Labor Zionism

Labor Zionism or socialist Zionism is the left-wing of the Zionist movement. For many years, it was the most significant tendency among Zionist organizations, it saw itself as the Zionist sector of the historic Jewish labor movements of Eastern and Central Europe developing local units in most countries with sizable Jewish populations. Unlike the "political Zionist" tendency founded by Theodor Herzl and advocated by Chaim Weizmann, Labor Zionists did not believe that a Jewish state would be created by appealing to the international community or to a powerful nation such as Britain, Germany or the Ottoman Empire. Rather, Labor Zionists believed that a Jewish state could only be created through the efforts of the Jewish working class settling in the Land of Israel and constructing a state through the creation of a progressive Jewish society with rural kibbutzim and moshavim and an urban Jewish proletariat. Labor Zionism grew in size and influence and eclipsed "political Zionism" by the 1930s both internationally and within the British Mandate of Palestine where Labor Zionists predominated among many of the institutions of the pre-independence Jewish community Yishuv the trade union federation known as the Histadrut.

The Haganah, the largest Zionist paramilitary defense force, was a Labor Zionist institution and was used on occasion against right-wing political opponents or to assist the British Administration in capturing rival Jewish militants. Labor Zionists played a leading role in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and Labor Zionists were predominant among the leadership of the Israeli military for decades after the formation of the state of Israel in 1948. Major theoreticians of the Labor Zionist movement included Moses Hess, Nachman Syrkin, Ber Borochov, Aaron David Gordon and leading figures in the movement included David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, Berl Katznelson. Moses Hess's 1862 work Jerusalem; the Last National Question argued for the Jews to settle in Palestine as a means of settling the national question. Hess proposed a socialist state in which the Jews would become agrarianized through a process of "redemption of the soil" that would transform the Jewish community into a true nation in that Jews would occupy the productive layers of society rather than being an intermediary non-productive merchant class, how he perceived European Jews.

Ber Borochov, continuing from the work of Moses Hess, proposed the creation of a socialist society that would correct the "inverted pyramid" of Jewish society. Borochov believed that Jews were forced out of normal occupations by Gentile hostility and competition, using this dynamic to explain the relative predominance of Jewish professionals, rather than workers. Jewish society, he argued, would not be healthy until the inverted pyramid was righted, a substantial number of Jews became workers and peasants again. This, could only be accomplished by Jews in their own country. Another Zionist thinker, A. D. Gordon, was influenced by the völkisch ideas of European romantic nationalism, proposed establishing a society of Jewish peasants. Gordon made a religion of work; these two figures, others like them, motivated the establishment of the first Jewish collective settlement, or kibbutz, Degania, on the southern shore of the Sea of Galilee, in 1909. Deganiah, many other kibbutzim that were soon to follow, attempted to realize these thinkers' vision by creating communal villages, where newly arrived European Jews would be taught agriculture and other manual skills.

Joseph Trumpeldor is considered to be one of the early icons of the Labor Zionist movement in Palestine. When discussing what it is to be a Jewish pioneer, Trumpeldor stated What is a pioneer? Is he a worker only? No! The definition includes much more; the pioneers should be workers but, not all. We shall need people. A worker has his labor interests, a soldier his esprit de corps, a doctor and an engineer, their special inclinations. A generation of iron-men. You need a wheel? Here I am. A nail, a screw, a block? – here take me. You need a man to till the soil? – I’m ready. A soldier? I am here. Policeman, lawyer, teacher, water carrier? Here I am. I have no form. I have no psychology. I have no name. I am a servant of Zion. Ready to do everything, not bound to do anything. I have only one aim – creation. Trumpeldor, a Socialist Zionist, gave his life in 1920 defending the community of Tel Hai in the Upper Galilee, he became a symbol of Jewish self-defense and his reputed last words, "Never mind, it is good to die for our country", became famous in the pre-state Zionist movement and in Israel during the 1950s and 1960s.

Trumpeldor's heroic death made him not only a martyr for Zionists Left but for the Revisionist Zionist movement who named its youth movement Betar after the fallen hero. Albert Einstein was a prominent supporter of both Labor Zionism and efforts to encourage Jewish–Arab cooperation. Fred Jerome in his Einstein on Israel and Zionism: His Provocative Ideas About the Middle East argues that Einstein was a Cultural Zionist who supported the idea of a Jewish homeland but opposed the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine "with borders, an army, a measure of temporal power." Instead, he preferred a bi-national state with "

Neckarinsel, Tübingen

The Neckarinsel in Tübingen, Germany is an artificial, ⅔ mile long Neckar river island, created in the years 1910 and 1911 by branching off a parallel channel to regulate the water level of the Neckar river. It extends from the headland west of the Ammertal train bridge, the so-called Flatiron, to the Eberhard Bridge; the eastern half of the island is covered by the Platanenallee. In the western area is the so-called "Seufzerwäldchen", traversed by some winding forest trails. West of the Avenue Bridge is still the so-called Hain, at the end of which, under the bridge of the Ammer Valley Railway, a small tunnel leads to the western end of the island, a plateau lined with railings at the so-called Spitz or Flatiron. Sometimes illegal campfires and barbecue parties were organized, which the public order denied due risk of fire for the plane trees of the alley; the waterdepth of the Neckar in many places reaches the human knee only. Two monuments are located on the island: Silcher Memorial in the middle of the island and Wildermuth Memorial in the west.

Every year, of early June the Tübingen Puntboat Challenge around the Neckar island is celebrated. At the annual Duck Race in late October, bright yellow squeaking ducks conquer the Neckar; the Neckar Island was the scene of memorable theater events: Das Theater Lindenhof presented outdoor performances with great response. "Hölderlin. Tübingen. Tower." 1. Tübingen Summertheatre 1986, "…when downward with the Neckar. A walk in the evening", Summertheatre in 1993 and 1995. Since 2007, there have been several open air productions of the room theater. Since 2003 there has been the TüGast event "Summer Island", which took place for a few years on the plane tree alley and moved for safety and conservation reasons to the Anlagensee, but kept the name. From the east: from Eberhardsbrücke there is a direct stairway down to the island, at the dovecote. From the south: from Central Station and Anlagensee ago, it goes over a small bridge, the so-called "Indianersteg", on the Neckar island. From the west there is a bicycle accessible access to the island at the Derendinger Alley and the Alley Bridge

Étienne Vigée

Louis-Jean-Baptiste-Étienne Vigée was a French playwright and man of letters. Born into an artistic family, he was the son of the pastellist Louis Vigée and the brother of the celebrated painter Élisabeth Vigée, he was popular in the salons for quick wit. Although employed as a secretary to the Countess of Provence, he wrote verse in praise of the French Revolution, but his enthusiasm faded and he was at one point arrested as a Girondist, he would live long enough to write poetry both in praise of Napoleon and Louis XVIII. He succeeded Sautreau de Marsy as editor of the Almanach des Muses in 1794, replaced La Harpe at the Lycée, but had nowhere near the same success as a teacher. A skilled imitator of Dorat and Gresset, he put together several clever plays with many points of interest both in style and plotting. Les Aveux difficiles, one act in verse La Fausse coquette, three acts in verse Les Amants timides La Belle-Mère, ou les Dangers d’un second mariage, five acts in verse L’Entrevue, one act in verse Le Projet extravagant La Matinée d’une jolie femme La Vivacité à l’épreuve Ninon de Lenclos La Princesse de Babylone A sample can be found in Bibliothèque dramatique.

Manuel de littérature La Tendresse filiale, poem Poésies, first published with Poèmes by Legouvé alone Procès et mort de Louis XVI, fragments d’un poème Le Pour et le Contre, dialogue en vers Élisabeth Vigée, Paris, H. Fournier, 1835, 3 vol. octavo Gustave Vapereau, Dictionnaire universel des littératures, Hachette, 1876, p. 2032 La Matinée d’une jolie femme, one-act comedy in prose, Girod et Tessier, 1793 Poésies, Delaunay, 1813 His plays and their performances on the site CÉSAR