Linda Valley is a valley in the West Coast Range of Tasmania. It was earlier known as the Vale of Chamouni, it is between Mount Lyell. Linda Valley is the location of two historical settlements and Gormanston; these settlements were close to the Mount Lyell mines and workings, at the western edge of Lake Burbury, east of the old Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company operations. The terminus of the North Mount Lyell Railway was at Gormanston for a short time, the main point of operations for the railway was the yard and railway station at Linda, known as the Linda Valley station in early records. A curiosity in the landscape is the formation created for the Comstock Tram, proposed to circumnavigate Mount Lyell but was never completed, it started at Linda; the formation created can still be seein in parts around the sides of Mount Lyell. The valley suffered from extensive bushfires in the early twentieth century, as a consequence the forested valley became denuded. Large numbers of tree stumps line the Mount Lyell slopes in the valley a hundred years after the fires.
The valley is the site of extensive evidence of glaciation in the West Coast Range with a particular stage known as the Linda Glacial stage The valley is known as part of the landscape affected by the King River Glacier, which left moraine at Crotty and Henty River The valley's glacial moraine is the only Late Pliocene site with plant fossil assemblages in Tasmania and one of only a few in Australia. The valley has been part of recent mineral exploration lease areas - however prospective mineral deposits have not been located to date due to the glacial moraine. Geology of Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania: A Land of Riches and Beauty
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Queenstown is a town in the West Coast region of the island of Tasmania, Australia. It is in a valley on the western slopes of Mount Owen on the West Coast Range. At the 2016 census, Queenstown had a population of 1,755 people. Queenstown's history has long been tied to the mining industry; this mountainous area was first explored in 1862. It was long after that when alluvial gold was discovered at Mount Lyell, prompting the formation of the Mount Lyell Gold Mining Company in 1881. In 1892, the mine began searching for copper; the final name of the Mount Lyell company was Railway Company. Early in 1895 a Post Office was opened at Penghana, at the Queen River fork and crossing, about a kilometre north of present-day Queenstown on the road to Strahan; the only other substantial building nearby was Robertson & Hunter's store.. Queenstown Post Office opened on 21 November 1896 and the Penghana office closed; the name "Penghana" was adopted for a substantial house nearby, from around 1925–1944 the residence of Mount Lyell mine manager R. M. Murray, persists today as Penghana Road.
A Queenstown South office opened in 1949 and closed in 1973. In the 1900s, Queenstown was the centre of the Mount Lyell mining district and had numerous smelting works, brick-works, sawmills; the area at the time was wooded. The population in 1900 was 5051; the town was the base of the Queenstown council up until amalgamation with other west coast councils in the 1990s. The town in its heyday had a collection of hotels and schools that have disappeared since the demise of the Mount Lyell company; the town was the base of the Organisation for Tasmanian Development started in 1982. There was a brief boom in prosperity in the 1980s, with the building of several nearby dams by the Hydro; the Darwin and Crotty dams that comprise Lake Burbury were built during this period. These followed the cancellation of the Gordon-below-Franklin Dam in 1983 after strong campaigning by environmentalists in the'No Dams' campaign; the mountains surrounding Queenstown have unusual pink and grey hues that come from the conglomerate rocks on the two most adjacent mountains - Mount Lyell and Mount Owen.
The mountains surrounding Queenstown are snowcapped through winter. Snow falls a few days out of the year. Owing to a combination of tree removal for use in the smelters and the smelter fumes, the heavy annual rainfall, the erosion of the shallow horizon topsoil back to the harder rock profile contributed to the stark state of the mountains for many decades. Typical of the successions that occur in fire affected areas in Western Tasmania, the low shrubbery that has revegetated adjacent to hillside creeks is a early stage of a long recovery for the ecology of the region; some concern by local residents in the 1980s, since, that the low-level succession of plants might affect the stark'moonscape' appearance of the southern parts of Mount Lyell, northern Mount Owen. Although there are still large areas incapable of sustaining regrowth due to the acute slopes and lack of soil formation, revegtation projects have been stymied; the Queen River was for most of the history of the Mount Lyell company the recipient of mining effluent and the Queenstown sewage - which continued into the King River and the Macquarie Harbour.
The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program scheme has since removed the direct flowing mining waste and local waste from the rivers. Today, the town and district attracts significant numbers of tourists, on either organised tours or the hire car'circuit' around Tasmania; some features continue to fascinate tourists, either the mountains, the slag heap or the gravel football ground. There are significant opportunities to catch glimpses of the town's past at the local museum, by driving up Orr Street, the old main street now with closed pubs and the dominant Post Office tower; the mining operation at the original Mount Lyell mine continues, with Copper Mines of Tasmania operating between 1995 and 1999 independently, after which it became part of an Indian company group - and its concentrates are shipped to India for processing. Exploration continues within the West Coast region for further economic mineral deposits, due to the complexity of the geology, there is always the possibility that new mines will open: the Henty Gold Mine is a good example as it commenced operation in the 1990s.
Queenstown is the terminus of the West Coast Wilderness Railway, which travels southwards alongside the Queen River, along the northern slopes of the King River to the port of Strahan in Macquarie Harbour. The Queenstown Heritage and Arts Festival was the first name of a biennial festival that celebrates Queenstown's history. One significant historical event it has celebrated was the centenary of the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster in the second festival in October 2012. In the third festival in October 2014, the Hydro Tasmania centenary was a major component. In 2016 the festival has been renamed, is now the Unconformity Festival Queenstown has a wet oceanic climate, is one of the wettest locations in Tasmania with an annual average rainfall of 2408.2 mm, spread throughout the year. Summers are mild although temperatures can rise above 30 °C while winters are cool and always cloudy. Brief, light snowfall occurs several times each winter, with occasional heavier snow falling every few years.
Queenstown is cloudy, getting only 29.0 days of clear skies annually. At the 2011 census, Queenst
Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park
Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers is a national park in Tasmania, 117 km west of Hobart. It is named after the two main river systems lying within the bounds of the park - the Franklin River and the Gordon River; the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park lies between the Central Highlands and West Coast Range of Tasmania in the heart of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. It is bisected by the only road to pass through this area - the Lyell Highway; the genesis of the Wild Rivers National Park was in the earlier Frenchmans Cap National Park which had the Franklin River as its boundary on the northern and western borders. Frenchmans Cap is a dominant feature in the region, can be seen on the skyline from the west and north of the park; the Gordon and Franklin Rivers were the subject of one of Australia's largest conservation efforts. The Franklin Dam was part of a proposed hydro-electric power scheme, in the plans of The Hydro for some time; the enthusiastic endorsement by Robin Gray's Liberal Government would have seen the river flooded.
It became a national issue for the Tasmanian Wilderness Society, led by its director at the time, Bob Brown. Despite being given heritage status, the catchments and rivers remain at risk; the Lyell Highway winds for 56 kilometres through the heart of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park. Commonwealth v Tasmania Darwin Crater - a suspected meteorite impact crater located within the park Protected areas of Tasmania Position in World Heritage Area
Dundas was a historical mining locality, mineral field and railway location on the western foothills of the West Coast Range in Western Tasmania. It is now part of the locality of Zeehan; the town was located 5 kilometres east of the town of Zeehan, 10 kilometres west of the Mount Read township. The North East Dundas Tram branched off the Emu Bay Railway 3 kilometres north east of the Dundas railway connection; the location was hilly and wooded, making the location hazardous in the event of bushfires The location, being close to Mount Read, was prone to heavy rain and cold weather Mount Dundas Post Office was opened on 22 November 1890, renamed Dundas in 1892 and closed in 1930. The newspaper the Zeehan and Dundas Herald was one of the more significant newspapers of the west coast during its operation. Silver was discovered early in the Dundas area in 1890, the name of the Dundas field was incorporated into that of the adjacent Zeehan field A number of mines near Dundas are known as locations of rare minerals: Adelaide Mine near Dundas was the location of special specimens of Crocoite and other rare minerals.
Comet Mine was identified as a location of Anglesite and Cerussite Dundasite is named after Dundas. Hecla Minewas identified as a location of Aikinite Mount Dundas West Coast Tasmania Mines Railways on the West Coast of Tasmania Bottrill, R. S. Williams, P. Dohnt, S. Sorrell, S. and Kemp, N. R. 2006. Crocoite and associated minerals from Dundas and other locations in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 12, 59-90 Bottrill, R. S. New minerals from old deposits: The Dundas Mineral Field, Tasmania in Abstracts Minerals and Museums 2000: 4th seminar. Melbourne, June 2000. Reid, A. McIntosh; the Dundas mineral field Geological Survey Bulletin 36, Dept. of Mines, Tasmania. Tilley, Wilberton; the wild west of Tasmania: being a description of the silver fields of Zeehan and DundasEvershed Bros. Zeehan, Tas.: Dundas, Tas.: Eaves, Rick. "Dundas, long dead, lives on in new museum". ABC News. Haupt, J. 1988: Minerals of Western Tasmania. Mineralogical Record, Australia Issue, 196, 381-388 Atkinson, H. K.. Railway Tickets of Tasmania.
ISBN 0-9598718-7-X. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania — A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown
The Peaks of Lyell
The Peaks of Lyell is a book by Geoffrey Blainey, based on his University of Melbourne MA thesis published in 1954. It contains the history of the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company, through association and further the West Coast Tasmania, it is unique for this type of book in that it has gone to the sixth edition in 2000, few company histories in Australia have achieved such continual publishing. Blainey was fortunate in being able to speak to older people about the history of the West Coast, some who had known Queenstown in its earliest years; the book gives an interesting overview from the materials and people Blainey was able to access in the early 1950s, the omissions. Due to the nature of a company history, a number of items of Queenstown history did have alternative interpretations on events such as the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster, there were residents of Queenstown living in the town as late as the 1970s who had stories that differed from the official company history. Significant characters from the West Coast Tasmania history such as Robert Carl Sticht and James Crotty amongst a longer list still deserve further work on their significance in West Coast and Tasmanian history, but the book has had significant'presence' in being in print for so long.
Scholarship on some of the neglected aspects of West Coast and Queenstown history only emerged from the shadow of Blaineys work in the 2000s. In 1994, when the fifth edition was printed, the Mount Lyell company closed down, most of the records held by the company were donated to the State Library of Tasmania. By the 2000s a sixth edition was published. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell, Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1954, 310pp. History of Mt. Lyell, University of Melbourne, 1955, 328 leaves; the first half of this history was presented as Geoffrey Blainey's Master of Arts thesis. 2nd ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1959, 310pp. 3rd ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic.. 4th ed. Melbourne University Press, Vic. 1978, 341pp. 5th ed. St. David's Park Publishing, Tas. 1993, 370pp. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9; the Companion to Tasmanian History
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le