Yasothon is a town on the Chi River in the north-eastern region of Thailand. It is seat of its City District. Within this district, subdistrict Nai Mueang comprises the bounds of the town proper, which had a population of 21,134 in 2005, it lies 531 km north-east of the Thai capital. In AD 1811/2354 B. E. Chao Racha Wong Singh more transliterated Sing, led a number of people to landing on the River Chi, to found a town on a bluff by a deserted temple ground. Sing was a son of Chao Phraya Wichai in the capital of Champasak The town was first called Ban Sing Kow or Ban Sing Tha. While there are numerous Khmer artifacts in and around the city, no written history is known prior to that year. A weather-worn and now nearly illegible marker erected by Thailand's Fine Arts department for a Khmer chedi by Wat Sing Tha, related that during the Thonburi Era, grandson Thao Kham Su called the settlement Ban Sing Thong; the wat, deserted until dense jungle growth blocked the landing, was cleared, re-built and renamed after the new village.
The change from Thong to Tha was influenced by two factors: Tha means port or landing. And pose with many connotations, thus the change in name to Sing Tha means Port Lion, Imposing Lion such as those posed on the Lion Gate, on pedestals on the temple grounds. In AD 1814/2357 B. E. King Rama II announced a change in the town's name to Mueang Yasothon; the name proposed had been Mueang Yotsunthon At the same time, the Chao of Yasothon received a new style: Phra Sunthorn Racha Wongsa Yasothon was successively governed by five Phra Sunthon Ratcha Wongsa: Singh or Sing, 1815–1823. During the 1827–1829 Laotian Rebellion led by Chao Anouvong, Fai was active in encouraging left bank people to migrate to establish their muang on the right bank of the Mekong. King Rama III, in recognition of his achievements appointed him as chao muang of Nakhon Phanom, he governed both Yasothon and Nakhon Phanom. On 15 August 2011, in the Thai solar calendar month of Singhakhom a monument was erected in the city on the grounds of Wat Srithammaram, dedicated to Singh, the first Phra Sunthon Ratcha Wongsa.
Rain fell as the statue was raised onto its pedestal, but the sun broke through at 5 p.m. to smile on the dedication. The town's unofficial nickname is Mueang Yot Nakhon เมืองยศนคร Proud Capital. Chao Phraya Bodindecha, is held annually over the weekend that falls in the middle of the month of May; the festival's origins lie in a custom of firing rockets into the sky at the start of the rice-growing season to remind King of the Sky, Phaya Thaen, to send promised rain. The festival is a competition marked by a weekend of celebration, including decorated floats parading through the town, accompanied by partying, music, a fair. Friday the main thoroughfare is transformed into a parade ground lined on both sides by concert stages, which will feature Mor lam performers throughout the night. Saturday sponsored. Many of the traditional dances and floats have to do with the legend of Phadaeng and Nang Ai, but others have to do with that year's particular theme. Sunday the action moves from the city center to Phaya Thaen Park at its eastern edge.
The park is not only a beautiful playground with an athletic sta
Ministry of Interior (Thailand)
The Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Thailand is a cabinet-level department in the Government of Thailand. The ministry has wide ranging responsibilities; the ministry is responsibile for local administration, internal security, disaster management, road safety, land management, issuance of national identity cards, public works. The ministry is responsible for appointing the 76 governors of the Provinces of Thailand; the minister of interior is the head of the ministry. He is appointed by the King of Thailand on the recommendation of the prime minister. Since 30 August 2014, the head of the ministry has been retired General Anupong Paochinda, he is aided by one deputy minister. The ministry in its present form was founded by King Chulalongkorn in his reforms of the Siamese government; the ministry was founded on the 1 April 1892. He appointed his brother Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, to be its first "minister of state". At the time the ministry was divided into three divisions: the central division, the northern division, the local administration division.
Prince Damrong as a result the entire country. He created a complete new system of sub-divisions of the kingdom, he and the ministry took on so much power. After King Vajiravudh succeeded his father in 1910, the relationship between king and Prince Damrong deteriorated. In 1915 Prince Damrong resigned citing health reasons, though it was an open secret that disagreements with the king were the real reason. During the Revolution of 1932, the Minister of Interior was Prince Paribatra Sukhumbandhu, exiled after the revolution because of his power. From on the minister became an appointed position within the Cabinet of Thailand. Most ministers had been former police officials; the MOI, being responsible for provincial affairs, will, in conjunction with other ministries, deploy 7,663 teams to visits to 83,151 communities starting 21 February 2018 to explain the NCPO's Thai Niyom project. At meetings with people in each village, the ministry will a host free lunch for all participants, including villagers, resource persons, officials.
The interior minister explained that most of the Thai Niyom two-billion baht luncheon budget is to be spent on food for villagers, estimated at about 50 baht per head. Four visits will be made by officials to each village. Overall, the program was to cost 47 billion baht. In addition to the two billion baht luncheon budget, the combined ministries have been allocated 3.2 billion baht to help farmers switch to "economical crops". The budget has since swollen to 100 billion baht. Thai Niyom, as defined by Gen Prayut Chan-o-cha, is "Thainess without ignoring global practices and international norms", it is neither nationalism nor patriotism and it is different from populism. "It is the extent of the pracharat policy which emphasises internal growth and public participation and support while the government seeks cooperation from the private sector and the academic sector. Cooperation creates the power of three—government and private sector," he said. A 61-member panel known as "steering committee for development under sustainable Thai Niyom Yangyeun projects" was set up to supervise the program.
Each tambon team will have 7 to 12 members, consisting of local officials, security personnel and volunteers brought together under the "Tam Kwam Dee Duay Hua Jai" project. Interior Minister Anupong Paojinda denied the program was aimed at boosting the popularity of the military government, he insisted. The Thai Niyom program was launched by Prayut in Nonthaburi Province on 9 February 2018 to all 76 provincial governors, chiefs of 878 districts, high ranking officials of related agencies; the 100 billion baht program allocates 35 billion baht for "grass-roots" economic development, 34.5 billion baht for tourism, community development, village funds, 30 billion for agricultural reform. The four phases of the project run until 20 May 2018. Office of the Minister Office of the Permanent Secretary Community Development Department Department of Lands Department of Provincial Administration Department of Local Administration Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Department of Public Works and Town and Country Planning The Marketing Organization Metropolitan Electricity Authority Provincial Electricity Authority Metropolitan Waterworks Authority Provincial Waterworks Authority Royal Thai Police Administrative divisions of Thailand Thesaban Provinces of Thailand Cabinet of Thailand List of Government Ministers of Thailand Government of Thailand Ministry of Interior
The Thai Chinese known as Chinese Thais or Sino-Thais, are an ethnic Chinese community in Thailand. Thai Chinese are the largest minority group in Thailand and the largest overseas Chinese community in the world with a population of 10 million people, accounting for 14% of the total population of the country as of 2012, it is the oldest and most prominent integrated overseas Chinese community. More than half of the ethnic Chinese population in Thailand trace their ancestry to eastern Guangdong; this is evidenced by the prevalence of the Southern Min Chaozhou dialect among the Chinese in Thailand. A minority trace their ancestry to Hainanese immigrants; the Thai Chinese have been ingrained into all elements of Thai society over the past 200 years. The present Thai royal family, the Chakri dynasty, was founded by King Rama I who himself was Chinese, his predecessor, King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom, was the son of a Thai mother and a Chinese immigrant from Guangdong Province. With the successful integration of historic Chinese immigrant communities throughout Thailand, a significant number of Thai Chinese are the descendants of intermarriages between Chinese immigrants and native Thais.
Many Thai Chinese have assimilated into Thai society and self-identify as Thai. Thai Chinese are a well established middle class ethnic group and are well represented in all levels of Thai society. Thai Chinese play a leading role in Thailand's business sector and dominate the Thai economy today. In addition, Thai Chinese have a strong presence in Thailand's political scene with most of Thailand's former Prime Ministers and the majority of parliament having at least some Chinese ancestry. Thailand has the largest overseas Chinese community in the world outside China. Fourteen percent of Thailand's population is considered ethnic Chinese; the Thai linguist Theraphan Luangthongkum estimates the share of those having at least Chinese ancestry at about 40 percent. For assimilated second and third generation descendants of Chinese immigrants, it is principally a personal choice whether or not to identify themselves as ethnic Chinese. Nonetheless, nearly all Thai Chinese sole self-identify as Thai, due to their close integration and successful assimilation into Thai society.
G William Skinners observed that the level of assimilation of the descendants of Chinese immigrants in Thailand disproved the "myth about the'unchanging Chinese'", noting that "assimilation is considered complete when the immigrant's descendant identifies himself in all social situations as a Thai, speaks Thai language habitually and with native fluency, interacts by choice with Thai more than with Chinese." Skinners believed that the assimilation success of the Thai Chinese was a result of the wise policy of the Thai rulers who, since the 17th century, allowed able Chinese tradesmen to advance their ranks into the kingdom's nobility. The rapid and successful assimilation of the Thai Chinese has been celebrated by the Chinese descendants themselves, as evident in contemporary literature such as the novel Letters from Thailand by Botan. Today, the Thai Chinese constitute a significant part of the royalist/nationalist movements; when the prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra was ousted from power in 2006, it was Mr. Sondhi Limthongkul, another prominent Thai Chinese businessman, who formed and led People’s Alliance for Democracy movement to overthrow the Thaksin government.
Mr. Sondhi accused Mr. Thaksin of corruption based on improper business ties between Thaksin's corporate empire and the Singapore-based Temasek Holdings Group; the Thai Chinese in and around Bangkok were the main participants of the months-long political campaign against the government of Ms. Yingluck, between November 2013 and May 2014, the event which culminated in the military takeover in May 2014. Han Chinese traders from Fujian and Guangdong, began arriving in Ayutthaya by at least the 13th century. According to the Chronicles of Ayutthaya, King Ekathotsarot had been "concerned with ways of enriching his treasury," and was "greatly inclined toward strangers and foreign nations," Spain, China and the Philippines. Ayutthaya was under constant Burmese threat from the 16th century onward, the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty was alarmed by Burmese military might. From 1766-1769, the Qianlong Emperor sent his armies four times to subdue the Burmese, but the Sino-Burmese Wars ended in complete failure and Ayutthaya fell in the Burmese–Siamese War.
However, the Chinese efforts did divert the attention of Burma's Siam army. General Taksin, himself the son of a Chinese immigrant, took advantage of this to organize his force and attack the Burmese invaders; when he became king, Taksin encouraged Chinese immigration and trade. Settlers from Chaozhou prefecture came to Siam in large numbers. Immigration continued over the following years, the Chinese population in Thailand jumped from 230,000 in 1825 to 792,000 by 1910. By 1932 12.2 percent of the population of Thailand was Chinese. The early Chinese immigration consisted entirely of men who did not bring women. Therefore, it became common for male Chinese immigrants to marry local Thai women; the children of such relationships were called luk-jin in Thai. These Chinese-Thai intermarriages declined somewhat in the early 20th century, when significant numbers of Chinese women began immigrating to Thailand; the corruption of the Qing dynasty and the massive population increase in China, along with high taxes, caused many men to leave China for Thailand in search of work.
If successful, they se
The Grand Palace are a complex of buildings at the heart of Bangkok, Thailand. The palace has been the official residence of the Kings of Siam since 1782; the king, his court, his royal government were based on the grounds of the palace until 1925. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, resided at the Chitralada Royal Villa and his successor King Vajiralongkorn at the Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall, both in the Dusit Palace, but the Grand Palace is still used for official events. Several royal ceremonies and state functions are held within the walls of the palace every year; the palace is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Thailand. Construction of the palace began on 6 May 1782, at the order of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok, the founder of the Chakri Dynasty, when he moved the capital city from Thonburi to Bangkok. Throughout successive reigns, many new buildings and structures were added during the reign of King Chulalongkorn. By 1925, the king, the Royal Family and the government were no longer permanently settled at the palace, had moved to other residences.
After the abolition of absolute monarchy in 1932, all government agencies moved out of the palace. In shape, the palace complex is rectangular and has a combined area of 218,400 square metres, surrounded by four walls, it is situated on the banks of the Chao Phraya River at the heart of the Rattanakosin Island, today in the Phra Nakhon District. The Grand Palace is bordered by Sanam Luang and Na Phra Lan Road to the north, Maharaj Road to the west, Sanam Chai Road to the east and Thai Wang Road to the south. Rather than being a single structure, the Grand Palace is made up of numerous buildings, pavilions set around open lawns and courtyards, its asymmetry and eclectic styles are due to its organic development, with additions and rebuilding being made by successive reigning kings over 200 years of history. It is divided into several quarters: the Temple of the Emerald Buddha; the Grand Palace is partially open to the public as a museum, but it remains a working palace, with several royal offices still situated inside.
The construction of the Grand Palace began on 6 May 1782, at the order of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok. Having seized the crown from King Taksin of Thonburi, King Rama I was intent on building a capital city for his new Chakri Dynasty, he moved the seat of power from the city of Thonburi, on the west side of the Chao Phraya River, to the east side at Bangkok. The new capital city was turned into an artificial island; the island was given the name'Rattanakosin'. The previous royal residence was the Derm Palace, constructed for King Taksin in 1768; the new palace was built on a rectangular piece of land on the west side of the island, between Wat Pho to the south, Wat Mahathat to the north and with the Chao Phraya River on the west. This location was occupied by a Chinese community, whom King Rama I ordered to relocate to an area south and outside of the city walls. Desperate for materials and short on funds, the palace was built out of wood, its various structures surrounded by a simple log palisade.
On 10 June 1782, the king ceremonially crossed the river from Thonburi to take permanent residence in the new palace. Three days on 13 June, the king held an abbreviated coronation ceremony, thus becoming the first monarch of the new Rattanakosin Kingdom. Over the next few years the king began replacing wooden structures with masonry, rebuilding the walls, gates, throne halls and royal residences; this rebuilding included the royal chapel. To find more material for these constructions, King Rama I ordered his men to go upstream to the old capital city of Ayutthaya, destroyed in 1767 during a war between Burma and Siam, they dismantled structures and removed as many bricks as they could find, while not removing any from the temples. They began by taking materials from the walls of the city. By the end they had leveled the old royal palaces; the bricks were ferried down the Chao Phraya by barges, where they were incorporated into the walls of Bangkok and the Grand Palace itself. Most of the initial construction of the Grand Palace during the reign of King Rama I was carried out by conscripted or corvée labour.
After the final completion of the ceremonial halls of the palace, the king held a full traditional coronation ceremony in 1785. The layout of the Grand Palace followed that of the Royal Palace at Ayutthaya in location, in the divisions of separate courts, walls and forts. Both palaces featured a proximity to the river; the location of a pavilion serving as a landing stage for barge processions corresponded with that of the old palace. To the north of the Grand Palace there is a large field, the Thung Phra Men, used as an open space for royal ceremonies and as a parade ground. There was a similar field in Ayutthaya, used for the same purpose; the road running north leads to the residence of the Second King of Siam. The Grand Palace is divided into four main courts, separated by numerous walls and gates: the Outer Court, the Middle Court, the Inner Court and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha; each of these court's functions and access are defined by laws and traditions. The Outer Court
Roi Et is a town in north-eastern Thailand, capital of Roi Et Province. It covers the whole tambon Nai Mueang of Mueang Roi Et district; as of 2006 it had a population of 34,229. Roi Et is 514 km from Bangkok. Roi Et lies on a flat plain about 150 metres above sea level. Roi Et has a tropical savanna climate. Winters are dry and warm. Temperatures rise until April, hot with the average daily maximum at 35.7 °C. The monsoon season runs from May through October, with heavy rain and somewhat cooler temperatures during the day, although nights remain warm. Route 214 leads north to Kalasin and south to Kaset Wisai and Prasat. Route 2044 leads east to Phon Thong. Route 23 leads west to Maha Sarakham and Ban Phai, east to Yasothon and Ubon Ratchathani. Route 215 leads south to the border with Surin Province. Roi Et is served by Roi Et Airport to the north of the town. Roi Et travel guide from Wikivoyage
Sala (Thai architecture)
A sala known as a sala Thai, is an open pavilion, used as a meeting place and to protect people from sun and rain. With etymological roots in the Sanskrit sala, the word in Thai connotes buildings for specific purposes, such as sala klang. Most are open on all four sides, they are found throughout Thailand in Buddhist temple areas, or wats, although they can be at other places. A person who builds a sala at a temple or in a public place gains religious merit. A sala located in a temple is called a salawat; some temples have large salas where laity can receive religious instruction. These are called sala kan parian, meaning'pavilion where monks learn for the Parian examination'; the city halls or offices of the province governors are called sala klang changwat. In Thailand, they have many purposes similar to the roadside pavilions of Asoka. In rural areas, travelers can use them to reflect; these salas are called sala asai. One at the roadside may be used as a bus stop. If on a riverbank or canal at a landing-place for watercraft, they are called sala tha nam. Sala corresponds to the Sanskrit word शाला, cognate of Hindi शाल, meaning hall, large room or shed.
Zayat Elements and parts of Thai architecture East-West Center, A Commemorative Book by the Thai Students at the East-West Center on the Occasion of the Presentation of the Asia Pacific Community Building Award and Dedication of the Royal Sala Thai, East-west Center, 2008
Rama II of Siam
Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai or Rama II was the second monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Rama I, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Loetlanaphalai the King of Siam, his reign was peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Loetlanaphalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist; the most notable poet in his employ was the author of Phra Aphai Mani. Chim was born in 1767 during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in Samut Songkram. Chim was a son of Luang Yokkrabat of Ratchaburi and Nak of Samut Sakorn, as his father and mother was known, they would become King Rama I and Queen Amarindra, respectively. In 1767, Ayutthaya fell to Konbaung Burmese invaders, his father, Phraya Ratchaburi, joined Taksin's forces to recapture the city. Under King Taksin, Chim's father rose to high rank as a military leader and was assigned with the campaigns to subjugate Laos and Cambodia.
In 1782, his father crowned himself King of Siam and Chim himself was raised to the title of Prince Itsarasunthon of Siam. Loetlanaphalai, with his concubine Sri Sulalai, fathered Prince Tub in 1787. Prince Itsarasunthon had a secret affair with his own cousin, Princess Bunrod. In 1801, Rama I found out that Princess Bunrod had been pregnant for four months and banished her out of the palace to live with her brother. Itsarasunthon, however begged his father to forgive him and the princess was reinstated and became his consort through the negotiation by concubine Khamwaen; the baby died just after its birth. With Princess Bunrod, Loetlanaphalai fathered Mongkut and Pinklao. Prince Itsarasunthon was appointed to the Front Palace as Lord of the Front Palace or Uparaja in 1807 to succeed his uncle Maha Sura Singhanat who had died in 1803, though he continued to stay at the Thonburi Palace. Among his many other children was Prince Wongsa Dhiraj Snid, a royal physician for many years as well as a field commander and diplomat.
As the eldest surviving legitimate son of Rama I, Prince Itsarasunthon succeeded to throne when Buddha Yotfa Chulaloke died in 1809. No royal naming system was established at the time, he was named by his son Nangklao as Loetlanaphalai and by the Rama convention, called Rama II. His consort, Princess Bunrod, was raised to Queen Sri Suriyendra; as soon as Loetlanaphalai ascended the throne, Prince Kshatranichit, the surviving son of Taksin, rebelled as pretender to the throne. Loetlanaphalai's son, Prince Tub crushed the rebellion, proving himself to be competent, thus gaining his father's favor. Prince Tub was raised to Kromma Muen, given the Sanskrit-derived name Jessadabodindra, made Minister of Foreign Affairs.) The Konbaung king Bodawpaya, seeing that Rama I was dead, marched an army into Chumphon and conquered Thalang in the same year. Loetlanaphalai sent his brother Maha Senanurak the Front Palace to recapture Thalang, razed to the ground; this "Thalang campaign" was the last invasion by the Burmese into Thai territory.
It was said that during Rama II's reign, if one could write a refined piece of poetry one would be able to become a royal favorite, as Loetlanaphalai himself was a poet. The reign was a cultural renaissance after the massive wars. Poets employed by Rama II included Sunthorn Phu Narin Dhibet, his sons and Paramanuchitchinorot, were encouraged to excel in poetry. Poramanuchit became a Sangharaj and was well known for his religious works. Rama II's reign saw the reconstruction of Thai royal traditions. In 1811, the grand royal funeral was held for King Rama I. In the same year, a cholera epidemic broke out in Bangkok. Loetlanaphalai ordered sickness-repelling ceremonies to be performed, he established the education and the examination system of Buddhism by dividing it into nine levels. In 1817, the Vesak festival was restored. In 1810, the first Rattanakosin-to-China mission was sent to the Jiaqing Emperor. Since the Siamese revolution of 1688, Western presence had been reduced to a small scale as the Thai Kings ceased to encourage foreign influence.
This, coupled with the Napoleonic Wars, meant there was little contact between Thailand and foreigners. However, the wars caused many subsequent changes; the British interest in Malaya increased. The Sultan of Kedah, a Siamese vassal, gave Penang off to the British without consulting Siam in 1786, followed by the British acquisition of Seberang Perai. Soon the British replaced the Dutch as the dominating naval power south of Siam; the mission of the Portuguese governor of Macau in 1818 was the first formal Western contact in Siam since the Ayutthaya times. The British founded Singapore in 1819 and Jaslis, a missionary from Yangon, introduced the printing press in the same year; the Portuguese established the first western consulate in 1820. The first renewed formal British visit was made by John Crawfurd in 1822. In July 1824, he died "very suddenly", it was said to be caused by strangury, but rumours were not without strong suspicions of his being poisoned. According to the succession rule theoretically in force, the throne would go to the son of Queen Sri Suriyendra, Prince Mongkut.
Though only the son