National Historic Sites of Canada
Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program. As of 2016, there are 976 National Historic Sites,171 of which are administered by Parks Canada, the sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons and National Historic Events, Sites and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site, while the Welland Canal is a National Historic Event, emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canadas historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries, in the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that countrys historic and natural heritage. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canadas historic sites.
He was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, at the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of sites in Canada. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a historic park in 1914. The fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. On Harkins recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, an authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Boards first chairman. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943,105 represented military history,52 represented the fur trade and exploration, and 43 represented famous individuals.
There was a strong bias in favour of commemorating sites in Ontario over other parts of the country, at one point, some members of the HSMBC concluded that there were no sites at all in Prince Edward Island worthy of designation. Lawrence, and in Niagara, promoting a loyalist doctrine of unity with Britain. Proposals to designate sites related to the immigration of Jews and Ukrainians to Canada were rejected, such was the view of Canadian history by the Board in the first half of the 20th century. As time passed and the system grew, the scope of the program, by the 1930s, the focus of the heritage movement in Canada had shifted from commemoration to preservation and development
The Lachine Rapids are a series of rapids on the Saint Lawrence River, between the Island of Montreal and the south shore. They are located near the city of Lachine. The Lachine Rapids contain large standing waves because the volume and current do not change with respect to the permanent features in the riverbed. Seasonal variation in the flow does not change the position of the waves, although it does change their size. The rapids are about 3 miles in length, in the past these represented a considerable barrier to maritime traffic. Until the construction of the Lachine Canal through Montreal, the rapids had to be portaged, even with the canal, the difficulty was such that it was usually more convenient to ship goods by rail to Montreal, where they could be loaded at the citys port. Montreal remains a major hub and one of Canadas largest ports for that reason. The Lachine Rapids are now passed by the South Shore Canal of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the rapids contain a number of islands used by migratory birds.
The first European to see the rapids was Jacques Cartier, who sailed up the St. Lawrence River in 1535, in 1611 Samuel de Champlain named the rapids Sault Saint-Louis, after a teenaged crewman named Louis who drowned here, the name extended to Lac Saint-Louis. This name remained in use until the mid-19th century, but came to be replaced by the name of the adjacent town of Lachine, the first Europeans known to have traveled above these rapids were Champlain and Étienne Brûlé on the 13th of June,1611. Brûlé continued upriver to live among the Algonquin, while Champlain himself would not travel further up the Ottawa River until May 1613, whitewater rafting and jet boat expeditions to the rapids are available in Montreal. Whitewater kayaking has become popular, along with surfing, on a standing wave adjacent to the Habitat 67
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Simmons Bedding Company
The Simmons Bedding Company is an American major manufacturer of mattresses and related bedding products, based in Atlanta, Georgia. The company was founded in 1870, and is one of the oldest companies of its kind in the United States, in addition to operating 18 manufacturing facilities in the United States and Puerto Rico, the company licenses its products internationally. According to a Simmons press release, net sales for 2005 were $855 million, as of 2011, Simmons ranked in third place among U. S. mattress manufacturers, with a 15.7 percent market share. In 2012, Simmons and its sister company Serta International were acquired by American private equity company Advent International, in 1870, Zalmon G. Simmons opened his first factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He started out by manufacturing wooden telegraph insulators and cheese boxes and he branched into making bedsprings after receiving a patent for a woven-wire bedspring in payment of a debt. In 1876, Simmons became the first manufacturer to mass-produce woven wire mattresses, the business was incorporated in 1884 as the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company, adopting Simmons Manufacturing Company as its name in 1889.
According to company records, by 1891 it was the largest company of its kind in the world, Zalmon Simmons, Jr. who took charge of the business after his fathers death in 1910, was to oversee additional growth. In 1916 Simmons began advertising nationally, initiating its first national advertising campaign with an ad in the Saturday Evening Post. The following year, Simmons started a new sales arrangement and this arrangement reduced the need for retailers to own and store their own product inventories. In 1923, Simmons moved its headquarters to New York City. Equipment developed by Simmons in 1925 automated the process of coiling wire and inserting it into fabric sleeves and this allowed mass production of pocketed coils, a type of coil that had been available only in very high-priced luxury mattresses. The pocketed coil is the basis for the Simmons Beautyrest mattress brand, eleanor Roosevelt continued to promote the brand into the 1930s, through her radio show. Cole Porter mentioned the Beautyrest brand in the lyrics of his 1934 song Anything Goes, in 1940, Simmons introduced the Hide-A-Bed, a sofa that incorporates a fold-out spring and mattress that pull out to form a bed.
This was to one of the company’s best known products and was manufactured until the 1980s. During World War II, Simmons facilities were diverted to military production, making cots, bazooka rockets, a research and development facility was established in Munster, Indiana, in 1957, building upon pioneering studies on human sleep behavior that Simmons had sponsored in the 1930s. In 1958, the became the first U. S. mattress maker to produce mattresses in king and queen sizes. In 1975, the Simmons corporate headquarters moved to Atlanta, shortly thereafter, the company research and development team relocated to Georgia, to a building in Norcross. In 1995, the company’s R&D division moved into a new home, Simmons underwent the first in a series of corporate mergers and acquisitions in 1979, when the company was acquired by Gulf+Western
Montreal, officially Montréal, is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the 2nd-most populous in Canada as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie, or City of Mary, it is believed to be named after Mount Royal, the city has a distinct four-season continental climate, with warm-to-hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016, Montreal had a population of 1,704,694, Montreals metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,958,257 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included. Legally a French-speaking city,60. 5% of Montrealers speak French at home,21. 2% speak English and 19. 8% speak neither, Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 56% of the population able to speak both official languages. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world after Paris, historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.
It remains an important centre of commerce, finance, technology, education, tourism, film, Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design. In 2009, Montreal was named North Americas leading host city for international events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress. According to the 2015 Global Liveability Ranking by the Economist Intelligence Unit, in the 2017 edition of their Best Student Cities ranking, Quacquarelli Symonds ranked Montreal as the worlds best city to study abroad. Also, Montreal has 11 universities with 170,000 students enrolled, the Greater Montréal region has the highest number of university students per capita among all metropolitan areas in North America. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics, the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In 2012, Montreal was ranked as a Beta+ world city, in Kanien’kéha, or Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te.
In Anishinaabemowin, or Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang, though the city was first named by French colonizers Ville Marie, or City of Mary, its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The most popular theory is that the name derives from Mont Réal, Cartiers 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, according to the Commission de toponymie du Québec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, Canadian place names have only one official form. Thus, Montreal is officially spelled with an accent over the e in both English and French. In practice, this is limited to governmental uses. English-speaking Montrealers, including English-language media, regularly omit the accent when writing in English, archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD1000, they had started to cultivate maize, within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.
Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at locations in the valley since at least the 14th century
LaSalle is a borough of the city of Montreal, Canada. Prior to 2002, it was a separate municipality and it was founded in 1912 as a town. LaSalle is located in the south-west portion of the Island of Montreal, named for the areas first seigneur and French explorer Robert René Cavelier de La Salle. LaSalle came into existence as a municipality in 1845 and finally became the City of LaSalle in 1912, Lachine Rapids are situated inside LaSalle territory. The name Lachine, which is the name of the borough, stayed because in the French Regime period. Before the creation of the Lachine Canal, the rapids had to be portaged on a trail called Chemin LaSalle, the other common public school in LaSalle is LaSalle Community Comprehensive High School, opened many years ago, home to many cultures. Michel Leduc, who served as Mayor from 1983 to December 31,2001, was the last Mayor of an independent LaSalle, under Leduc, LaSalle became the first large city in Quebec to launch a large recycling. LaSalle was annexed by the city of Montreal on January 1,2002, all complemented by the shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the south and east, specifically a portion of the river known as the Lachine Rapids.
Federally the western part of the borough is located in Dorval—Lachine—LaSalle and they are represented by Anju Dhillon and David Lametti of the Liberal Party of Canada. Provincially, the borough is within the electoral district of Marguerite-Bourgeoys. Marguerite-Bourgeoys was represented by Monique Jérôme-Forget of the Quebec Liberal Party until her 2009 resignation, since the September 4,2012 Quebec provincial election, Marguerite-Bourgeoys is represented by Robert Poëti of the Quebec Liberal Party. The borough is divided into two districts, cecil-P. -Newman Sault-Saint-Louis The borough elects a borough mayor, two city councillors, and four borough councillors. This demonstrates a decrease from the population indicated by the 2006 census, much like a substantial amount of other communities in the Greater Montreal area, LaSalle remains ethnically and linguistically diverse. Visible minorities account for approximately 33. 1% of the population, approximately 43% of LaSalles residents speak French as their primary language at home, 37% speak English, and 21% primarily speak some other language at home.
As with most boroughs on the island of Montreal, a number of LaSallians are bilingual. Religious distribution Cégep André-Laurendeau is in LaSalle, the Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys operates Francophone public schools. Pearson School Board operates Anglophone public schools, other major installations include the Cégep André-Laurendeau. Route 138 passes through the borough before crossing the Honoré Mercier Bridge to Kahnawake, other important thoroughfares include LaSalle, Newman, La Vérendrye, Bishop Power, Shevchenko, Lapierre and Jean-Brillon Boulevards
Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In the vernacular, both are referred to as canals, and in most cases, the works will have a series of dams. These areas are referred to as water levels, often just called levels. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below. Cities need a lot of water and many canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination where there is a lack of water. The Roman Empires Aqueducts were such water supply canals, a navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river, a vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others.
This is true for many canals still in use, there are two broad types of canal, Waterways and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds, Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans and those connected in a city network, such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy, the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts, water canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals. Historically canals were of importance to commerce and the development, growth. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of burning anthracite coal, by the 1930s the company which built. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil. Later, after World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path, Human made streams A canal can be created where no stream presently exists.
Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, the water for the canal must be provided from an external source, like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise, examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama Canal
Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice
Typically, priests become members of the Society of the Priests of St. Sulpice only after ordination and some years of pastoral work. The purpose of the society is mainly the education of priests, the Society is divided into three provinces, operating in various countries, the Province of France and the United States. The Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice was founded in France in 1641 by Father Jean-Jacques Olier, a disciple of Vincent de Paul and Charles de Condren, Olier took part in missions organized by them. The French priesthood at that time suffered from low morale, academic deficits, envisioning a new approach to priestly preparation, Olier gathered a few priests and seminarians around him in Vaugirard, a suburb of Paris, in the final months of 1641. Shortly thereafter, he moved his operation to the parish of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, after several adjustments, he built a seminary next to the current church of Saint-Sulpice. The Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice thereby became the first Sulpician seminary, there the first seminarians got their spiritual formation, while taking most theology courses at the Sorbonne.
Sulpician priests contributed to the community during the day. Jean-Jacques Olier attempted to control diverse social groups by having laymen of the community give reports on family life, the Sulpicians accepted aspirants to the company as long as they were priests and had permission from their bishop. The Sulpicians would thus recruit wealthy individuals since Sulpicians did not take vows of poverty and they retained ownership of individual property and were free to dispose their wealth. The Sulpicians soon came to be known for the revival of the life, reform of seminary life. In the 18th century they attracted the sons of the nobility, as well as candidates from the common class, the Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice was closed during the French Revolution, and its teachers and students scattered to avoid persecution. That Revolution led to the secularization of the University of Paris, when France stabilized, theology courses were offered exclusively in seminaries, and the Sulpicians resumed their educational mission.
Sulpician seminaries earned and maintained reputations for solid academic teaching and high moral tone, the Sulpicians played a major role in the founding of the Canadian city of Montreal, where they engaged in missionary activities, trained priests and constructed the Saint-Sulpice Seminary. The Jesuits served as missionaries for the colony until 1657 when Jean-Jacques Olier sent four priests from the Saint-Sulpice seminary in Paris to form the first parish. Just as in Paris, the Montreal Sulpicians had important civil responsibilities, most notably, they acted as seigneurs for Montreal as part of the Seigneurial system of New France. Dollier de Casson and Brehan de Gallinée explored the region of the Great Lakes, in 1676 the mission of the Mountain was opened on the site of the present seminary, where M. Belmont built a fort. The brandy traffic necessitated the removal of this mission and in 1720 it was transferred to Lac-des-Deux-Montagnes. The Sulpicians served as missionaries, explorers, social workers, supervisors of convents, canal builders, urban planners, colonization agents, and entrepreneurs
Saint Lawrence Seaway
The Seaway is named for the Saint Lawrence River, which flows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. Legally, the Seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie, Lawrence River to bypass several rapids and dams along the way. The section of the downstream of Montreal, which is fully within Canadian jurisdiction, is regulated by the offices of Transport Canada in the Port of Quebec. The Saint Lawrence Seaway was preceded by a number of other canals, in 1871, locks on the Saint Lawrence allowed transit of vessels 186 ft long,44 ft 6 in wide, and 9 ft deep. The First Welland Canal, constructed from 1824–1829, had a minimum size of 110 ft long,22 ft wide, and 8 ft deep. The Welland Canals minimum lock size was increased to 150 ft long,26, the first proposals for a bi-national comprehensive deep waterway along the St. Lawrence were made in the 1890s. United States proposals for development up to and including the First World War met with little interest from the Canadian federal government, but the two national governments submitted St.
Lawrence plans to a group for study. By the early 1920s, both The Wooten-Bowden Report and the International Joint Commission recommended the project and this treaty was submitted to the United States Senate in November 1932 and hearings continued until a vote was taken on March 14,1934. The majority voted in favor of the treaty, but it failed to gain the necessary two-thirds vote for ratification, subsequent attempts between the governments in the 1930s to forge an agreement came to naught due to opposition by the Ontario government of Mitchell Hepburn, and that of Quebec. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to get his support of the Seaway concept, Beukema and St. Lawrence Seaway proponents were convinced that such a nautical link would lead to development of the communities and economies of the Great Lakes region by enabling ocean-going ships. In this period, grain exports to Europe were highly important to the national economy, the negotiations on the treaty resumed in 1938 and by January 1940, substantial agreement was reached between Canada and the United States.
By 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King made an agreement to build the joint hydro and navigation works. The railroads carried freight and goods between the ports and the Great Lakes cities. After 1945, proposals to introduce tolls to the Seaway were not sufficient to support by the U. S. Congress for the project. Growing impatient, and with Ontario desperate for the power to be generated by hydro-electricity and this seized the imagination of Canadians, engendering a groundswell of St. Lawrence nationalism. Fueled by this support, St. Laurents administration decided over the course of 1951 and 1952 to construct the waterway alone, the International Joint Commission issued an order of approval for joint construction of the dam in October 1952. U. S. Senate debate on the bill began on January 12,1953, and it received approval by the Senate and the House by May 1954. The need for cheap haulage of Quebec - Labrador iron ore was one of the arguments that finally swung the balance in favor of the seaway, ground-breaking ceremonies took place in Massena, New York, on August 10,1954
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. The second empire came to an end after the loss of bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria, competing with Spain, the United Provinces, and Britain, France began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean, and India in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain and other European major powers during the 18th century, France rebuilt a new empire mostly after 1850, concentrating chiefly in Africa, as well as Indochina and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire and it provided manpower in the World Wars. It became a mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity. In 1884 the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared, The higher races have a right over the lower races, full citizenship rights – assimilation – were offered, although in reality assimilation was always receding the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens.
At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history, including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. However, after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority, the French constitution of October 27,1946, established the French Union which endured until 1958. Newer remnants of the empire were integrated into France as overseas departments. These now total altogether 119,394 km², which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empires area, by the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last vestiges of empire held little interest for the French. He argues, Except for the decolonization of Algeria, however. During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began, the story of Frances colonial empire truly began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada.
A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community and these became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, under pressure from religious orders to them to Catholicism. Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies
Le Sud-Ouest is a borough of the city of Montreal, Canada. Le Sud-Ouest is an amalgam of several neighbourhoods with highly distinct histories and identities, mainly with working-class and industrial origins and these include Saint-Henri, Little Burgundy, and Griffintown to the north of the canal, and Ville-Émard, Côte-Saint-Paul, and Pointe-Saint-Charles to the south. The Saint Lawrence River is located part of its eastern edge. See History of Saint-Henri, History of Little Burgundy, History of Ville-Émard, History of Côte-Saint-Paul, the Canadian National Railway and Grand Trunk Railway came through Saint-Henri and Pointe-Saint-Charles. The area became a stronghold of the class, often in difficult conditions such as those described in Gabrielle Roys The Tin Flute. The areas of the borough had highly specific identities, the town of Saint-Henri was annexed to Montreal in 1905, Sainte-Cunégonde in 1906, and Côte-Saint-Paul and Ville-Émard in 1910. Population fell sharply and conditions became more difficult.
Projects such as the Décarie Expressway, Turcot Interchange, Bonaventure Expressway, community mobilization preserved the areas social fabric, in particular, the Pointe-Saint-Charles Community Clinic became the model for the CLSC system now used throughout the province. The reorganization of Montreal in 2002 following the municipal mergers saw the creation of the council system, and accordingly. The pending reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange and its impact on local residents is a political issue in the borough. The borough is served by the green and orange lines of the Montreal Metro, including Place-Saint-Henri, Lionel-Groulx, Angrignon, Georges-Vanier, the borough is traversed and partly delimited by Quebec Autoroutes 15 and 20, Autoroute 10 passes through it. The Montreal ends of the Champlain Bridge and Victoria Bridge lie in Le Sud-Ouest, as does the Turcot Interchange, the CN rail lines exiting Central Station pass through the borough. Major thoroughfares include Notre Dame St. Laurendeau St.
St. Patrick St, Centre St. Charlevoix St. Wellington St. Atwater Ave. and Guy St. The Lachine Canal is crossed by the Boul, Rue Charlevoix, Rue des Seigneurs, and Rue Wellington bridges and by the Saint Rémi and Atwater tunnels. Bicycle paths run along the Lachine Canal, through the Parc du Premier-Chemin-de-Fer and Rue Lionel-Groulx, pedestrian- and cyclist-only bridges across the canal are located at the Saint-Gabriel Locks, the Atwater Market, Gédéon de Catalogne Park, and Rue de lÉglise. The two largest green spaces in the borough are the Lachine Canal and its facilities. In Saint-Henri, the Musée-des-Ondes Emile-Berliner tells the story of the radio, the boroughs community centres include the Centre Saint-Zotique, the Centre déducation populaire, Tyndale-St. Georges Community Centre, Maison Saint-Charles, and Centre Monseigneur-Pigeon. It is served by four libraries, Marie-Uguay, Saint-Henri, Georges-Vanier, the territory of Le Sud-Ouest is served by the Centre de santé et des services sociaux du Sud-Ouest–Verdun, which operates the CLSCs Saint-Henri and Ville-Émard–Côte-Saint-Paul