Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Hassan I Airport
Hassan I Airport is an airport serving El Aaiún, the capital city of Western Sahara. The airport is named for Hassan I of Morocco, it is operated by the Moroccan state-owned company ONDA. Due to the particular political situation of Western Sahara, this airport appears in the Moroccan AIP as GMML and in the Spanish AIP as GSAI. Legal status of Western Sahara Current weather for GMML at NOAA/NWS Accident history for Laayoune-Hassan I Airport at Aviation Safety Network
Las Palmas Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital, the most populous city in the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, the ninth-largest city in Spain with a population of 383,308 in 2010, it is the fifth-most populous urban area in Spain and ninth- or tenth-most populous metropolitan area in Spain. Las Palmas is located in the northeastern part of the island of Gran Canaria, about 150 km off the Moroccan coast in the Atlantic Ocean. Las Palmas experiences a hot desert climate, offset by the local cooler Canary Current, with warm temperatures throughout the year, it has an average annual temperature of 21.2 °C. According to a study carried out by Thomas Whitmore, director of research on climatology at Syracuse University in the U. S. Las Palmas enjoys "the best climate in the world"; the city was founded in 1478, considered the de facto capital of the Canary Islands until the seventeenth century.
It is the home of the Canarian Ministry of Presidency, as well as half of the ministries and boards of the Canarian government, the High Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. The city was founded by Juan Rejón on 24 June 1478, with the name "Real de Las Palmas". Rejón was head of the invading Castilian army, which engaged in war with the locals. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the port of Las Palmas and spent some time on the island on his first trip to the Americas, he stopped there on the way back to Spain. The Colón House museum in the Vegueta area of the city is named after him. In 1595, Francis Drake tried to plunder the town, leading to the Battle of Las Palmas. A Dutch raid under vice-admiral Pieter van der Does in 1599 was only more successful. Las Palmas' seaport, Puerto de la Luz, benefited from the closure of the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Many foreign workers migrated to the city at this time. Las Palmas is a sister city of San Antonio, Texas, in the United States, founded in 1718 by about 25 Canary Islanders.
Las Palmas is divided into five administrative districts, which in turn are subdivided into districts, not consistent with the traditional neighborhoods. Las Palmas has a desert climate with warm dry summers and warm enough winters to classify it as a Tropical climate, its average annual temperature is 21.2 °C –28 °C during the day and 18 °C at night. In January, the coldest month, the temperature ranges from 19 to 23 °C during the day, around 15 to 16 °C at night, with an average sea temperature at 20 °C. In the warmest months — August and September — the temperature ranges from 27 to 30 °C during the day, above 21 °C at night, with the average sea temperature at 23 °C. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. August 1990 was the warmest month on record, with the average maximum temperature of the month during the day being 30.6 °C. The highest temperature recorded was 44.2 °C, the coldest temperature recorded was 9.4 °C. The highest wind speed recorded was on 28 November 2005, measuring 113 km/h.
Las Palmas city has never recorded any snow or sleet. Annual average relative humidity is 66%, ranging from 64% in March to 69% in October; the amount of annual sunshine hours is above 2,800 per year, from around 190 in winter to around 300 in summer. It rains on average only 22 days a year, with total precipitation per year of only 151 mm; as of 2008, nearly half of Gran Canaria's inhabitants live in Las Palmas, as well as 18.35% of the Canary Islands' total population. According to a study by the National Statistics Institute of Spain Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has a life expectancy of 80.9 years. Throughout history, Las Palmas received waves of immigrants from mainland Spain and countries from every continent; the majority of the population is Spanish, although large North- and sub-Saharan African and Latin American communities exist, as well as important historical minorities such as Indians and Koreans and a growing Chinese population. Ethnically, most autochthonous Canarians are descendants of a mixture of aboriginal people of the Canary Islands, the Spanish conquistadores and European colonizers.
Las Palmas is home to University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria with about 25,000 students. The city has a wide variety of state and public primary and secondary schools. International schools include: Deutsche Schule Las Palmas The British School of Gran Canaria The American School of Las Palmas Lycée Français René-Verneau, the French international school, is in the city limits of Telde Colegio Japonés de Las Palmas, a Japanese international school, was located within Tafira Alta in the city; the Escuela Complementaria Japonesa de Las Palmas provided a weekend supplementary Japanese programme. Las Palmas offers a variety of theater, opera, visual arts and dance performances; the city hosts the Canary Islands Music Festival, the Theatre and Dance and the International Film Festi
Spanish Sahara the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1975. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Philippines and East Asia. Spain gave up its Saharan possession following Moroccan demands and international pressure from United Nations resolutions regarding decolonisation. There was internal pressure from the native Sahrawi population, through the Polisario Front, the claims of Morocco and Mauritania. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco laid claim to the territory as part of its historic pre-colonial territory. Mauritania claimed the territory for a number of years based on its history, but dropped all claims in 1979. In 1975, Morocco occupied much of the territory, now known as Western Sahara, but the Polisario Front, promoting the sovereignty of an independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, fought a guerrilla war for 16 years against Morocco.
In 1991, the UN negotiated a ceasefire and has tried to arrange negotiations and a referendum to let the population vote on its future. Morocco controls the entire Atlantic coast and most of the landmass and natural resources of Western Sahara. At the Berlin Conference, the European powers were establishing the rules for setting up zones of influence or protection in Africa, Spain declared'a protectorate of the African coast' from Cape Blanc to Cape Bojador on 26 December 1884, it informed the other powers in writing on 14 January 1885. It began establishing a military presence. In July 1885, King Alfonso XII appointed Emilio Bonelli commissioner of the Río de Oro with civil and military authority. On 6 April 1887, the area was incorporated into the Captaincy General of the Canary Islands for military purposes. In the summer of 1886, under the sponsorship of the Spanish Society of Commercial Geography, Julio Cervera Baviera, Felipe Rizzo and Francisco Quiroga traversed the territory, called Río de Oro, made topographical and astronomical observations.
At the time, geographers had not mapped the territory and its features were not known. Their trek is considered the first scientific expedition in that part of the Sahara. On entering the territory in 1884, Spanish forces were challenged by stiff resistance from the indigenous Sahrawi tribes, Saharan Arabs who lived in many oases and coastal villages; the indigenous people worked in fishing and camel herding, speak the Hassaniya language, a Bedouin Arabic dialect. A rebellion in 1904 was led by the powerful Smara-based marabout, Shaykh Ma al-'Aynayn, was put down by France in 1910, which ruled neighbouring Algeria; this was followed by a wave of uprisings under Ma al-Aynayn's sons and other political leaders. There is some dispute and ambiguity about whether the territory was under Moroccan royal sovereignty at the time when the Spanish claimed it in 1884. In 1886, Spain signed the Treaty of Idjil, by which the Emirate of Adrar ceded the land of the colony to Spain; this treaty was of no legal value, since the Emir had no claim to the territory, but since Morocco had no claim either, the Spanish'invented' a claim which the Emir could, with no harm to himself cede.
The borders of the territory were not defined until treaties between Spain and France in the early 20th century. Spanish Sahara was created from the Spanish territories of Río de Oro and Saguia el-Hamra in 1924, it was not part of the areas was administered separately. Given such tribal uprisings, Spain found it difficult to control parts of the territory's large hinterland until 1934. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco laid claim to Spanish Sahara as part of its historic pre-colonial territory. In 1957, the Moroccan Army of Liberation nearly occupied the small territory of Ifni, north of Spanish Sahara, during the Ifni War; the Spanish repelled the attacks. With the assistance of the French, Spain soon re-established control in the area through Operaciones Teide-Ecoubillon, it tried to suppress resistance politically. It forced some of the nomadic inhabitants of Spanish Sahara to settle in certain areas, the rate of urbanisation was increased. In 1958, Spain united the territories of Saguia el Hamra and Río de Oro to form the overseas province of Spanish Sahara, while ceding the province of the Cape Juby Strip in the same year to Morocco.
In the 1960s, Morocco continued to claim Spanish Sahara. It gained agreement by the United Nations to add the territory to the list of territories to be decolonised. In 1969, Spain continued to retain Spanish Sahara. In 1967, Spanish rule was challenged by the Harakat Tahrir, a protest movement secretly organised by the Royal Moroccan Government. Spain suppressed the 1970 Zemla Intifada. In 1973, the Polisario Front was formed in a revival of militant Sahrawi nationalism; the Front's guerrilla army grew and Spain lost effective control over most of the territory by early 1975. Its effort to found a political rival, the Partido de Unión Nacional Saharaui, met with little success. Spain proceeded to co-opt tribal leaders by setting up the Djema'a, a political institution loosely based on traditional Sahrawi tribal leaders; the Djema'a members were hand-picked by the authorities, but given privileges in
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra is one of the twelve regions of Morocco. It is located in the disputed territory of Western Sahara: the western part of the region is administered by Morocco and the eastern part by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; the region as claimed by Morocco covers an area of 140,018 square kilometres and had a population of 367,758 as of the 2014 Moroccan census. The capital of the region is Laâyoune. Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra borders the region of Guelmim-Oued Noun to the north and Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab to the south, it shares its eastern border with Mauritania's Tiris Zemmour Region, to its west is the Atlantic Ocean. The towns of Tarfaya, El Marsa and Boujdour are located on the Atlantic coast, the Canary Islands are located offshore; the regional capital Laâyoune is located inland near El Marsa, the region's second-largest town Smara is located near its geographic centre. The Moroccan Wall runs through the region and the area to its east is under the control of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra was formed in September 2015 by attaching Es-Semara Province part of Guelmim-Es Semara region, to the former region of Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra. The first president of the regional council, Hamdi Ould Errachid, was elected on 14 September 2015, he is a member of the Istiqlal Party and headed the council of the former Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra region. His uncle of the same name is the mayor of Laayoune. Yahdih Bouchab was appointed governor of the region on 13 October 2015. Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra consists of four provinces: Boujdour Province Es-Semara Province Laâyoune Province Tarfaya Province
Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and occupied by neighboring Morocco. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres, it is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied by Spain until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand, it is the most populous territory on that list, by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, asking Spain to decolonize the territory. One year a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held by Spain on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the administrative control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco and Mauritania.
A war erupted between those countries and a Sahrawi nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Mauritania withdrew its claims in 1979, Morocco secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the Sahrawis have a right to self-determination. Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two thirds of the territory has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria. Internationally, countries such as Russia have taken a ambiguous and neutral position on each side's claims, have pressed both parties to agree on a peaceful resolution. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition from African and Latin American states in the developing world.
The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 46 states, was extended membership in the African Union. Morocco has won support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Muslim world and Arab League. In both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends; as of 2017, no other member state of the United Nations has officially recognized Moroccan sovereignty over parts of Western Sahara. However, a number of countries have expressed their support for a future recognition of the Moroccan annexation of the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom. Overall, the annexation has not garnered as much attention in the international community as many other disputed annexations. Western Sahara is located on the northwest coast in West Africa and on the cusp of North Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the northwest, Morocco proper to the north-northeast, Algeria to the east-northeast, Mauritania to the east and south.
The land is some of the most inhospitable on the planet. The land along the coast is low flat desert and rises in the north, to small mountains reaching up to 600 metres on the eastern side. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams. At times a cool off-shore current can produce heavy dew; the interior experiences extreme summer heat with average highs reaching as high as 43–45 °C in July and in August. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli. Depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribes. Berber heritage is still evident from regional and place-name toponymy, as well as from tribal names. Other early inhabitants of Western Sahara may be the Bafour and the Serer; the Bafour were replaced or absorbed by Berber-speaking populations which merged in turn with the migrating Beni Ḥassān Arab tribes. The arrival of Islam in the 8th century played a major role in the development of the Maghreb region.
Trade developed further, the territory may have been one of the routes for caravans between Marrakesh and Tombouctou in Mali. In the 11th century, the Maqil Arabs settled in Morocco. Towards the end of the Almohad Caliphate, the Beni Hassan, a sub-tribe of the Maqil, were called by the local ruler of the Sous to quell a rebellion. During Marinid dynasty rule, the Beni Hassan rebelled but were defeated by the Sultan and escaped beyond the Saguia el-Hamra dry river; the Beni Hassan were at constant war with the Lamtuna nomadic Berbers of the Sahara. Over
Laâyoune is a delineated province in the north-west of Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, situated within the northern part of the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Its population in 2004 was 210,023. In today's limits of the province the population was 199,603, its main town is Laayoune. The province is divided administratively into the following: Since 2009, the following communes have been separated into the Tarfaya Province: The municipality of Tarfaya, the rural communes of El Hagounia, Akhfenir and Tah