Baynard's Castle refers to buildings on two neighbouring sites in the City of London, between where Blackfriars station and St Paul's Cathedral now stand. The first was a Norman fortification constructed by Ralph Baynard and demolished by King John in 1213; the second was a medieval palace built a short distance to the southeast and destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. According to Sir Walter Besant, "There was no house in more interesting than this"; the original castle was built at the point where the old Roman walls and River Fleet met the River Thames, just east of what is now Blackfriars station. The Norman castle stood for over a century before being demolished by King John in 1213, it appears to have been rebuilt after the barons' revolt, but the site was sold in 1276 to form the precinct of the great priory of Blackfriars. About a century a new mansion was constructed on land, reclaimed from the Thames, southeast of the first castle; the house was rebuilt after 1428, became the London headquarters of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses.
Both King Edward IV and Queen Mary I of England were crowned at the castle. The house was reconstructed as a royal palace by Henry VII at the end of the 15th century, Henry VIII gave it to Catherine of Aragon on the eve of their wedding. After Henry's death the house came into the hands of Catherine Parr's brother-in-law, the Earl of Pembroke who built a large extension around a second courtyard in about 1551; the Pembroke family took the side of Parliament in the Civil War, after the Restoration the house was occupied by the Earl of Shrewsbury, a Royalist. Baynard's Castle was left in ruins after the Great Fire of London in 1666, although fragments survived into the 19th century; the site is now occupied by a BT office called Baynard House, but the castle is commemorated in Castle Baynard Street and the Castle Baynard ward of the City of London. Today the River Fleet has been reduced to a trickle in a culvert under New Bridge Street that emerges under Blackfriars Bridge, but before the development of London it was the largest river in the area after the Thames.
It formed the western boundary of the Roman city of London and the strategic importance of the junction of the Fleet and the Thames means that the area was fortified from early times. Richard of Cirencester suggests that Canute spent Christmas at such a fort in 1017, where he had Eadric Streona executed; some accounts claim. This fort was rebuilt after the Norman invasion by Ralph Baynard, a follower of William the Conqueror and sheriff of Essex, it was on the riverfront inside the Roman walls. The site of Baynard's Castle was adjacent to the church of St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, on the southern side of 160 Queen Victoria Street; this may be the Bainiardus mentioned in the Domesday Survey who gave his name to springs near Paddington called Baynard's Watering shortened to Bayswater. The castle was inherited by Ralph's son Geoffrey and his grandson William Baynard, but the latter forfeited his lands early in the reign of Henry I for supporting Henry's brother Robert Curthose in his claim to the throne.
After a few years in the hands of the king, the castle passed to Eustace, Count of Boulogne by 1106. John Stow gives 1111 as the date of forfeiture. In Henry's reign, the lordship of Dunmow and honour or soke of Baynard's Castle were granted to the king's steward, Robert Fitz Richard; the soke was coterminous with the parish of St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, adjacent to the Norman castle. Both Dunmow and Baynard's Castle were inherited by his grandson, Robert Fitzwalter. Fitzwalter was the leader of the barons' revolt against King John which culminated in the Magna Carta of 1215; the Chronicle of Dunmow relates that King John desired Fitzwalter's daughter, Matilda the Fair, Fitzwalter was forced to take up arms to defend the honour of his daughter. This romantic tale may well be propaganda giving legitimacy to a rebellion prompted by Fitzwalter's reluctance to pay tax or some other dispute, he plotted with the Welsh prince Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and Eustace de Vesci of Alnwick Castle in 1212. John got wind of the plot and exiled Fitzwalter and de Vesci, who fled to France and Scotland respectively.
On 14 January 1213 the king destroyed Castle Baynard. Fitzwalter was forgiven under the terms of the king's submission to Pope Innocent III in May 1213, his estates were restored on 19 July 1213 and according to Stow he was given licence to repair Castle Baynard and his other castles. It is not clear to what extent the castle was rebuilt, but in 1275 Fitzwalter's grandson called Robert, was given licence to sell the site to Robert Kilwardby, the Archbishop of Canterbury for the precinct of the great Dominican Priory at Blackfriars built in 1276. Montfichet's Tower was included in the sale, having been destroyed by King John in 1213; the building of the priory required the Roman walls to be rerouted, the military functions of the castle were taken up by a new "tower" in the river at the end of the walls. Started under the great castle-builder Edward I, it was completed during the reig
Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm. During Cranmer's tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England. Under Henry's rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first authorised vernacular service, the Exhortation and Litany; when Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a complete liturgy for the English Church.
With the assistance of several Continental reformers to whom he gave refuge, he changed doctrine or discipline in areas such as the Eucharist, clerical celibacy, the role of images in places of worship, the veneration of saints. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Homilies and other publications. After the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics and a martyr for the principles of the English Reformation. Cranmer's death was immortalised in Foxe's Book of Martyrs and his legacy lives on within the Church of England through the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-Nine Articles, an Anglican statement of faith derived from his work. Cranmer was born in 1489 at Aslockton in England.
He was a younger son of Thomas Cranmer by his wife Agnes Hatfield. Thomas Cranmer was of modest wealth but was from a well-established armigerous gentry family which took its name from the manor of Cranmer in Lincolnshire. Thomas was lord of the manor of Whatton, which had come to his great grandfather Edmund Cranmer by marriage with the heiress of the Aslactons, who held it from the reign of Henry II, it passed by an heiress of Cranmer, to Sir John Molyneux, who sold it to the Marquis of Dorchester, in 1792 was owned by the representative of the Duke of Kingston. A ledger stone to one of his relatives in Whatton Church, near Aslockton is inscribed as follows: Hic jacet Thomas Cranmer, qui obiit vicesimo septimo die mensis Maii, anno dni. MD centesimo primo, cui aie ppcietur Deus Amen; the arms on it are: A chevron between three cranes and Argent, five fusils in fesse gules each charged with an escallop or. The figure is that of a man in flowing hair and gown, a purse at his right side, their oldest son, John Cranmer, inherited the family estate, whereas Thomas and his younger brother Edmund were placed on the path to a clerical career.
Today historians know nothing definite about Cranmer's early schooling. He attended a grammar school in his village. At the age of fourteen, two years after the death of his father, he was sent to the newly created Jesus College, Cambridge, it took him a long eight years to reach his Bachelor of Arts degree following a curriculum of logic, classical literature and philosophy. During this time, he began to collect medieval scholastic books, which he preserved faithfully throughout his life. For his master's degree he took a different course of study, concentrating on the humanists, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples and Erasmus; this time he progressed with no special delay. Shortly after receiving his Master of Arts degree in 1515, he was elected to a Fellowship of Jesus College. Sometime after Cranmer took his MA, he married. Although he was not yet a priest, he was forced to forfeit his fellowship, resulting in the loss of his residence at Jesus College. To support himself and his wife, he took a job as a reader at Buckingham Hall.
When Joan died during her first childbirth, Jesus College showed its regard for Cranmer by reinstating his fellowship. He began studying theology and by 1520 he had been ordained, the university having named him as one of their preachers, he received his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1526. Not much is known about Cranmer's experiences during his three decades at Cambridge. Traditionally, he has been portrayed as a humanist whose enthusiasm for biblical scholarship prepared him for the adoption of Lutheran ideas, which were spreading during the 1520s. However, a study of his marginalia reveals an early antipathy to Martin Luther and an admiration for Erasmus; when Cardinal Wolsey, the king's Lord Chancellor, selected several Cambridge scholars, including Edward Lee, Stephen Gardiner and Richard Sampson, to be diplomats throughout Europe, Cranmer was chosen to take a minor role in the English embassy in Spain. Two discovered letters written by Cranmer describe an early encounter with the king, Henry VIII of England: upon Cranmer's return from Spain, in June 1527, the king interviewed Cranmer for half an hour.
Cranmer described the king as "the kindest of princes". Henry VIII's first marriage had
Leicester is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, the county town of Leicestershire. The city close to the eastern end of the National Forest; the 2016 mid year estimate of the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 348,300, an increase of 18,500 from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The associated urban area is the 11th most populous in England and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom. Leicester is at the intersection of two major railway lines—the north/south Midland Main Line and the east/west Birmingham to London Stansted CrossCountry line. Leicester is the home to football club Leicester City and rugby club Leicester Tigers; the name of Leicester is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre; the first element of the name, Ligora or Legora, is explained as a Brittonic river name, in a suggestion going back to William Somner an earlier name of the River Soar, cognate with the name of the Loire.
The second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum, reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name, Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain as an eponymous founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Leicester is one of the oldest cities in England, with a history going back at least two millennia; the native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. Little is known about this settlement or the condition of the River Soar at this time, although roundhouses from this era have been excavated and seem to have clustered along 8 hectares of the east bank of the Soar above its confluence with the Trent; this area of the Soar was split into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west, with a marshy island between. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel; the Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for "ramparts", suggesting the site was an oppidum.
The plural form of the name suggests it was composed of several villages. The Celtic tribe holding the area was recorded as the "Coritanians" but an inscription recovered in 1983 showed this to have been a corruption of the original "Corieltauvians"; the Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over the area of the East Midlands. It is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester area around AD 47, during their conquest of southern Britain; the Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road between the legionary camps at Isca and Lindum. It remains unclear whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the location, but it developed from around the year 50 onwards as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvians under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. In the 2nd century, it received a bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls and dating back to AD 300 was announced; the remains of the baths of Roman Leicester can be seen at the Jewry Wall.
Knowledge of the town following the Roman withdrawal from Britain is limited. There is some continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries, its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the History of the Britons. Following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia, it was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680. Their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived; the Saxon bishop, fled to Dorchester-on-Thames and Leicester did not become a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin became Leicester Cathedral in 1927. The settlement was recorded under the name Ligeraceaster in the early 10th century. Following the Norman conquest, Leicester was recorded by William's Domesday Book as Ledecestre, it was noted as a city but lost this status in the 11th century owing to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy and did not become a legal city again until 1919.
Geoffrey of Monmouth composed his History of the Kings of Britain around the year 1136, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure. According to Geoffrey's narrative, Cordelia had buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus and his feast day was an annual celebration; when Simon de Montfort became Lord of Leicester in 1231, he gave the city a grant to expel the Jewish population "in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world". He justified his action as being "for the good of my soul, for the souls of my ancestors and successors". Leicester's Jews were allowed to move to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by de Montfort's great-aunt and rival, Countess of Winchester, after she took advice from the scholar and cleric Robert Grosseteste. There is evidence that Jews remained there until 1253, enforcement of the banishment within the city was not rigorously enforced. De Montfort however issued a second edict for the expulsion of Leicester's Jews in 1253, after Grosseteste's death.
De Montfort's m
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford
Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, 1st Baron Beauchamp, KG, of Wulfhall and Tottenham House in Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, of Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset, of Netley Abbey, of Hertford House, Cannon Row in Westminster, is most noted for incurring the displeasure of Queen Elizabeth I by more than one clandestine marriage. He was the eldest son of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, brother of Queen Jane Seymour, uncle of King Edward VI and Lord Protector of England, by his second wife Anne Stanhope only child of Sir Edward Stanhope of Rampton in Nottinghamshire, by his wife Elizabeth Bourchier, a daughter of Fulk Bourchier, 10th Baron FitzWarin, feudal baron of Bampton in Devon. Although his father had sons by his first marriage, these were postponed by special remainder to the succession of his dukedom behind the male issue of his second marriage, due to the suspected adultery of his first wife; this senior line did inherit the dukedom in 1750, as the special remainder allowed, on the death of the 7th Duke of Somerset without male progeny.
From 1547, when his father was created Duke of Somerset, his son Edward Seymour was styled by the duke's subsidiary title of Earl of Hertford. He was educated with the young Prince Edward Edward VI, was knighted on the occasion of Edward's coronation. On 7 April 1550 he was sent to France as a hostage. Following his father's disgrace and execution, his son was barred from inheriting his titles and most of his wealth; some of his father's lands and property were restored to him by Edward VI, but he still seemed to have been forced to rely on Sir John Thynne for some financial support. Under Queen Mary he was "was not given back his title. Between April and May 1605 following the Treaty of London he was sent on an Embassy by King James I to Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands between 1598 and 1621, at Brussels, to receive his oath of peace, his first wife, Lady Catherine Grey, was a potential claimant to Elizabeth's throne, law established that it was a penal offence for her to marry without notifying the Sovereign.
They were married by an anonymous clergyman at Hertford House in Cannon Row, before 25 December 1560. The marriage was kept secret until August nearly a year when Catherine became visibly pregnant and she confided the reason to Lord Robert Dudley; each was ordered to confinement in the Tower. While in custody, they were questioned about every aspect of their marriage, but they both claimed to have forgotten the date. A commission was begun, headed by Archbishop Parker in February 1562. Under this pressure, Lady Catherine declared that they had waited for Elizabeth to quit the capital for Eltham Palace. Servants were questioned, none of them could remember the exact date either. John Fortescue said it was'in November'; the priest could not be located, but by consulting the accounts of the Cofferer of the Household the marriage date was decided to be 27 November. His son Edward was declared illegitimate and the father was fined 15,000 pounds in Star Chamber for "seducing a virgin of the blood royal."
Despite all this, the Earl found a way to continue marital relations with his wife in the Tower. In February 1563, Thomas Seymour was born. Lady Catherine died in 1568, Seymour was allowed out of the Tower and allowed to re-appear at court, his sons remained bastards. In 1576 he carried the sword of state at Elizabeth's procession of the knights of the garter. Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, eldest son and heir, born in the Tower of London, he predeceased his father, having married Honora Rogers and had male progeny including his eldest surviving son William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, restored in 1660 on the Restoration of the Monarchy to the Dukedom forfeited on the attainder of the 1st Duke in 1552. The 2nd Duke, like his grandfather, was imprisoned for marrying in secret to a wife with royal blood, namely Arbella Stuart, his monumental brass inscription survives in Great Bedwyn Church, inscribed in Latin as follows:Bellocamp eram, Graia genetrice, Semerus. Tres habui natos, est quibus una soror Thomas Seymour, 2nd son, born in the Tower of London, who predeceased his father and died without progeny, having married Isabell Onley, daughter of Edward Onley, Esquire, of Catesby in Northamptonshire, MP for Brackley in 1563.
Thomas's mural monument by the sculptor Epiphanius Evesham, survives in St Margaret's Church, showing kneeling effigies of himself and his wife, inscribed as follows:"Here in peace resteth ye bodyes of Thomas Seymour, second sone to ye right honourable Edward, Earle of Hartford, Esable his wife, eldest daughter to Edward Onley of Katesby in ye county of Northampton Esq. wh said Thomas departed this mortall life ye eight day of August 1600 & ye said Esable ye twenth day of August 1619 in ye true faith of Jesus Christ & in ye blesse hope of a joyfull resurection". In 1582, he married Frances Howard, their union was in secret, remained a secret for nearly a decade, with Frances serving as a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber. Hertford attempted to hav
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age. Young women of sufficient means, or those of either gender of a more humble origin who could find a sponsor, could partake; the custom—which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary—served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans. By the mid 18th century, the Grand Tour had become a regular feature of aristocratic education in Central Europe, as well, although it was restricted to the higher nobility; the tradition declined as enthusiasm for neo-classical culture waned, with the advent of accessible rail and steamship travel—an era in which Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" of early mass tourism a byword.
The New York Times in 2008 described the Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent; the primary value of the Grand Tour lay in its exposure to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent. In addition, it provided the only opportunity to view specific works of art, the only chance to hear certain music. A Grand Tour could last anywhere from several months to several years, it was undertaken in the company of a Cicerone, a knowledgeable guide or tutor. The Grand Tour had more than superficial cultural importance; the legacy of the Grand Tour lives on to the modern day and is still evident in works of travel and literature.
From its aristocratic origins and the permutations of sentimental and romantic travel to the age of tourism and globalization, the Grand Tour still influences the destinations tourists choose and shapes the ideas of culture and sophistication that surround the act of travel. In essence, the Grand Tour was neither a scholarly pilgrimage nor a religious one, though a pleasurable stay in Venice and a residence in Rome were essential. Catholic Grand Tourists followed the same routes as Protestant Whigs. Since the 17th century, a tour to such places was considered essential for budding artists to understand proper painting and sculpture techniques, though the trappings of the Grand Tour—valets and coachmen a cook a "bear-leader" or scholarly guide—were beyond their reach; the advent of popular guides, such as the book An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs and Pictures in Italy published in 1722 by Jonathan Richardson and his son Jonathan Richardson the Younger, did much to popularise such trips, following the artists themselves, the elite considered travel to such centres as necessary rites of passage.
For gentlemen, some works of art were essential to demonstrate the breadth and polish they had received from their tour. In Rome, antiquaries like Thomas Jenkins were dealers and were able to sell and advise on the purchase of marbles. Coins and medals, which formed more portable souvenirs and a respected gentleman's guide to ancient history were popular. Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting the English milordi posed with graceful ease among Roman antiquities. Many continued on to Naples, where they viewed Herculaneum and Pompeii, but few ventured far into Southern Italy, fewer still to Greece still under Turkish rule. Rome for many centuries had been the goal of pilgrims during Jubilee when they visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome. In Britain, Thomas Coryat's travel book Coryat's Crudities, published during the Twelve Years' Truce, was an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the'Collector' Earl of Arundel, with his wife and children in 1613–14 that established the most significant precedent.
This is because he asked Inigo Jones, not yet established as an architect but known as a'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone. Larger numbers of tourists began their tours after the Peace of Münster in 1648. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of the term was by Richard Lassels, an expatriate Roman Catholic priest, in his book The Voyage of Italy, published posthumously in Paris in 1670 and in London. Lassels's introduction listed four areas in which travel furnished "an accomplished, consummate Traveller": the intellectual, the social, the ethical, the political; the idea of travelling for the sake of curiosity and learning was a developing idea in the 17th century. With John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, it was argued, accepted, that knowledge comes entire
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel. Portrait miniatures developed out of the techniques of the miniatures in illuminated manuscripts, were popular among 16th-century elites in England and France, spread across the rest of Europe from the middle of the 18th-century, remaining popular until the development of daguerreotypes and photography in the mid-19th century, they were intimate gifts given within the family, or by hopeful males in courtship, but some rulers, such as James I of England, gave large numbers as diplomatic or political gifts. They were likely to be painted when a family member was going to be absent for significant periods, whether a husband or son going to war or emigrating, or a daughter getting married; the first miniaturists used watercolour to paint on stretched vellum, or on playing cards trimmed to the shape required. During the second half of the 17th century, vitreous enamel painted on copper became popular in France.
In the 18th century, miniatures were painted with watercolour on ivory, which had now become cheap. As small in size as 40 mm × 30 mm, portrait miniatures were fitted into lockets, inside watch-covers or pieces of jewellery so that they could be carried on the person. Others were hung on a wall, or fitted into snuff box covers; the portrait miniature developed from the illuminated manuscript, superseded for the purposes of book illustration by techniques such as woodprints and calc printing. The earliest portrait miniaturists were famous manuscript painters like Jean Fouquet, Simon Bening, whose daughter Levina Teerlinc painted portrait miniatures, moved to England, where her predecessor as court artist, Hans Holbein the Younger painted some miniatures. Lucas Horenbout was another Netherlandish miniature painter at the court of Henry VIII. France had a strong tradition of miniatures, centred on the court, although this came to concentrate in the mid-16th century on larger images, about the range of sizes of the modern paperback book, which might not qualify as miniatures in the usual sense.
These might be paintings, or finished drawings with some colour, were produced by François Clouet, his followers. The earliest French miniature painters were Jean Clouet, his son François Clouet, Jean Perréal and others; the seven portraits in the Manuscript of the Gallic War are assigned to the eider Clouet. Following these men we find Simon Renard de St. André, Jean Cotelle. Others whose names might be mentioned were Joseph Werner, Rosalba Carriera; the first famous native English portrait miniaturist is Nicholas Hilliard, whose work was conservative in style but sensitive to the character of the sitter. The colours are opaque, gold is used to heighten the effect, while the paintings are on card, they are signed, have also a Latin motto upon them. Hilliard worked for a while in France, he is identical with the painter alluded to in 1577 as Nicholas Belliart. Hilliard was succeeded by his son Lawrence Hilliard. Isaac Oliver and his son Peter Oliver succeeded Hilliard. Isaac was the pupil of Hilliard.
Peter was the pupil of Isaac. The two men were the earliest to give roundness and form to the faces they painted, they signed their best works in monogram, painted not only small miniatures, but larger ones measuring as much as 10 in × 9 in. They copied for Charles I of England on a small scale many of his famous pictures by the old masters. Other miniaturists at about the same date included Balthazar Gerbier, George Jamesone, Penelope Cleyn and her brothers. John Hoskins was followed by a son of the same name, known to have been living in 1700, since a miniature signed by him and bearing that date is in the Pierpont Morgan collection, representing James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick. Samuel Cooper was a nephew and student of the elder Hoskins, is considered the greatest English portrait miniaturist, he spent much of his time in Paris and Holland, little is known of his career. His work has a superb breadth and dignity, has been well called life-size work in little, his portraits of the men of the Puritan epoch are remarkable for their truth to life and strength of handling.
He painted upon card, chicken skin and vellum, on two occasions upon thin pieces of mutton bone. The use of ivory was not introduced until long after his time, his work is signed with his initials in gold, often with the addition of the date. Other miniaturists of this period include Alexander Cooper, who painted a series of portraits of the children of the king and queen of Bohemia, they are followed by such artists as Gervase Spencer, Bernard Lens III, Nathaniel Hone and Jeremiah Meyer, the latter two notable in connection with the foundation of the Royal Academy. The workers in black lead must not be overlooked David Loggan, William Fai