Ladakh is a region administered by India as a union territory, constituting a part of the larger region of Kashmir, the subject of dispute between India and China since 1947. It is bordered by Tibet to the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north, it extends from the Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram range to the north to the main Great Himalayas to the south. The eastern end of Ladakh, consisting of the uninhabited Aksai Chin plains, has been under Chinese control since 1962; until 2019, Ladakh was a region of the state of Kashmir. In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed an act by which Ladakh became a union territory on 31 October 2019. In the past Ladakh gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes, but since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia in the 1960s, international trade has dwindled except for tourism.

Since 1974, the Government of India has encouraged tourism in Ladakh. Since Ladakh is a part of the strategically important Kashmir region, the Indian military maintains a strong presence in the region; the largest town in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil. The Leh district contains the Indus and Nubra river valleys; the Kargil district contains the Suru and Zanskar river valleys. The main populated regions are the river valleys, but the mountain slopes support the pastoral Changpa nomads; the main religious groups in the region are Muslims, Tibetan Buddhists and others. Ladakh is one of the most sparsely populated regions in India and its culture and history are related to that of Tibet, it is renowned for culture. The name Ladakh means "land of high passes" in Tibetan/Ladakhi. Ladak is its pronunciation in several Tibetan districts, Ladakh is a transliteration of the Persian spelling; the region was known as Maryul. Rock carvings found in many parts of Ladakh indicate that the area has been inhabited from Neolithic times.

Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards, who find mention in the works of Herodotus, classical writers as well as the Indian Puranas. Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushan Empire. Buddhism spread into western Ladakh from Kashmir in the 2nd century; the 7th-century Buddhist traveller Xuanzang describes the region in his accounts. Xuanzang's term of Ladakh is Mo-lo-so, reconstructed by scholars as *Malasa, *Marāsa, or *Mrāsa, believed to have been the original name of the region. For much of the first millennium, the western Tibet comprised Zhangzhung kingdom, which practised the Bon religion. Sandwiched between Kashmir and Zhangzhung, Ladakh is believed to have been alternatively under the control of one or other of these powers. Scholars find strong influences of Zhangzhung language and culture in "upper Ladakh"; the penultimate king of Zhangzhung is said to have been from Ladakh. From around 660 AD, Central Tibet and China started contesting the "four garrisons" of the Tarim Basin, a struggle that lasted three centuries.

Zhangzhung disappeared for ever. Kashmir's Karkota Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate too joined the contest for Xinjiang soon afterwards. Baltistan and Ladakh were at the centre of these struggles. Scholars infer from the slant of Ladakhi chronicles that Ladakh may have owed its primary allegiance to Tibet during this time, but that it was more political than cultural. Ladakh remained its culture was not yet Tibetan. In the 9th century, Tibet's ruler Langdarma was assassinated and Tibet fragmented. Kyide Nyimagon, Langdarma's great grandson, fled to West Tibet c. 900 AD, founded a new West Tibetan kingdom at the heart of the old Zhangzhung, now called Ngari in the Tibetan language. Nyimagon's eldest son, Lhachen Palgyigon, is believed to have conquered the regions to the north, including Ladakh and Rutog. After the death of Nyimagon, his kingdom was divided among his three sons, Palgyigon receiving Ladakh, Thok Jalung and an area referred to as "Demchok"; the second son received Guge–Purang and the third son received Zanskar and Spiti.

This three-way division of Nyimagon's empire was recognised as historic and remembered in the chronicles of all the three regions as a founding narrative. He gave to each of his sons a separate kingdom, viz. to the eldest Dpal-gyi-gon, Maryul of Mngah-ris, the inhabitants using black bows. The first West Tibetan dynasty of Maryul founded by Palgyigon lasted five centuries, being weakened towards its end by the conquests of the Mongol/Mughal noble Mirza Haidar Dughlat. Throughout this period the region was called "Maryul" from the original proper name *Mrasa, but in the Tibetan language it was interpreted to mean "lowland". Maryul remained staunchly Buddhist during this period, having participated in the second diffusion of Buddhism from India to Tibet via Kashmir and Zanskar. Faced with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th century, Ladakh chose to seek and accept guidance in religious matters from Tibet. For nearly two centuries till about 1600, Ladakh w

Hannes Dotzler

Hannes Dotzler is a German cross-country skier who has competed since 2006. His best World Cup finish was third in a 4 × 10 km relay event in Finland in March 2010. In the 2013 Nordic World Ski Championships in Val di Fiemme he placed seventh at the men's 50 km classical, he was trained by his father Stefan Dotzler. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 1 podium 1 podium – Hannes Dotzler at the International Ski Federation Hannes Dotzler at the International Olympic Committee Hannes Dotzler at the Olympic Channel Hannes Dotzler at the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund Hannes Dotzler at Olympics at

Otaniemi Chapel

Otaniemi Chapel is a Lutheran chapel located in the Otaniemi campus of Aalto University in Espoo, Finland. The chapel was designed by the architect couple Heikki and Kaija Siren for a 1954 architectural competition, completed in 1956 and inaugurated in 1957. Located in the Student Village of the Otaniemi campus, the chapel was built by the student union of the Helsinki University of Technology; the students wanted something to remind them of "the wholeness of life and the values of human life" in the middle of their technical studies. The student union sold the chapel to Espoo parish in 1972. On 22 July 1976 the chapel burned down due to arson but it was built again to its original form in 1978; the chapel has been renovated in recent years: the technical systems of the building in 2008, the organ in 2009 and the sacristy in 2011. The chapel is located on a small hill in the woods, surrounded by birch trees; the main materials of the chapel are red brick and wood, tying the chapel together with other brick buildings in the campus area, including the main university buildings designed by Alvar Aalto.

The building is entered from a walled courtyard that has a bell tower. The chapel itself, past a clubroom, has two side walls made of bricks; the parallel walls "channel a progression from a secular to a spiritual view of nature": the altar wall made of glass, opening to the surrounding nature with a white cross standing among the trees. The presence of nature is pantheistic; the chapel belongs to Tapiola parish and hosts baptismal ceremonies and funerals. It is the gathering place for many associations, such as Christian student organizations and Bible study groups; the chapel has a 10-stop organ by Kangasala organ factory. In 2009 the chapel was awarded the International Carlo Scarpa Prize for Gardens; the jury called the building "masterly" simple and transparent, hailing the way nature and society come together at the site. The National Board of Antiquities has listed the chapel as a nationally significant built cultural heritage site as part of the Otaniemi campus and Docomomo has selected the building as a significant example of modern architecture in Finland.

Aalto University Dipoli Media related to Otaniemi Chapel at Wikimedia Commons Espoo Chapels at Evangelical Lutheran Parishes of Espoo website The Guild of the Cross – Christian student organization convening at the chapel