Anthology of Black Humor
The Anthology of Black Humor is an anthology of 45 writers edited by André Breton. It was first published in 1940 in Paris by Éditions du Sagittaire and its distribution was banned by the Vichy government, it was reprinted in 1947 with a few additions. In 1966, Breton, "having resisted the temptation to add more names", published the book again and called this edition "the definitive"; the anthology not only introduced some until almost unknown or forgotten writers, it coined the term "black humor". The term became globally used since then; the choice of authors was done by Breton and according to his taste which he explains in the Foreword, a work of great depth that starts with contemplating Rimbaud´s words "Emanations, explosions." From Rimbaud's last poem The barrack-room of night: Dream. The authors, each introduced by a preface by Breton and represented by a few pages from their writings, are sorted chronologically; the book is still in print. It was translated into several languages; the anthology contains the following excerpts, each introduced by a commentary by Breton: Jonathan Swift: Directions to Servants, A Modest Proposal, A Meditation on a Broom-Stick.
Charles Fourier: L'éléphant, le chien... Thomas de Quincey Pierre-François Lacenaire Petrus Borel: Marchand et voleur est synonyme Christian Dietrich Grabbe Edgar Allan Poe Xavier Forneret Charles Baudelaire Lewis Carroll Villiers de l'Isle-Adam Charles Cros Friedrich Nietzsche: Letter to Jacob Burckhardt Isidore Ducasse: excerpts from Maldor and Letters Joris-Karl Huysmans Tristan Corbière: The Litany of Sleep Germain Nouveau Arthur Rimbaud: excerpt from A Heart under a Cassok Alphonse Allais Jean-Pierre Brisset O. Henry André Gide: Prometheus' Lecture John Millington Synge Alfred Jarry: The Debraining Song. Freud's 1928 Humor from International Journal of Psychoanalysis 9 1-6. Info from City Lights, its English publisher
André-Aimé-René Masson was a French artist. Masson was born in Balagny-sur-Thérain, but when he was eight his father's work took the family first to Lille and to Brussels, he began his study of art at the age of eleven at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, under the guidance of Constant Montald, he studied in Paris. He fought for France during World War I and was injured, his early works display an interest in cubism. He became associated with surrealism, he was one of the most enthusiastic employers of automatic drawing, making a number of automatic works in pen and ink. Masson experimented with altered states of consciousness with artists such as Antonin Artaud, Michel Leiris, Joan Miró, Georges Bataille, Jean Dubuffet and Georges Malkine, who were neighbors of his studio in Paris. From around 1926 he experimented by throwing sand and glue onto canvas and making oil paintings based around the shapes that formed. By the end of the 1920s, however, he was finding automatic drawing rather restricting, he left the surrealist movement and turned instead to a more structured style producing works with a violent or erotic theme, making a number of paintings in reaction to the Spanish Civil War.
Under the German occupation of France during World War II, his work was condemned by the Nazis as degenerate. With the assistance of Varian Fry in Marseille, Masson escaped the Nazi regime on a ship to the French island of Martinique from where he went on to the United States. Upon arrival in New York City customs officials inspecting Masson's luggage found a cache of his erotic drawings. Living in New Preston, Connecticut his work became an important influence on American abstract expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock. Following the war, he returned to France and settled in Aix-en-Provence where he painted a number of landscapes. Masson drew the cover of the first issue of Georges Bataille's review, Acéphale, in 1936, participated in all its issues until 1939, his brother-in-law, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, was the last private owner of Gustave Courbet's provocative painting L'Origine du monde. His son, Diego Masson, is a conductor and percussionist, while another son, Luis Masson, is an actor.
His daughter, Lily Masson, is a painter. Hélène Parant, Fabrice Flahutez, Camille Morando. La bibliothèque d'André Masson. Une archéologie. Paris: Artvenir, 2011. ISBN 2-9539406-0-X. André Masson. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, 1919–1941. Vaumarcus: Éditions ArtAcatos, 2010. Catalog by Guite Masson, Martin Masson, Catherine Loewer, preface by Bernard Noël, "André Masson" de Dawn Adès, Biographie d'André Masson by Camille Morando. André Masson. Published on the intiative of Robert Desnos and Armand Salacrou in 1940; each copy initialed by André Masson. Text by Jean-Louis Barrault, Georges Bataille, André Breton, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Armel Guerne, Pierre Jean Jouve, Madeleine Landsberg, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Benjamin Péret. Reprinted 1993 by Éditions André Dimanche, in Marseille. Dawn Ades. André Masson. Collection Les grands maîtres de l’art contemporain. Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, 1994.. André Breton. Le Surréalisme et la Peinture. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1965. Jean-Claude Clébert, Mythologie d'André Masson.
Genève: Éditions Pierre Cailler, 1971. Daniel Guérin. Eux et Lui. suivi de commentaires, ornés de cinq dessins originaux d’André Masson. Lille: 2000. Armel Guerne. André Masson ou. 2007. Hubert Juin. André Masson. Paris: Le musée de poche, 1963. Jean-Clarence Lambert. André Masson. Paris: Éditions Filipacchi, 1979. Françoise Levaillant. Massacre de signes. Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 1995. Georges Limbour et Michel Leiris André Masson et son univers. Lausanne: Les Trois collines, 1947. Georges Limbour André Masson, dessins. Collection "Plastique". Paris: Éditions Braun, 1951. André Masson. Entretiens avec Georges Charbonnier, préface de Georges Limbour. Paris: Julliard, 1958. Reprinted 1995 by éditions André Dimanche, Marseille. André Masson. La Mémoire du monde. Geneva: Skira, 1974. André Masson. Le Vagabond du surréalisme.. Paris: Éditions Saint-Germain-des-Près, 1975. André Masson. Le Rebelle du Surréalisme. Paris: Éditions Hermann, 1976.. Reprinted 1994. André Masson. Les Années surréalistes. Correspondance 1916–1942. Lyon: La Manufacture, 1990..
André Masson. "Dissonances". In An Anthology from X. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. "X magazine", Vol. I, No. III Florence de Mèredieu. André Masson, les dessins automatiques. Blusson, 1988. Stephan Moebius. Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Constance:, 2006. Bernard Noël. André Masson, la chair du regard. Collection l'art et l'écrivain. Paris: Gallimard, 1993. René Passeron. André Masson et les puissances de signe. Denoël 1975. José Pierre," L’Aventure Surréaliste autour d’André Breton ", Paris, éd. Filipacchi, 1986. Clark V. Poling. André Masson and the Surrealist Self. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008. Michel Surya. Georges Bataille, la mort à l'œuvre. Paris: Gallimard, 1992. Françoise Will-Levaillant. André Masson, période asiatique 1950–1959. Paris: Galerie de Seine, 1972. Buchholz and Klaus Wolbert. André Mass
Exquisite corpse known as exquisite cadaver, is a method by which a collection of words or images is collectively assembled. Each collaborator adds to a composition in sequence, either by following a rule or by being allowed to see only the end of what the previous person contributed; this technique was invented by surrealists and is similar to an old parlour game called Consequences in which players write in turn on a sheet of paper, fold it to conceal part of the writing, pass it to the next player for a further contribution. Surrealism principal founder André Breton reported that it started in fun, but became playful and enriching. Breton said the diversion started about 1925, but Pierre Reverdy wrote that it started much earlier, at least as early as 1918; the name is derived from a phrase that resulted when Surrealists first played the game, "Le cadavre exquis boira le vin nouveau." André Breton writes that the game developed at the residence of friends in an old house of Montparnasse at 54 rue du Château.
These artists started the movement Yves Tanguy, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Benjamin Péret, Pierre Reverdy, André Breton. Other participants included Max Morise, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Simone Collinet, Tristan Tzara, Georges Hugnet, René Char, Paul and Nusch Éluard. Henry Miller partook of the game to pass time in French cafés during the 1930s. In a variant now known as picture consequences, instead of sentences, portions of a person were drawn; the game was adapted to drawing and collage, producing a result similar to children's books in which the pages were cut into thirds, the top third pages showing the head of a person or animal, the middle third the torso, the bottom third the legs, with children having the ability to "mix and match" by turning pages. In the context of parties, it can be run as a circle game in which a group of people cooperatively draw a person, taking about 20 minutes to play. An image of a person is drawn in portions, with the paper folded after each portion so that participants cannot see earlier portions.
It has been recommended for use as a tool for teaching about tattoos. Picture consequences can be used to encourage a class to work together; the game is recommended as a "rainy day" game. The point of the game is the surprise reveal for simple fun; the person can be drawn in four steps: the torso, the legs and the feet. As a last step, a player may label the drawing, still unseen, with someone's name; the name "picture consequences" is sometimes used to describe Telephone Pictionary, a game in which players alternate writing descriptions and matching illustrations based on the previous step. The cut-up technique of William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin was influenced by Surrealism. Exquisite Corpse is the name of a literary magazine founded in 1983 published by Andrei Codrescu. Naked Came the Manatee is a mystery thriller parody novel; each of its thirteen chapters was written, in sequence, by a different Florida writer, beginning with Dave Barry and ending with Carl Hiaasen. Exquisite Fruit is a variant conceived by members of the National Puzzlers' League in which a round of trivia questions are sequentially written by players, given an answer provided by each player at the start, the resulting question posed to another player at the end.
The Narrative Corpse is a comic book chain-story by 69 all-star cartoonists co-edited by Art Spiegelman and R. Sikoryak; the Breaking Boredom Project in graphic design, Cairo The Exquisite Corpse Adventure, commissioned by the Library of Congress, uses well-known children's authors and illustrators Apichatpong Weerasethakul's 2000 film Mysterious Object at Noon uses this technique with a mixture of documentary and fictional film. The Exquisite Corpse Project is a 2012 feature-length comedy film written using the exquisite corpse technique. A Rick and Morty 2017 trailer for season 3 is titled "Exquisite Corpse" and features a multiple minute long sequence to the song "Thursday in the Danger Room" from the album Run the Jewels 3 by Run the Jewels. Exquisite Corps and And So Say All of Us are choreographic versions by filmmaker Mitchell Rose; the band Bauhaus have a track titled "Exquisite Corpse" on their third studio album, which appears to have been created in this collaborative surrealist style.
A song in the musical Hedwig and the Angry Inch is entitled "Exquisite Corpse". The musician Daedelus named his album Exquisite Corpse; the band Warpaint named their debut EP Exquisite Corpse because of their collaborative songwriting style. George Watsky's 2016 album, x Infinity, features a song titled "Exquisite Corpse" using this technique featuring verses by several artists. In...and we died, players use word fragment tarot cards to form words to tell the story of their collective deaths. Photoshop tennis Comic jam Round-robin story Media related to Cadavre exquis at Wikimedia Commons Exquisite Corpse, a collaborative digital illustration by artists James apRoberts and Brian Christopher
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, anthropology, economics and history of art. His writing, which included essays and poetry, explored such subjects as erotism, mysticism and transgression, his work would prove influential on subsequent schools of philosophy and social theory, including poststructuralism. Georges Bataille was the son of Joseph-Aristide Bataille, a tax collector, Antoinette-Aglaë Tournarde. Born on 10 September 1897 in Billom in the region of Auvergne, his family moved to Reims in 1898, where he was baptized, he went to school in Reims and Épernay. Although brought up without religious observance, he converted to Catholicism in 1914, became a devout Catholic for about nine years, he attended a Catholic seminary briefly. However, he quit in part in order to pursue an occupation where he could support his mother, he renounced Christianity in the early 1920s. Bataille attended the École Nationale des Chartes in Paris, graduating in February 1922.
Though he is referred to as an archivist and a librarian because of his employment at the Bibliothèque Nationale, his work there was with the medallion collections. His thesis at the École des Chartes was a critical edition of the medieval manuscript L’Ordre de chevalerie which he produced directly by classifying the eight manuscripts from which he reconstructed the poem. After graduating he moved to the School of Advanced Spanish Studies in Madrid; as a young man, he befriended, was much influenced by, the Russian existentialist, Lev Shestov. Founder of several journals and literary groups, Bataille is the author of a large and diverse body of work: readings, essays on innumerable subjects, he sometimes published under pseudonyms, some of his publications were banned. He was ignored during his lifetime and scorned by contemporaries such as Jean-Paul Sartre as an advocate of mysticism, but after his death had considerable influence on authors such as Michel Foucault, Philippe Sollers, Jacques Derrida, all of whom were affiliated with the journal Tel Quel.
His influence is felt most explicitly in the phenomenological work of Jean-Luc Nancy, but is significant for the work of Jean Baudrillard, the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan and Julia Kristeva, recent anthropological work from the likes of Michael Taussig. Attracted to Surrealism, Bataille fell out with its founder André Breton, although Bataille and the Surrealists resumed cautiously cordial relations after World War II. Bataille was a member of the influential College of Sociology which included several other renegade surrealists, he was influenced by Hegel, Marx, Marcel Mauss, the Marquis de Sade, Alexandre Kojève, Friedrich Nietzsche, the last of whom he defended in a notable essay against appropriation by the Nazis. Fascinated by human sacrifice, he founded a secret society, Acéphale, the symbol of, a headless man. According to legend and the other members of Acéphale each agreed to be the sacrificial victim as an inauguration. An indemnity was offered for an executioner, but none was found before the dissolution of Acéphale shortly before the war.
The group published an eponymous review of Nietzsche's philosophy which attempted to postulate what Derrida has called an "anti-sovereignty". Collaborators in these projects included André Masson, Pierre Klossowski, Roger Caillois, Jules Monnerot, Jean Rollin and Jean Wahl. Bataille used various modes of discourse to create his work, his novel Story of the Eye, published under the pseudonym Lord Auch, was read as pure pornography, while interpretation of the work has matured to reveal the same considerable philosophical and emotional depth, characteristic of other writers who have been categorized within "literature of transgression". The imagery of the novel is built upon a series of metaphors which in turn refer to philosophical constructs developed in his work: the eye, the egg, the sun, the earth, the testicle. Other famous novels include the posthumously published My Mother, The Impossible and Blue of Noon, with its incest, necrophilia and autobiographical undertones, is a much darker treatment of contemporary historical reality.
During World War II Bataille produced Summa Atheologica which comprises his works Inner Experience, On Nietzsche. After the war he composed The Accursed Share, which he said represented thirty years' work; the singular conception of "sovereignty" expounded there would become an important topic of discussion for Derrida, Giorgio Agamben, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. Bataille founded the influential journal Critique. Bataille's first marriage was to actress Silvia Maklès, in 1928. Bataille had an affair with Colette Peignot, who died in 1938. In 1946 Bataille married Diane de Beauharnais. In 1955 Bataille was diagnosed with cerebral arteriosclerosis, although he was not informed at the time of the t
VVV was a magazine devoted to the dissemination of Surrealism published in New York City from 1942 through 1944. It was the product of leading Surrealists. VVV was first published in June 1942; the magazine was published and edited by David Hare in collaboration with Marcel Duchamp, André Breton, Max Ernst. VVV's editorial board enlisted a number of associated thinkers and artists, including Aimé Césaire, Philip Lamantia, Robert Motherwell; each edition focused on "poetry, plastic arts, sociology, psychology," and was lavishly illustrated by Surrealist artists, including Giorgio de Chirico, Roberto Matta and Yves Tanguy. The magazine was experimental in format, as well as, in content. VVV included fold-out pages, sheets of different sizes and paper stock, bold typography and color; the second magazine featured a "readymade" by Duchamp as the back cover, a cutout female figure "imprisoned" by a piece of actual chicken wire. Only four issues of VVV were published; the last one was published in February 1944.
However, it provided an outlet for European Surrealist artists, who were displaced from their home countries by World War II, to communicate with American artists. Acéphale, a review created by Georges Bataille, published from 1936 to 1939 Dyn, a review created by Wolfgang Paalen, published from 1942 to 1944 in Mexico Documents, a journal edited by Bataille from 1929 to 1930 Minotaure, a publication founded by Albert Skira, published in Paris from 1933 to 1939 La Révolution surréaliste, a publication founded by Breton, published in Paris from 1924 to 1929 View, an American avant-garde art magazine, published from 1940 to 1947 "Documents of Dada and Surrealism: Dada and Surrealist Journals in the Mary Reynolds Collection"
Man Ray was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal, he considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Man Ray is noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself. During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public, he refused to acknowledge that he had a name other than Man Ray. Man Ray's birth name was Emmanuel Radnitzky in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US, in 1890, he was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants Max, a tailor, Minnie Radnitzky. He had a brother and two sisters and Essie, the youngest born in 1897 shortly after they settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray.
Man Ray's brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and antisemitism prevalent at the time. Emmanuel, called "Manny" as a nickname, changed his first name to Man and began to use Man Ray as his name. Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home, he enlisted his children to assist him from an early age. Man Ray's mother enjoyed designing the family's clothes and inventing patchwork items from scraps of fabric. Man Ray wished to disassociate himself from his family background, but their tailoring left an enduring mark on his art. Mannequins, flat irons, sewing machines, pins, swatches of fabric, other items related to tailoring appear in every medium of his work. Art historians have noted similarities between Ray's collage and painting techniques and styles used for tailoring. Mason Klein, curator of a Man Ray exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York, Alias Man Ray: The Art of Reinvention, suggests that the artist may have been "the first Jewish avant-garde artist."Man Ray was the uncle of the photographer Naomi Savage, who learned some of his techniques and incorporated them into her own work.
Man Ray displayed mechanical abilities during childhood. His education at Brooklyn's Boys' High School from 1904 to 1909 provided him with solid grounding in drafting and other basic art techniques. While he attended school, he educated himself with frequent visits to the local art museums, where he studied the works of the Old Masters. After his graduation, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture but chose to pursue a career as an artist. Man Ray's parents were disappointed by their son's decision to pursue art, but they agreed to rearrange the family's modest living quarters so that Ray's room could be his studio; the artist remained in the family home over the next four years. During this time, he worked towards becoming a professional painter. Man Ray earned money as a commercial artist and was a technical illustrator at several Manhattan companies; the surviving examples of his work from this period indicate that he attempted paintings and drawings in 19th-century styles. He was an avid admirer of contemporary avant-garde art, such as the European modernists he saw at Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery and works by the Ashcan School.
However, with a few exceptions, he was not yet able to integrate these trends into his own work. The art classes he sporadically attended, including stints at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League, were of little apparent benefit to him; when he enrolled in the Ferrer School in the autumn of 1912, he began a period of intense and rapid artistic development. While living in New York City, Man Ray was visually influenced by the 1913 Armory Show and galleries of European contemporary works, his early paintings display facets of cubism. After befriending Marcel Duchamp, interested in showing movement in static paintings, his works began to depict movement of the figures. An example is the repetitive positions of the dancer's skirts in The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows. In 1915, Man Ray had his first solo show of paintings and drawings after he had taken up residence at an art colony in Grantwood, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from New York City, his first proto-Dada object, an assemblage titled Self-Portrait, was exhibited the following year.
He produced his first significant photographs in 1918. Man Ray abandoned conventional painting to involve himself with a radical anti-art movement, he published two Dadaist periodicals, that each only had one issue, The Ridgefield Gazook and TNT, the latter co-edited by Adolph Wolff and Mitchell Dawson. He developed unique mechanical and photographic methods of making images. For the 1918 version of Rope Dancer, he combined a spray-gun technique with a pen drawing. Like Duchamp, he did readymades -- ordinary objects that are modified, his Gift readymade is a flatiron with metal tacks attached to the bottom, Enigma of Isidore Ducasse is an unseen object wrapped in cloth and tied with cord. Aerograph, another work from this period, was done with airbrush on glass. In 1920, Man Ray helped Duchamp make the Rotary Glass Plates, one of the earliest examples of kinetic art, it was composed of glass plates turned by a motor. That same year, Man Ray, Katherine Dreier, Duchamp founded the Société Anonyme, an itinerant collection, the first museum of modern art in the U.
S. In 1941 the collection was donated to Yale University Art Gallery. Man Ray teamed up with Duchamp
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea