Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Liturgical calendar (Lutheran)
The Lutheran liturgical calendar is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by various Lutheran churches. The calendars of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada are from the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship and the calendar of Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church - Canada use the Lutheran Book of Worship and the 1982 Lutheran Worship. Elements unique to the ELCA have been updated from the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect changes resulting from the publication of Evangelical Lutheran Worship in 2006; the elements of the calendar unique to the LCMS have been updated from Lutheran Worship and the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect the 2006 publication of the Lutheran Service Book. The basic element to the calendar is Sunday, a festival of Jesus’ resurrection. However, Christian Churches have observed other festivals which commemorate events in the life of Jesus or of significant individuals in the history of the Church.
The purpose of the liturgical calendar is to guide commemorations as a part of the daily worship of the Lutheran Church. There is some variation associated with the observance of the calendar, as each Lutheran Church creates its own calendar and each congregation must choose independently how many individuals will be commemorated within a given year and how many festivals and lesser festivals they will publicly celebrate if they do not coincide with a Sunday; the Lutheran calendar operates on two different cycles: the Sanctoral Cycle. The Temporal Cycle pivots on the festivals of Easter. All Sundays and Festivals are related to these festivals; because Easter varies in date each year based on the vernal equinox and the phases of the moon, it is called a moveable feast. Dates affected by placement of Easter include Ash Wednesday and the start of Lent, the start of Easter itself and Holy Trinity. Advent, the other pivotal season on the calendar, comes four Sundays before the start of Christmas, or the Sunday closest to St. Andrew's Day.
Like the other Western Church calendars, the first Sunday of Advent is the first day of the liturgical year. The Sanctoral Cycle is the fixed daily commemorations of individuals and events not related to the Temporal Cycle of Sundays and Seasons, it is the Sanctoral Cycle, sometimes thought of as being the “Calendar of Saints” of a Church. Beyond their place in the Temporal or Sanctoral Cycles, the events commemorated on the Lutheran liturgical calendar fall into one of three different categories depending upon their liturgical priority: Festivals, Lesser Festivals, Commemorations; the Festivals are Nativity, the Baptism of our Lord, the Transfiguration, the Annunciation, Palm Sunday, the Ascension, Holy Trinity, All Saints, Christ the King. Most of these festivals are tied to the moveable feast of Easter. Festivals take precedence over all other days, including Sundays, have their own collects and Eucharistic proper prefaces. Of the festivals, Christmas is considered to be twelve days in length and Easter is fifty days in length.
For Easter, Sundays are considered to be another part of the festival. For the Ascension which, falling on fortieth day of Easter, will always be on a Thursday, the festival is sometimes transferred to the Seventh Sunday of Easter in addition to or in place of the normal part of the Easter festival for that day. There is another type of day; these days, called Days of Special Devotion, are Ash Wednesday and all the days of Holy Week Good Friday. These particular days, like other festivals, automatically take precedence over any event on the calendar and sometimes over other festivals. A good example of this would be in 2005 when the Annunciation fell on the same day; the Annunciation was transferred to March 28, or the second day of Easter, to make room for Good Friday. The principle of the Church of Sweden is that the Annunciation is celebrated on the Sunday between 21–27 March. One unique feature of the ELCA calendar is that it has given congregations the options of two dates for the Transfiguration.
Following most other Western Churches, the ELCA moved the Transfiguration from its August 6 date to the Last Sunday after Epiphany as an option to the traditional Last Sunday after Epiphany in an effort to encourage a wider observance of the Transfiguration within congregations. However, the traditional date of August 6 was left on the calendar. Congregations were given the option of observing Transfiguration on the Last Sunday after the Epiphany and August 6, thus leaving open the possibility that the Transfiguration could be commemorated twice within a calendar year. In Sweden, Transfiguration Day is celebrated on the seventh Sunday after Trinity Sunday, the eighth Sunday after Pentecost; these are days which are associated with the life of Christ or the Apostles and deserve attention in their own right. Lesser Festivals do not have priority over festivals and technically do not have precedence over ordinary Sundays. However, the Lutheran Book of Worship d
Easter Triduum, Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum, or The Three Days, is the period of three days that begins with the liturgy on the evening of Maundy Thursday, reaches its high point in the Easter Vigil, closes with evening prayer on Easter Sunday. It recalls the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus, as portrayed in the canonical Gospels. In the Anglican, Lutheran and Reformed traditions, the Paschal Triduum straddles the two liturgical seasons of Lent and Easter in the Church calendar. All these celebrations were advanced by more than twelve hours; the Mass of the Lord's Supper and the Easter Vigil were celebrated in the morning of Thursday and Saturday and Holy Week and Lent were seen as ending only on the approach of Easter. After the Gloria in Excelsis Deo at the Mass of the Lord's Supper all church bells are silenced and the organ is not used; the period that lasted from Thursday morning to before Easter Sunday began was once, in Anglo-Saxon times, referred to as "the still days". In the Catholic Church, which were once prohibited throughout the entire season of Lent and during certain other periods as well, are prohibited during the Triduum.
Lutherans still discourage weddings during the entirety of the Easter Triduum. In some Protestant denominations, the Triduum begins with an evening worship service on Maundy Thursday. In the Catholic Church, in the Mass of the Lord's Supper, during the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, all church bells may be rung and the organ played. After the homily of the Mass, "where a pastoral reason suggests it", a ritual washing of the feet follows; the Mass concludes with a procession of the Blessed Sacrament to the altar of repose. Eucharistic adoration is encouraged after this, but if continued after midnight should be done without outward solemnity. In the form of the Roman Rite in use before 1955, Mass was celebrated in the morning; some faithful travelled to several churches to pray at each one's Altar of Repose, a practice called Seven Churches Visitation, which now is associated rather with the morning of Good Friday. The Mass included no washing of the feet, which could instead be done in a separate ceremony in the day.
The Mass itself concluded with a ritual stripping of all altars except the altar of repose, leaving only the cross and candlesticks. In the present form as revised in 1955, the altar is stripped bare without ceremony at some time after the evening Mass; the liturgical colour for the Mass vestments and other ornaments is white in the Catholic Church. In the Lutheran Church, the liturgical colour for Maundy Thursday is white. In the Reformed tradition, white or gold may be used. On Good Friday, Christians recall the crucifixion of Jesus. In the Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic rites, a cross or crucifix is ceremonially unveiled. In the Catholic ritual, clergy traditionally begin the service prostrate in front of the altar. Mass is not celebrated on Good Friday and the communion distributed at the Celebration of the Lord's Passion is consecrated on Holy Thursday, hence the pre-1955 name "Mass of the Presanctified". In Anglican churches, there is no prayer of consecration on Good Friday, the Reserved Sacrament is distributed at services on that day.
In Catholicism, images of saints may, in accordance with local custom, be veiled throughout the last two weeks of Lent. Votive lights before these images are not lit. Crucifixes that are movable are hidden, while those that are not movable are veiled until after the Good Friday service. Catholic faithful venerate the crucifix by kissing the feet of the corpus. Veneration of a simple wooden cross is common in Anglican worship, with the faithful touching or kissing it. Colors of vestments vary: no color, red, or black are used in different traditions; the Catholic Church uses red vestments, symbolic of the blood of Jesus Christ, but in the pre-1970 form of the Roman Missal the priest wears black, changing to violet for the communion part of the service. In Anglican services, black vestments are sometimes used. In The United Methodist Church, black is the liturgical colour used on Good Friday. In the Lutheran churches, there is no liturgical color on Good Friday. Altars remain clergy wear no vestments on this day.
Called Black Saturday, is a vigil service, held after nightfall on Holy Saturday, or before dawn on Easter Sunday, in celebration of the resurrection of Jesus. Many of the details that follow hold for Anglican and Evangelical Lutheran churches as well as Catholic worship; the ceremony of darkness and light is held at the beginning of the Easter Vigil Mass. The paschal candle, whose lighting symbolizes the resurrection of Christ from the dead, is lit from the new Easter fire; the solemn procession to the altar with the Paschal candle is formed. Once everyone has processed in, the Exsultet is intoned. After the Exsultet, everyone is seated and listens to seven readings from the Old Testament and seven Psalms. At least three of these readings and associated psalms must be read, which must include the account of the first Passover from the Book of Exodus. Pastoral conditions are taken into account; these readings account salvation history, beginning with Creation. In Anglican worship, there
An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions; the English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος. It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, with the trump of God" and in relation to'the archangel Michael'; the corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" and in "Michael, the great prince". Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, the Baha'i Faith, by most Christians; some Protestants consider Michael to be the only archangel. Raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is recognized as an archangel in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, in the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 8.
The named archangels in Islam are Jibrael, Mikael and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the "highest of the angels", though the acceptance of this angel is not canonical in all branches of the faith; some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the named angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel and Raphael are always mentioned. In Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda. An increasing number of experts in anthropology and philosophy, believe that Zoroastrianism contains the earliest distillation of prehistoric belief in angels; the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the physical world to protect and inspire humanity and the spirit world; the Avesta explains the nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas. To maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness.
Ahura Mazda distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, along with Spenta Mainyu, aided in the creation of the physical universe. He oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations; the Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation believed to align each respective population in service to God. The Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are: Spenta Mainyu: lit.'Bountiful Spirit' Asha Vahishta: lit.'Highest Truth' Vohu Mano: lit.'Righteous Mind' Khshathra Vairya: lit.'Desirable Dominion' Spenta Armaiti: lit.'Holy Devotion' Haurvatat: lit.'Perfection or Health' Ameretat: lit.'Immortality' The Hebrew Bible uses the term מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is "malach," which means messenger, for the angels מלאכי יי are God's messengers to perform various missions - e.g.'angel of death'. Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned in the stories of Jacob and Lot.
Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name. It is therefore speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have ranked amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe, he is mentioned in the Talmud, figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as many Merkavah mystical texts.
The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods. In the Kabbalah there are ten archangels, each assigned to one sephira: Metatron, Tzaphkiel, Khamael, Haniel, Michael and Sandalphon. Chapter 20 of the Book of Enoch mentions seven holy angels who watch, that are considered the seven archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Sa
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation". According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus; the Annunciation is a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A work of art depicting the Annunciation is sometimes itself called an Annunciation. In the Bible, the Annunciation is narrated in Luke 1:26–38: 26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, 27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David.
The virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are favored! The Lord is with you.” 29 Mary was troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary. 31 You will conceive and give birth to a son, you are to call him Jesus. 32 He will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever. 34 “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God. 36 Even Elizabeth your relative is going to have a child in her old age, she, said to be unable to conceive is in her sixth month. 37 For no word from God will fail.” 38 “I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May your word to me be fulfilled.” The angel left her. A separate, briefer annunciation is given to Joseph in Matthew 1:18–22: 18 This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit.
19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, they will call him Immanuel”. Manuscript 4Q246 of the Dead Sea Scrolls reads: shall be great upon the earth. O king, all people shall make peace, all shall serve him, he shall be called the son of the Great God, by his name shall he be hailed as the Son of God, they shall call him Son of the Most High. It has been suggested that the similarity in content is such that Luke's version may in some way be dependent on the Qumran text.
The Annunciation is described in the Quran, in Sura 003:045 verses 45–51: 45 Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of those nearest to Allah. In the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Feast of the Annunciation is one of the twelve "Great Feasts" of the liturgical year, is among the eight of them that are counted as "feasts of the Lord". Throughout the Orthodox Church, the feast is celebrated on March 25. In the churches that use the new style Calendar, this date coincides with March 25 on the civil calendar, while in those churches using the old style Julian calendar, March 25 is reckoned to fall on April 7 on the civil calendar, will fall on April 8 starting in the year 2100; the traditional hymn for the feast of the Annunciation goes back to St Athanasius. It runs: As the action initiating the Incarnation of Christ, Annunciation has such an important place in Orthodox Christian theology that the festal Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is always celebrated on the feast if it falls on Great and Holy Friday, the day when the crucifixion of Jesus is remembered.
Indeed, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated on Great and Holy Friday only when the latter coincides with the feast of the Annunciation. If the Annunciation falls on Pascha itself, a coincidence, called Kyriopascha it is celebrated jointly with the Resurrection, the focus of Easter. Due to these and similar rules, the rubrics surrounding the celebration of the feast are the most complex of all in Orthodox Christian liturgics. St Ephraim taught that the date of the conception of Jesus Christ fell on 10 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar, the day in which the passover lamb was selected according to Exodus 12; some years 10 Nisan falls on March 25, the traditional date for the Feast of the Annunciation and is an offi