Guard military decorations. Each of the state governments of the United States maintains a series of decorations for issuance to members of the state defense forces, with such awards presented under the authority of the various state adjutants general and/or respective state defense force commanders. In most states, state defense force members may wear any regular United States military decorations and United States National Guard decorations that they may have earned while members of the National Guard and/or while in federal active duty service; the members of some state defense force may be awarded state National Guard military decorations in addition to state defense force awards while serving in a state defense force capacity. The order of precedence for the wear of the awards are: federal, state National Guard state defense force.

Those state defense force members who subsequently serve in the active or reserve federal forces of the United States Army, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or United States Air Force may not continue to wear and display such decorations on a military uniform. Regulations of these federal forces allow their members to accept but not wear state National Guard awards; the following is a list of state defense force decorations, as issued by each of the states and territories of the United States. Alabama State Defense Force Awards: ASDF Alabama War Ribbon ASDF Distinguished Service Ribbon ASDF Meritorious Service Ribbon ASDF Commendation Ribbon ASDF Achievement Ribbon ASDF Achievement Ribbon ASDF Merit Ribbon ASDF Desert Shield/Storm Support Ribbon ASDF Disaster Readiness Ribbon SGT Dixie Club-Gold Ribbon SGT Dixie Club-Silver Ribbon SGT Dixie Club-Bronze Ribbon ASDF Service Ribbon ASDF Distinguished Graduate Ribbon ASDF Professional Development Ribbon ASDF Officer Training Ribbon ASDF Warrant Officer Training Ribbon ASDF NCO Training Ribbon ASDF C.

E. R. T. Ribbon ASDF Recruiting Ribbon ASDF Super Recruiter Recruiting Ribbon ASDF Association Member Ribbon ASDF SGAUS Ribbon ASDF Outstanding Unit Comm. Ribbon SGAUS Superior Unit Citation MEMS Academy Unit Citation Alaska State Defense Force Awards and Decorations Alaska Decoration of Honor Alaska Heroism Medal Alaska Distinguished Service Medal Alaska Legion of Merit Alaska Meritorious Service Medal Alaska Air Medal Alaska Commendation Medal Alaska Achievement Medal Alaska Humanitarian Service Medal Alaska State Service Medal Alaska Community Service Medal Alaska Domestic Emergency Ribbon Alaska Marksmanship Medal Alaska Homeland Security Medal Alaska Recruiting Ribbon Alaska State Partnership Program Ribbon Alaska Cold War Victory Ribbon Alaska Territorial Guard Medal Alaska State Defense Force Commendation Medal Alaska State Defense Force Achievement Medal Alaska State Defense Force State Activation Medal Alaska State Defense Force Service Medal Alaska State Defense Force Training Achievement Ribbon Alaska State Defense Force Good Conduct Ribbon Alaska State Defense Force Retirement Ribbon State Guard Association of the United States Longevity Ribbon State Guard Association of the United States Professional Development Ribbon State Guard Association of the United States Membership Ribbon ALASKA UNIT CITATIONS: Alaska Governor's Distinguished Unit Citation SGAUS Meritorious Unit Citation SGAUS Superior Unit Citation California State Military Reserve Awards: CA SMR Military History Medal CA SMR Training Excellence Ribbon CA SMR Enlisted Excellence Ribbon CA SMR Recruiting Achievement Ribbon CA SMR Professional Development Ribbon CA SMR Mission Qualification Ribbon CA SMR Emergency Training Ribbon CA SMR Outstanding Services Ribbon CA SMR Volunteer Service Ribbon CA SMR Drill Attendance Ribbon CA SMR Governor's Outstanding Unit Citation Georgia State Defense Force Awards & Decorations: GaSDF Medal of Valor GaSDF Legion of Merit GaSDF Medal of Merit GaSDF Distinguished Service Medal GaSDF Commendation Medal GaSDF Enlisted Member of the Year GaSDF Achievement Ribbon GaSDF Military Qualification Training Ribbon GaSDF Military Proficiency Ribbon GaSDF State Active Duty Ribbon GaSDF Emergency Services School Ribbon GaSDF Military Readiness Ribbon GaSDF Recruiting Achievement Ribbon GaSDF Volunteer Service Ribbon GaSDF Good Conduct Ribbon GaSDF Longevity Service Ribbon GaSDF Military Indoctrination Ribbon GaSDF Unit Commander's Citation w/Gold Frame GaSDF Outstanding Unit Citation Ribbon W/Gold Frame Indiana Guard Reserve Awards: Indiana Distinguished Service Cross Indiana Distinguished Service Medal Indiana Commendation Medal Indiana Homeland Defense Ribbon Indiana Emergency Service Ribbon Indiana Funeral Honors Ribbon INGR Merit Medal INGR Distinguished Service Ribbon INGR Commendation Ribbon INGR Achievement Ribbon INGR JROTC Commendation Ribbon INGR Outstanding Recruiter Ribbon INGR JROTC Support Ribbon INGR Community Service Ribbon INGR Search and Rescue Ribbon INGR C.

E. R. T. Ribbon INGR Emergency Management Specialist Ribbon INGR Officer Professional Development Ribbon INGR NCO Professional Development Ribbon INGR Physical Fitness Ribbon INGR 25 Year Service Ribbon INGR Long Service Ribbon INGR Service Ribbon INGR Defense Service Ribbon INGR The Indiana Guard Reserve Association Ribbon INGR Superior Unit Citation INGR Medallion Mar

Monetaria caputdraconis

Monetaria caputdraconis, common name the "dragon's-head cowry", is a species of sea snail, a cowry, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries. The common name of this species comes from its Latin name caputdraconis, meaning "the head of the dragon"; the shell reaches about 15–40 millimetres in length. It is pyriform with rather long teeth; the basic color of the shell is uniformly brown on its edge, with many yellowish small spots on the top of the dorsum. This endemic species is found in the sea along Easter Island and Sala y Gomez Island, where it replaces the similar Monetaria caputserpentis, it is encountered under coral rocks in the intertidal reef. Lorenz F. & Hubert A. A guide to worldwide cowries. Edition 2. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 584 pp Biolib "Monetaria caputdraconis caputdraconis". Retrieved 16 January 2019. WoRMS

Cambus, Clackmannanshire

Cambus is a village near Alloa, Clackmannanshire. It is located to the south of Tullibody, to the northwest of Alloa, about 4 miles east of Stirling, across the river, it lies near its confluence with the River Forth. A whisky distillery was founded in Cambus in 1806, it or another was re-established by John Mowbray in 1813 or 1836. In 1877 ownership was merged into the Distillers Company; the distillery was closed down in 1993. There is a song about Cambus Whisky which mentions "sober Sandy", a ballman at the distillery; the Cambus Iron Bridge over the Devon was constructed in the early 19th century to span the River Devon and link with the distillery founded in 1806. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Security is a concern for any distillery, in at least the 1950s the Cambus distillery was guarded at night by a flock of geese, with their wings clipped to prevent flight. During the day, to prevent the workforce being attacked, the geese were kept in an enclosure across the road, were found to be intimidating by passers-by.

This would have been intended to deter any would-be thieves. The degree of success is unknown, however nowadays the sign of a conventional security company is displayed on the perimeter of the site. Robert Knox & Son brewed in Cambus; some of there beer labels still survive. Magnus Pyke lived in Cambus, close to the station and distillery. From the early 1850s until 1968 Cambus was served by passenger trains of the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway; the station was to the west of the level crossing on the road into the village, had a large signal box, which controlled two level crossings, the junction with the line to Menstrie and Alva, access to sidings in the brewery and distillery. The line was re-opened in 2008 as part of the Stirling-Alloa-Kincardine rail link; the new railway has a passing loop to the east of the road into Cambus village, but no station at this point in time