The labia majora are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum. Together with the labia minora they form the labia of the vulva; the labia majora are homologous to the male scrotum. Labia majora is the Latin plural for big lips; the Latin term labium/labia is used in anatomy for a number of paired parallel structures, but in English it is applied to two pairs of parts of female external genitals —labia majora and labia minora. Labia majora are known as the outer lips, while labia minora, which run alongside between them, are referred to as the inner lips. Traditionally, to avoid confusion with other lip-like structures of the body, the labia of female genitals were termed by anatomists in Latin as labia majora pudendi. Embryologically, they develop from labioscrotal folds, it means that they develop in the female foetus from the same sexually undifferentiated anatomical structure as the scrotum, the sac of skin below the penis in males.
The same process of sex differentiation concerns other male and female reproductive organs, with some organs of both sexes developing similar, yet not identical and functions. But other male and female sex organs become different and unique, like the internal female genitalia; the scrotum and labia majora develop to have crucial differences. Like the scrotum, labia majora after puberty may become of a darker color than the skin outside them, also grow pubic hair on their external surface. But, during sexual differentiation of the foetus, labioscrotal folds in the males fuse longitudinally in the middle, forming a sack for male gonads to descend into it from the pelvis, while in the females these folds do not fuse, forming the two labia majora and the pudendal cleft between them. Female gonads do not descend from the pelvis, thus the structure of labia majora may seem simpler and of lesser significance for functioning of the female body as a whole than the scrotum with testicles for males; the ridge or groove remaining of the fusion can be traced on the scrotum.
In some cases of intersex with disorders of sex development male/female genitalia may look ambiguous for either gender with phallus too small for a typical penis yet too big for a clitoris, with external urethral opening in an atypical location, with labia/scrotum or fused but without descended gonads in them. Undescended testicles, may occur in otherwise healthy male infants; the labia majora constitute the lateral boundaries of the pudendal cleft, which contains the labia minora, interlabial sulci, clitoral hood, clitoral glans, frenulum clitoridis, the Hart's Line, the vulval vestibule, which contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina. Each labium majus has two surfaces, an outer and covered with strong, pubic hair; the labia majora are covered with squamous epithelium. Between the two there is a considerable quantity of areolar tissue, a tissue resembling the dartos tunic of the scrotum, besides vessels and glands; the labia majora are thicker in front, form the anterior labial commissure where they meet below the mons pubis.
Posteriorly, they are not joined, but appear to become lost in the neighboring integument, ending close to, nearly parallel to, each other. Together with the connecting skin between them, they form another commissure the posterior labial commissure, the posterior boundary of the pudendum; the interval between the posterior commissure and the anus, from 2.5 to 3 cm in length, constitutes the perineum. The anterior region of the perineum is known as the urogenital triangle which separates it from the anal region. Between the labia majora and the inner thighs are the labiocrural folds. Between the labia majora and labia minora are the interlabial sulci. Labia majora atrophy after menopause; the fat pad of the labia majora can be used as a graft as a so-called "Martius labial fat pad graft", can be used, for example, in urethrolysis. Femalia Labia Labia minora Labia pride Labia Majora Medical Definition
Freeman Junction, a ghost town in Kern County, California, USA, was first homesteaded in the 1920s by Clare C. Miley, born in 1900. By the 1930s a restaurant, gas station and mining activities dominated the site. By June 1976 the town had died and the remains of the town have been removed by passersby. Bedrock mortars near the original spring suggest that this area was used as a campsite by Native Americans. In 1834 explorer Joseph R. Walker passed this junction of Indian trails after crossing the Sierra Nevada via Walker Pass. In the winter of 1849–50, forty-niner parties, en route to the California gold fields, passed through here after escaping from Death Valley. In 1873 or early 1874, Freeman S. Raymond, an original forty-niner, bought or built a stagecoach station here, at the junction of the Walker Pass road and the road to Los Angeles. Both roads carried traffic to and from the mines in the area; the Walker Pass road led to the Kern River mines, while the Los Angeles road continued further north and east to the mines at Cerro Gordo, the Panamints, Darwin and Bodie, California.
On February 25, 1874, Tiburcio Vasquez and his associates robbed several freight wagon crews at Raymond's station. They had scouted the location from a nearby rock formation, now known as Robber's Roost. Vasquez's group ambushed and robbed an arriving stagecoach before making their escape. One of the robbery victims was shot in the leg. Raymond continued operating the stagecoach stop, which after 1889 or 1890 included a post office, until his death in August, 1909; the station burned down a few years later. The Los Angeles Aqueduct now passes through the site. California Historical Landmark #766 is located nearby, beside California 178 within sight of the junction with California 14. List of California Historical Landmarks List of ghost towns in California Edwards, E. I.. Freeman's. Glendale, CA: La Siesta Press. Mitchell, Roger. Southern California SUV Trails: Volume I, the Western Mojave Desert. Oakhurst, CA: Track & Trail Publications. ISBN 0-9707115-6-5. Palazzo, Robert P.. Darwin, California. Lake Grove, OR: Western Places.
Transport express régional is the brand name used by the SNCF, the French national railway company, to denote rail service run by the regional councils of France their organised transport authorities. The network serves twenty French regions; every day, over 800,000 passengers are carried on 5,700 TER-branded trains. TER is an integral part of SNCF Proximités, a branch of the SNCF dealing with urban and regional passenger rail, along with Transilien, Intercités, Chemins de Fer de la Corse and Effia. SNCF established the TER system in 1984 to provide a framework for the management of regional passenger services. Since the end of the 1990s, it has been coordinated with the regional councils, who sign an agreement with SNCF on the designated routes, the number of connections, the fares and the service levels. TER services are subsidised by French taxpayers. On average, 72% of the cost is borne by the State and the regional councils, with the travellers paying only about 28% of the cost; this cost tends to increase over time because the regional councils have expanded the number of services.
The low profitability of the TER system is due to the way that the services are used by the travelling public, with commuter traffic in the morning and evening but significant under-utilisation during the rest of the day. In addition, passenger numbers are not high. TER trains consist of single or multiple-unit diesel, electric or dual-mode rail cars, as well as some Corail carriages used on intercity routes. Seven régions have been experimenting with the transfer of administration of the regional rail network since 1997: Alsace, the Centre-Val de Loire, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes and the Pays-de-la-Loire, since January 1999, Limousin. In 1998, the traffic increased to an average of 4.9% in these seven régions compared with 3.2% in other regions. A few other regions are in turn signing on conventions interimédiaires in order to prepare for the increasing decentralization of the network: in particular, Haute-Normandie in September 1997, Midi-Pyrénées and Burgundy November 1997, Picardy in January 1998, Lorraine in February 1998.
31 March 1994: The publication of the report Régions, SNCF: vers un renouveau du service public by the Haenel commission. 4 February 1995: The law of management and development of territory organized the transfer of responsibility of collective transportation in the interest of administrative regions. 19 December 1996: Signing of the first convention with the region of Rhône-Alpes. Several figures released by the regions: These figures do not take into account infrastructure expenses; the SNCF have designated ten TER services as trains touristiques. They are: The Chemins de fer de Corse: trains operated from Bastia and L'Île-Rousse to Ajaccio The Train des Merveilles: trains operated in the hills of Nice between the metropolis and Tende The Train des Gorges de l'Allier: trains operated between Langeac and Langogne; the Ligne de Saint Gervais – Vallorcine The Ligne de Cerdagne/train jaune: trains operated from Villefranche-de-Conflent and Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg The Autorail Espérance: gastronomical train between Bergerac and Sarlat The Chemin de fer du Blanc-Argent: services between Valençay and Salbris The Train des Alpes: trains operated between Marseille and Briançon and between Gap and Grenoble The Ligne des Hirondelles: between Dole and Saint-Claude The Ligne de la Côte Bleue: suburban services operated from Marseille to Miramas or Avignon TGV via the Blue Coast creeks.
SNCF TER - official website