Accous is a Béarnais French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Accous is located some 30 km south of Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Aspe Valley, one of the three valleys of the High-Béarn, the other valleys being the Ossau Valley in the east and Barétous valley in the west. From the Spanish border on its southern edge, it stretches along Le Labadie river to the point where it joins the Gave d'Aspe. From this river junction, the Gave d'Aspe forms the western border of the rest of the commune which extends a further 10 kilometres to the east with the Lac du Montagnon at the northeastern edge; the commune is accessed from the north by the E7 motorway. This highway follows the western border of the commune along the Gave d'Aspe crosses the narrow neck of the commune before continuing to the Spanish border near Candanchu. To access Accous village it is necessary to follow one of a number of country roads - the Daban Athas road being the most direct.
Apart from country roads within the commune there is no other road access. The commune is traversed by some tributaries of the Gave d'Oloron, the Besse stream and the Gave d'Aspe, as well as tributaries of the latter such as the Gave Lescun and the Berthe; the Cotcharas stream and its tributary, the Congaets stream flow in the territory of Accous, as tributaries of the Gave d'Aydius, the Gave de Bouren and the Sahun stream. Accous is dominated by the Poey, a conical hill covered with ferns; the Poey is made of ophites. These green and harsh volcanic rocks from the Triassic belong to dolerites, they have resisted the erosion of torrential rivers. This is the reason; the name Accous appears in the following forms: Aspa Luca Achoss and Achost Acos Aquos d'Aspe Aquos Abadie de Cos Sanctus Martinus de Acous Acous. The name of the commune in Gascon is Acós. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval hypothesises that Accous originated from Acca or Acco, a woman's name mentioned in the inscriptions of Spain; the name Appatie came from the Lay Abbey of Jouers throygh corruption of the word Abbadie.
Note that in the Aspe Valley the voiceless consonants of Latin are preserved. This fief was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. Le Bois d'Arapoup is attested in 1863 in the Topographical Dictionary. Aület is mentioned in the form Aulet in 1863 by the Topographical Dictionary. Lhers is cited in the dictionary; the name La Berthe, a tributary of the Gave d'Aspe, is cited in the dictionary of 1863. Despourrins is mentioned in 1863 in the Topographical Dictionary as a name taken from the poet Cyprien Despourrins, buried there. Izaure was a farm mentioned by Paul Raymond with the spellings: Usaure, Ixaure and Isaure. Jouers /juèrs/ was Joertz a metathesis of a Basque word Oïhartz a derivative of Oihan meaning'forest', it is found in the spelling Joers Jouers, again Joers. The Col de Lourtica is the name of a hill between the communes of Aydius. Saint-Christau was a chapel, mentioned by the dictionary of 1863. Tillabé was a place in Accous reported by the dictionary in 1863 and mentioned in the 18th century 2 in the form Le Tillaber.
Paul Raymond said that Tillabé "was the place of meeting of the aldermen of the Aspe valley". Paul Raymond noted that the commune had a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385, there were 74 "fires". Accous was the capital of the Aspe valley. List of Successive Mayors of Accous The town is part of five inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of the Aspe Valley the Energy union in the Pyrenees-Atlantiques the Television union of Oloron - Aspe Valley the inter-communal union to aid education in the Aspe Valley the joint union of Upper-Béarn. Accous has twinning associations with: Valle de Hecho since 1978. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The economy of the town is oriented toward agriculture and animal husbandry; the cheese-making farms are one of the resources of the commune, part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The Toyal plant, located at the edge of the commune, provides income to Accous through business tax, making of it the richest communes in the valley.
This activity has created hundreds of jobs in the valley. The 2006 INSEE classification, indicated that the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households ranked Accous at 24495, for an average income per household of €14,199. Accous has a number of old farms registered as historical monuments; these are: House at Rue de Baix House 1 at Rue de Haut House 2 at Rue de Haut House at Rue Madrih The Accous railway station on the Pau to Canfranc line has been closed to traffic since 1970. The eco-museum of the Aspe valley is located in an old cheese fa
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Aldudes is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Aldulaises. The village Aldudes is part of Le Pays Quint; the commune is an area of pasture belonging to cultivated by French farmers. It is located in the Aldudes valley on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes in the Basque province of Lower Navarre, it is on the Spanish border some 20 km southwest of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port although it can not be directly accessed from there. Access is by the D948 road from Saint-Etienne-de-Baigorry in the north, which passes through the village continues south to Urepel; the D58 road goes from the village through the length of the commune before continuing to Spain through Urepel commune. The Spanish border of Navarre forms the northeastern borders of the commune. Located in the watershed of the Adour, Aldudes is traversed by the Nive d'Aldudes with its many tributaries, such as the Urbeltch Labiaringo erreka, the Aktieltako erreka, numerous unnamed streams.
Paul Raymond mentioned a stream which rises in Aldudes and joins the Nive des Aldudes. The name of the commune in Basque is Aldude. Aldudes was the name given to the entire valley bordering the Baigorry Valley and the Spanish border. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposes the construction ald-uhide meaning "the path beside the water". According to Ernest Nègre however, the name Aldudes is a contraction of the basque Aldubide meaning "way to the summits" from the root aldu meaning "heights" and bide meaning "way"; the romanisation into Aldudes is a plural. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Mérimée: Ministry of Culture Mérimée database: Presentation of the Commune), Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Camara: Titles of Camara de Comptos The commune originated in the 16th century when young noblemen of the Baigory family founded the village which, by the ancient Basque succession rule, reserved the legacy of the family house to the eldest child.
The parish was established in 1793. List of Successive Mayors The commune of Aldudes participates in five intercommunal organisations: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the intercommunal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association of the watershed of the Nive the association to support Basque culture the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques A fish farm is active on the road to Urepel. Basque pig breeding is an activity in full revival in the Aldudes valley, under the leadership of the Technical Institute of Pork; the commune hosts the Ets Pierre Oteiza company, one of the fifty top agribusinesses in the department. It is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces, published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aldudes is western Lower Navarrese dialect. In 1952 the square in front of the church and the town hall was converted into a playing field for "laxoa".
This ancient game of basque pelote is played with leather gloves. At the entrance porch of the church is the target for the game; the commune contains a number of sites that are registered as historical monuments: Houses and Farms The Menementa Farm The Iguxkagerrea Farm The Joalginenborda Farm Other sites of interestCromlechs: There are three Harrespils on the Argibel site. These are great circles of stone or "menhirs" for funerary purposes, dated from the 1st millennium BC; the Harrespil are notable due to their number and their witness to knowledge of ancient burial rites. The commune has two religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: The'Chapel of the Assumption at a place called Eznazu has been listed on the Inventory of cultural heritage since 21 March 2003, it contains a Statues which are registered as historical objects. The Parish Church of Notre-Dame has a rosary. Other religious sites of interestSome Hilarri in the cemetery are from the 19th century - two from 1805.
Palombière is the property of the association of the Baigorry Valley. This hunt at 500 metres above sea level was created in 1840 by the mayor of the town, Charles Schmarsow. Reorganized in 1880, it passed into the hands of the Ospital family who still lead the hunt; the five Filetiers use five pantières or special nets and ten beaters to direct the pigeons to the nets. The commune has a private primary school. Georges Lacombe, born 31 January 1879 in Orthez and died July 1947 in Paris, was a linguist and Basque French academic. On the eve of the First World War he prepared, with the help of Dr. Jean Etchepare, a doctorate in Letters on the Aldudes dialect. Bernard Delhom, born in 1885 in Aldudes, was the oldest man in France from 30 December 1995 to 7 February 1996 when he died in Paris at the age of 110 years and 213 days Jean-Baptiste Urrutia, born in 1901 at Aldudes and died in Montbeton, was a missionary in Indochina and Bishop of Huế during the Indochina War and the Vietnam War Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Aldude in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi En
Agnos is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Agnosiens or Agnosiennes Agnos is located just 2 km south of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and some 25 km southwest of Pau, it can be accessed on the D155 road from Bidos in the northeast coming southwest to the village continuing southeast to Gurmençon. The D555 road passes through the commune from the north and joins the D155 northeast of the village; the commune is mixed farmland and forests with the forests scattered throughout the commune. Located in the Adour basin, the Mielle river flows from south of the commune forming part of the southern border continuing north through the village and together with several tributaries rising in the commune joins the Gave d'Oloron north of Oloron-Sainte-Marie; the commune name in béarnais is Anhos. Michel Grosclaude suggested that Agnos came from a Latin man's name Annius with an Aqitaine suffix -ossum the whole meaning "domain of Annius".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Paul Raymond noted on page 3 of his 1863 dictionary that in 1385 Agnos had seventeen fires and depended on the bailiwick of Oloron; the commune was merged with Gurmençon on 1 February 1973 to form the commune called Val-du-Gave d'Aspe. It was restored to its previous status on 1 January 1983. List of Successive Mayors of Agnos The town is part of five inter-communal organisations: the Community of communes of Piedmont Oloronais the SIVU to limit floods in Agnos the AEP Union for Agnos-Gurmençon the Inter-communal Union for Sanitisation for the Aspe gateway the energy union for Pyrénées-Atlantiques Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Agnos is part of the urban area of Oloron-Sainte-Marie.
The activity of the commune is agricultural. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée of ossau-iraty; the 2006 classification by INSEE showed the median household incomes for each commune with more than 50 households. It classed Agnos at the rank of 6,323, for an average income of €18,420; the Church has a Trinitarian steeple. It contains many items which are registered as historical objects: An Altar 6 Candlesticks A Cross A Tabernacle A Chalice A Ciborium A Retable The Forests of Bugangue and Labaigt are inter-association woods managed by the National Office of Forests which provide valuable shelter for preserving local flora and fauna. Many species are protected. An arboretum is a result of collaboration with the ONF; the Mielle, a small stream that rises in Agnos, is listed in the Natura 2000 program for three rare species: white-clawed crayfish, European pond turtles, the rare European mink which does not exist anywhere in France except in the south-west. The Pyrenees are rich in scenery and the village of Agnos is the starting point of one of the most attractive routes for cycling across the foothills: From Agnos to Mail Arrouil and back in a variety of environments, rocks, meadows with views of the Pyrenees.
This route, like many others, is managed by the local hiking plan of the Community of communes of Piémont Oloronais. AssociationsThe model aircraft club welcomes its members in the Sayette neighborhood. EducationThe town has a primary school. Multi-Media LibraryThe Multi-media library project of the CCPO identified the municipal library of Agnos as a relay point. Sports and sports equipmentThe basketball club merged with that of Asasp in 2006 to form BCHB. Catherine Capdevielle, born in 1938 in Agnos, is an athlete specialising in ordeal sprinting. Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Agnos Town Hall website Agnos official website Community of communes of Piémont oloronais website Agnos on Lion1906 Agnos on the 1750 Cassini Map Agnos on the INSEE website INSEE
Oloron-Sainte-Marie is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the region of Béarn in south-western France. The town was founded by the Romans in the 1st century known as Illoronensium. Situated on the Roman way between the important towns of Dax and Saragossa, its position was strategic. Today known as Saint-Great, Gratus of Oloron became in 506 the first known archbishop of the Ancient Diocese of Oloron known as "Iluro"; the history of the town during the Migration Period is little known. In 1080, the viscount Centule V, Viscount of Béarn built the new city of "Oloron" on the opposite side of the river from the diocese center. Centulle V restored the Roman walls and founded the strong city of Oloron, to be used as a base to retake the Aragon held by the Maures; the Oloron Cathedral was built at the beginning of the 12th century. The viscountal town of Oloron and the episcopal town of Sainte-Marie were rivals, but Oloron strove on its textile industry and commerce with neighbouring Spain.
Sainte-Marie became economically dependent upon Oloron. The 18th century was the beginning of revival for Sainte-Marie as the end of French Wars of Religion allowed for restorations and new religious constructions in the town: cathedral, church Saint-Pierre. Moreover, the continued boom of commerce with Spain accelerated the construction of better communication and transportation routes to Oloron and Sainte-Marie. With the French Revolution Oloron lost its diocese to Bayonne but gained administrative importance by becoming one of the sous-préfectures of the new Republic. In the 1858, the regent Impress Eugénie imposed the reunification of the towns of Oloron and Sainte-Marie. Situated at the feet of the Pyrénées, 50 km from the Spanish border and 100 km from the Atlantic ocean, Oloron-Sainte-Marie is at the confluence of two gaves, the Gave d'Aspe and the Gave d'Ossau that merge to form the gave d'Oloron. Capital of the Haut-Béarn, Oloron-Sainte-Marie is at the point of origin of the three Haut-Béarn valleys: the Aspe Valley, the Ossau Valley and the Barétous Valley.
Neighboring communes: Esquiule, Ledeuix, Cardesse, Monein, Goès, Précilhon, Herrère, Ogeu-les-Bains, Arudy, Asasp-Arros, Lurbe-Saint-Christau, Gurmençon, Agnos, Ance and Féas. The town has an oceanic climate, with humid winters and cool or moderately warm summers. Rain is quite abundant and is concentrated during cold season; the Oloron economy is dominated by two well known manufacturing businesses: * Lindt & Sprüngli have a chocolate factory in Oloron. * Messier-Bugatti-Dowty have a plant in the adjacent commune of Bidos which manufactures landing gear for aircraft. Oloron is famous, among hat enthusiasts, as the capital of the basque beret, although the beret business has fallen victim to the widespread collapse of the European textile business as well as changing fashions. Today only one beret business survives in Oloron; this is the Béatex company which employs 80 people. The area benefits from an active agriculture sector, involving animal rearing and general agriculture as well as maize production.
It is part of the AOC defined districts entitled to produce the ewes' cheese, Ossau-Iraty. The railway from Pau to Canfranc passes through Oloron. Oloron railway station is served by TER Aquitaine, who operate eight trains per day to Pau and six to Bedous. Public transport in the town is provided by a company called La Navette, who operate three bus routes. Oloron - Herrère Aérodrome is an aerodrome five kilometers southeast of Oloron, it is predominantly used for light leisure. The local vernacular language is a dialect of Gascon language. One of the eight primary schools of Oloron is a French/Bearnese bilingual school; the demonym corresponding to Oloron-Sainte-Marie is Oloronais. The town received the label French Towns and Lands of Art and History in November 2006. Oloron's architectural and historical landmarks: the 13th century Tour de Grède the former town hall and prison, classified in 1987 among as Monument historique the fortified walls the 16th century Legugnon castle the 17th century building in the rue Pomone, classified in 1943 as Monument historique the Parc Pommé the "Maison du Patrimoine" the Médiathèque public library, awarded the Equerre d'Argent architectural award in 2010.
The Oloron Cathedral the Sainte Marie church Oloron is home to a number of festivals: the jazz festival Des Rives & Notes on the first weekend of July, the "Amateur web film festival", organised every spring season to showcase the best short films published on the internet, the "Book without borders" fair held on the second weekend of June. Oloron-Sainte-Marie has a concert venue; the town is renowned for its hearty vegetables and meat soup, the garbure, for the Ossau-Iraty cheese, for a delicacy invented by a local baker in 1925, the pastry "le Russe". Oloron-Sainte-Marie was the birthplace of: Louis Barthou, politician of the Third Republic Cataline, explorer Camille Lopez, rugby player Oloron Cathedral Gave d'Oloron Gave d'Ossau Gave d'Aspe Ancient Diocese of Oloron Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The
Abitain is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants Abitaonoises. Abitain is bordered on the eastern side by the Gave d'Oloron about 20 km southeast of Peyrehorade and 11 km southwest of Salies-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by road D936 from Escos in the north, passing south down the eastern side of the commune through the village and continuing to Autevielle-Saint-Martin-Bideren in the south. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune's eastern border is the Gave d'Oloron, which joins the Gave de Pau at Peyrehorade which flows a further 10 km as the Gaves Réunis before joining the Adour river. A number of small streams flow in the commune including Le Crabé which flows into the Gave d'Oloron at the northern border of the commune and the Arrioutèque creek; the commune's name in Béarnais is Avitenh. Michel Grosclaude proposed the Gascon suffix - enh; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Census: Census of Béarn Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Regulations: Regulations of the States of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont Terrier: Terrier of Abitain. Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne The village of Abitain formed on the left bank of the Gave d'Oloron around its Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Bearn, a building which still remains; the families of Belloc Claverie were the abbot patrons of the parish. The tomb of the last lay abbot of Abitain, who died in 1785, is in the church of Saint-Pierre. Paul Raymond, on page 2 of his 1863 dictionary, noted that in 1385 the town had 15 fires and depended on the bailiwick of Sauveterre.
In 1648 the barony of Lons became a marquisate, which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Samsons-Lion, Maspie, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. The village had one at Séguabache - now a sawmill. In 1856, Ferdinand Carrère, heir to the last Lay Abbey demolished the old abbey castle to build Carrère castle in Escos. In February 1814, the town was occupied by the troops of General Morillo and by the English, facing the French entrenched in Oraàs. A famous ferry - where there was a tragic accident in 1845 - has long been in service between Moliède and Athos. List of Successive Mayors of Abitain The town is a member of seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Sauveterre-de-Béarn the Public agency for local management the inter-communal centre for social action of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. A sawmill is in operation; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. There are only the ruins of the Leu mill. Another mill, called Séguabache, is the current sawmill and is visible in the commune.
During the construction of the clock tower in 1926 what remained of the old lay abbey was destroyed. In the old abbey there was a special room where the Lord of the Manor could overlook the church choir and follow the Mass without being in the crowd; the abbey enclosure can still be seen. The Tombstone of the last lord of Abitain was discovered during the restoration of the church, it was marked on the wall of the church to preserve its memory. The Parish Church of Saint Pierre, of Romanesque origin, still has the arms of the Abitain abbots from the burial of the last abbot. There is a 16th-century window of Germanic origin. In the church is an altarpiece from the 17th century; the Cemetery contains the graves of priests and that of Father Joffre, Capuchin missionary in Canada who died at Abitain in 1909. There is the tomb of Colonel Count Pierre de Chevigne, Companion of the Liberation, one of the greats of béarnaise politics and a strong and faithful supporter of General de Gaulle; the coat of arms of Chevigne are engraved on his tomb with the motto "Quod decet".
He donated equipment to the communes of Abitain and Escos. Pierre de Chevigné, born in Toulon in 1909 and died in Biarritz in 2004 was a colonel and French politician, a Minister in the Fourth Republic and a companion of the Liberation, he was mayor of Abitain from 1935 to 1940 and from 1945 to 1965. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department