The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, is a recognized de facto sovereign state that claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, but controls only the easternmost one-fifth of that territory. In the years from 1923 to 1976, Western Sahara was known as a Spanish colony; the SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976, in Western Sahara. The SADR government controls about 20–25% of the territory it claims, it calls the territories under the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory, calls these lands its Southern Provinces; the SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory to be occupied territory, while Morocco considers the much smaller SADR-held territory to be a buffer zone. The claimed capital of the SADR is former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, while the temporary capital moved from Bir Lehlou to Tifariti in 2008; the SADR maintains diplomatic relations with 40 UN states, is a full member of the African Union.
The name Sahrawi derives from the romanization of the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي, meaning "Inhabitant of the Desert". The word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي is derived from the Arabic word Ṣaḥrā', meaning desert itself. Following the Spanish evacuation, consequence of the Moroccan Green March, Spain and Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords on November 14, 1975, six days before Franco passed away, leading to both Morocco and Mauritania moving in to annex the territory of Western Sahara. On 26 February 1976, Spain informed the United Nations that as of that date it had terminated its presence in Western Sahara and relinquished its responsibilities, leaving no Administering Power. Neither Morocco nor Mauritania gained international recognition, war ensued with the independence-seeking Polisario Front; the UN considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the people of Western Sahara have a right to "self-determination and independence". The creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed on February 27, 1976, as the Polisario declared the need for a new entity to fill what they considered a political void left by the departing Spanish colonizers.
While the claimed capital is the former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, the proclamation was made in the government-in-exile's provisional capital, Bir Lehlou, which remained in Polisario-held territory under the 1991 ceasefire. On February 27, 2008, the provisional capital was formally moved to Tifariti. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf Province, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community. A new 1999 Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic took a form similar to the parliamentary constitutions of many European states, but with some paragraphs suspended until the achievement of "full independence". Among key points, the head of state is constitutionally the Secretary General of the Polisario Front during what is referred to as the "pre-independence phase", with provision in the constitution that on independence, Polisario is supposed to be dismantled or separated from the government structure. Provisions are detailed for a transitory phase beginning with independence, in which the present SADR is supposed to act as Western Sahara's government, ending with a constitutional reform and eventual establishment of a state along the lines specified in the constitution.
The broad guidelines laid down in the constitution for an eventual Western Saharan state include eventual multi-party democracy with a market economy. The constitution defines Sahrawis as a Muslim and Arab people; the Constitution declares a commitment to the principles of human rights and to the concept of a Greater Maghreb, as a regional variant of Pan-Arabism. Since August 1982, the highest office of the republic has been the President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a post held by the secretary-general of the Polisario Front, presently Brahim Ghali, who appoints the Prime Minister, presently Mohamed Wali Akeik; the SADR's government structure consists of a Council of Ministers, a judicial branch and the parliamentary Sahrawi National Council. Since its inception in 1976, the various constitutional revisions have transformed the republic from an ad hoc managerial structure into something approaching an actual governing apparatus. From the late 1980s the parliament began to take steps to institute a division of powers and to disentangle the republic's structures from those of the Polisario Front, although without clear effect to date.
Its various ministries are responsible for a variety of functions. The judiciary, complete with trial courts, appeals courts and a supreme court, operates in the same areas; as a government-in-exile, many branches of government do not function, has affected the constitutional roles of the institutions. Institutions parallel to government structures have arisen within the Polisario Front, fused with the SADR's governing apparatus, with operational competences overlapping between these party and governmental institutions and offices. A 2012 report mentioned the existence of the Sahrawi Bar Association. In 2016, the bar association (going by
Energean Oil & Gas is an international oil and gas exploration and production company. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the company was established as Aegean Energy SA, a Greek-owned business, in 2007. It started operations when it acquired Eurotech Services SA from Regal Petroleum in December 2007, it developed sites in the north Aegean Sea. It was the subject of an initial public offering in March 2018; the company is developing Karish offshore natural gas fields. Production will be carried out using an FPSO vessel connected by a submarine pipeline to the Israeli domestic natural gas distribution grid; the production infrastructure will be able to handle up to 8 billion cubic metres per year should additional gas finds be located in nearby exploration prospects owned by Energean. Official site
In 2006, the internet company AOL released a large amount of user search requests to the public. AOL did not identify users in the report, but identifiable information was present in many of the queries; this allowed some users to be identified by their search queries, prominently a woman named Thelma Arnold. On August 4, 2006, AOL Research, headed by Dr. Abdur Chowdhury, released a compressed text file on one of its websites containing twenty million search keywords for over 650,000 users over a 3-month period intended for research purposes. AOL deleted the search data on their site by August 7, but not before it had been mirrored and distributed on the Internet. AOL did not identify users in the report; as the queries were attributed by AOL to particular user numerically identified accounts, an individual could be identified and matched to their account and search history by such information. The New York Times was able to locate an individual from the released and anonymized search records by cross referencing them with phonebook listings.
The ethical implications of using this data for research are under debate. AOL removed the data; the data can still be downloaded from mirror sites. In January 2007, Business 2.0 Magazine on CNNMoney ranked the release of the search data #57 in a segment called "101 Dumbest Moments in Business." In September 2006, a class action lawsuit was filed against AOL in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California; the lawsuit accuses AOL of violating the Electronic Communications Privacy Act and of fraudulent and deceptive business practices, among other claims, seeks at least $5,000 for every person whose search data was exposed. Although the searchers were only identified by a numeric ID, some people's search results have become notable for various reasons. Through clues revealed in the search queries, The New York Times uncovered the identities of several searchers. With her permission, they exposed user #4417749 as Thelma Arnold, a 62-year-old widow from Lilburn, Georgia; this privacy breach was reported, led to the resignation of AOL's CTO, Maureen Govern, on August 21, 2006.
The media quoted an insider as saying that two employees had been fired: the researcher who released the data, his immediate supervisor, who reported to Govern. One product of the AOL scandal was the proliferation of blog entries examining the exposed data. Certain users' search logs were identified as disturbing, or dangerous. Consumer watchdog website The Consumerist posted a blog entry by editor Ben Popken identifying the anonymous user number 927 as having an bizarre and macabre search history, with some search terms relating to child pornography and zoophilia; the blog posting has since been viewed nearly 4,000 times and referenced on a number of other high-profile sites. In addition to sparking the interest of the Internet community, User 927 inspired a theatrical production, written by Katharine Clark Gray in Philadelphia; the play named User 927, has since been cited on several of the same blogs that discovered the real user's existence. As time has passed, more artistic renderings of individual user logs have appeared.
A series of movies on the web site Minimovies called I Love Alaska puts voice and imagery to User 711391 which the authors have labeled as "an episodic documentary". Netflix Prize https://web.archive.org/web/20061019192507/http://www.aolstalker.com/ – Search keywords and users. Tag users and search tags features funniest users list. Http://search-id.com/ – Analysis and discussion of leaked AOL search data