Saguache County, Colorado
Saguache County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,108; the county seat is Saguache. Saguache County was formed December 29, 1866 in the Territory of Colorado when it was extracted from the northern half of Costilla County. A partition from Lake County in February 9, 1872 added the northwest section of the present-day county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,170 square miles, of which 3,169 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. It is the 7th largest of Colorado's 64 counties. Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve Great Sand Dunes Wilderness Gunnison National Forest La Garita Wilderness Rio Grande National Forest Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Liberty Road historic mail route open to foot and bicycle travel between Crestone and the ghost towns of Duncan and Liberty crossing the Baca Mountain Tract Rio Grande National Forest.
Medano Pass Primitive Road Montville Nature Trail Mosca Pass Trail Old Spanish National Historic Trail Sand Ramp Trail, a hiking trail within the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve which skirts the east and north of the dune field. Western Express Bicycle Route As of the census of 2000, there were 5,917 people, 2,300 households, 1,557 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 3,087 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.29% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 2.06% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 23.00% from other races, 3.08% from two or more races. 45.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,300 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,495, the median income for a family was $29,405. Males had a median income of $25,158 versus $18,862 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,121. About 18.70% of families and 22.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.60% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. Bonanza Center Crestone Moffat Saguache Saguache County has nine locations listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado counties Colorado municipalities State of Colorado Lindsey, D.
A. et al.. Mineral resources of the Black Canyon and South Piney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Saguache County, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Saguache County Government website Crestone and Saguache County Visitor's Agency website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geographic data related to Saguache County, Colorado at OpenStreetMap
Gunnison County, Colorado
Gunnison County is the fifth-most extensive of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,324; the county seat is Gunnison. The county was named for John W. Gunnison, a United States Army officer and captain in the Army Topographical Engineers, who surveyed for the transcontinental railroad in 1853. Archeological studies have dated the Ute people's appearance in the Uncompahgre region of Colorado as early as 1150 A. D. Possibilities exist that they are descendants of an earlier people living in the area as far back as 1500 B. C, they were a nomadic race of dark skin moving about the Western Slope of Colorado in the various parts of the year. In the early to mid-1600s the Spaniards of New Mexico introduced the horse which changed their patterns of hunting taking them across the divide to the eastern slopes and into conflict with the Plains Indians which soon became their bitter enemies; the first recorded expedition of Western Colorado wilderness was led by Don Juan Rivera in 1765.
In 1776, two Spanish priests, Fathers Escalante and Dominguez, led a party into the area around Montrose and Paonia. The 1830s brought the mountainmen into the area to trap beaver. An old cabin located on Cochetopa Creek discovered by Sidney Jocknick was most built between 1830 and 1840 and a rude fort was discovered on a tributary of Tomichi Creek bore signs of a conflict. In 1853, Capt. John W. Gunnison surveyed the area for the transcontinental railroad route. In 1858 gold was discovered near Denver bringing the white man across the divide into the western slope in search of the precious metal. In 1859 a party settled on Texas Gulch in Union Park. Placer gold was found at Washington Gulch in 1861 as part of the Colorado Gold Rush. In 1861 the Territory of Colorado was organized; the territorial governor was made ex officio Superintentant of Indian Affairs. A conference on October 1, 1863 established a boundary line for a reservation; this treaty averted a possible dangerous situation by giving the Utes some cattle and sheep, a blacksmith and 20,000 dollars a year in goods and provisions.
The government failed to fulfill any these obligations straining the relations further. The treaty of 1868 recognized Chief Ouray as the sole spokesman for seven tribes of the Ute People, he held this power over his people through understanding. The Los Pinos Agency was developed through the Treaties of 1868 and 1873; the first agent was 2nd Lieutenant Calvin T. Speer. In 1871 a cow camp was started near the present site of Gunnison with James P. Kelley in charge. In this year, Jabez Nelson Trask, a Harvard grad, relieved Speer as agent upon orders from Governor Edward M. McCook. In 1872 Trask was replaced by Charles Adams. In 1875 orders from Washington to move the agency to the Uncomphgre Valley were completed in November. In 1876 Colorado entered the Gunnison County was formed. 1879 was a year of expansion due to the miners and adventurers seeking wealth. The cattle industry was established by 1880; the short growing season was not conducive to farming and the ranchers had to level fields and construct irrigation ditches to water the fields for hay.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,260 square miles, of which 3,239 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county by area in Colorado. The county seat is Gunnison, Colorado, located in a wide valley at the confluence of Tomichi Creek and Gunnison River; the county rests in the Gunnison Basin formed by the Continental Divide to the east, Collegiate Peaks Wilderness rises in the northeast, Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and the White River National Forest to the north, the West Elk Wilderness rises in the west of the county with Delta and Montrose Counties on its western slopes. The Uncompahgre Wilderness rises in the southwest of the county and the Powderhorn Wilderness east of there and Saquache County being south of Gunnison county eastward over to Marshall Pass southeast of the county. Taylor Park Reservoir is a man-made lake created by the Taylor Dam constructed in 1934 with appropriations of 2,725,000 dollars; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,956 people, 5,649 households, 2,965 families residing in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 9,135 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.08% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 5.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,649 households out of which 24.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.20% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.50% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.84. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.90% under the age of 18, 21.10% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 6.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years.
For every 100 females there were 118.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,916, the median income for a family was $51,950. Males had a median income of $30,885 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,407. About 6.00% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. Total population for Gunnison Count
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Colorado's 3rd congressional district
Colorado's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Colorado. The district takes in most of the rural Western Slope in the state's western third, with a tendril in the south taking in the southern portions of the Eastern Plains, it includes the cities of Grand Junction and Pueblo. The district is represented by Republican Scott R. Tipton, who defeated Democratic incumbent John Salazar in 2010; the district is rural and Republican. Following the 1990 U. S. Census and associated realignment of Colorado congressional districts, the 3rd Congressional district consisted of Alamosa, Chaffee, Costilla, Delta, Eagle, Grand, Hinsdale, Jackson, Lake, La Plata, Mineral, Montezuma, Ouray, Pitkin, Rio Blanco, Rio Grande, Saguache, San Juan, San Miguel and Summit counties, as well as portions of Douglas and Jefferson counties. Following the 2000 U. S. Census and associated realignment of Colorado congressional districts, the 3rd Congressional district consisted of Alamosa, Conejos, Custer, Dolores, Gunnison, Huerfano, Jackson, La Plata, Las Animas, Mineral, Montezuma, Ouray, Pueblo, Rio Blanco, Rio Grande, Saguache, San Juan, San Miguel counties and most of Otero County.
The district has two major population centers in Grand Pueblo. The two cities and their surrounding rural areas provide a competitive arena for congressional races. Grand Junction, on the Western Slope, is a Republican stronghold while Pueblo, a town with a large Latino population and a unionized workforce, provides a base of support for Democrats; the district leaned Republican in the 1990s, but in recent years has become more competitive. George W. Bush received 55% of the vote in the district in 2004 while John McCain won the district in 2008 50%–47%. Election results from presidential races As of May 2017, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Colorado's 3rd congressional district who are living at this time; the most recent representative to die was Ray Kogovsek on April 30, 2017. Colorado's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Ouray County, Colorado
Ouray County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,436; the county seat is Ouray. Because of its rugged mountain topography, Ouray County is known as the Switzerland of America. Ouray County was formed out of San Juan County on 18 January 1877, the first county designated by the newly formed Colorado State Legislature, it was named for a distinguished Ute Indian chief. Ouray was designated county seat on 8 March 1877. On 19 February 1881, Dolores County was formed out of Ouray County. On 27 February 1883, Ouray County was split into San Miguel County and what is Ouray County; the portion that became San Miguel County retained the name Ouray County when the Colorado General Assembly renamed Ouray County as Uncompaghre County. Four days on 2 March 1883, the General Assembly changed its mind and changed the name of Uncompaghre County back to Ouray County; the Ouray County Courthouse was constructed in Ouray in 1888 and is located on the National Register of Historic Places.
Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area of Colorado formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters. The new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties; the SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 542 square miles, of which 542 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The highest mountain in Ouray County is Mount Sneffels at 14,150 feet above sea level. Many high peaks of more than 13,300 feet exist. Other prominent features in Ouray County include Pleasant Valley. Montrose County - north Gunnison County - northeast Hinsdale County - southeast San Juan County - south San Miguel County - southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 3,742 people, 1,576 households, 1,123 families residing in the county.
The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 2,146 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.34% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. 4.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,576 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.50% under the age of 18, 4.10% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 34.10% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,019, the median income for a family was $49,776. Males had a median income of $35,141 versus $26,176 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,335. About 6.00% of families and 7.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.00% of those under age 18 and 2.90% of those age 65 or over. Ouray County, named Switzerland of America, is home to many parks and hiking trails; the Ridgway State Park is located due north of Ridgway on the Ridgway Reservoir and includes a marina and camping facilities as well as an extensive trail system. Within and surrounding the county are the Uncompahgre National Forest, Mount Sneffels Wilderness, the Uncompahgre Wilderness. Leading through the county is the Bear Creek National Recreation Trail. Well known for its view of the San Juan Mountains and Cimarron Range, scenic highways such as the Alpine Loop National Scenic Back Country Byway and San Juan Skyway National Scenic Byway exist.
The Great Parks Bicycle Route and Western Express Bicycle Route go through Ouray County. The Elks Lodge of Ouray County is only one of a few surviving American locations for a bowling alley facility - a more famous one being Milwaukee, Wisconsin's Holler House - that uses human-operated pinsetting units to set the tenpins for bowling on its pair of vintage wood bowling lanes. Ouray County has two home rule municipalities, three census-designated places, four unincorporated communities; the home rule municipalities are the city of Ouray and town of Ridgway the most populous settlements in the county. Loghill Village is the next largest development and is a residential affluent, community in comparison to the rest of the county. Along with Loghill and Colona serve as census-designated places within Ouray County; the unincorporated communities within the county are Camp Bird, Dallas and Eldredge. All the communities, with the exception of Ridgway and Ouray, serve as residential communities, though Loghill Village maintains a small tourism sector.
Colona and Dallas are located in the northern reaches of the county along U. S. Highway 550, though Eldredge and Dallas are located within the valleys of the San Juan Mountains while Colona is in the short stretch of the Uncompahgre Valley within Ouray County. Portland is placed down valley of Ouray. Camp Bird and Thistled
Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the highest point in the U. S. state of the entire Mississippi River drainage basin. The ultra-prominent 14,440-foot fourteener is the highest peak in the Sawatch Range and the second-highest summit in the contiguous United States after Mount Whitney. Mount Elbert is located in San Isabel National Forest, 12.1 miles southwest of the City of Leadville in Lake County, Colorado. The mountain was named in honor of a Colorado statesman, Samuel Hitt Elbert, active in the formative period of the state and Governor of the Territory of Colorado from 1873 to 1874. Henry W. Stuckle of the Hayden Survey was the first to record an ascent of the peak, in 1874; the easiest and most popular climbing routes are categorized as Class 1 to 2 or A+ in mountaineering parlance. Mount Elbert is therefore referred to as the "gentle giant" that tops all others in the Rocky Mountains. Mount Elbert is visible to the southwest of Leadville snow-capped in the summer.
Many other fourteeners surround Elbert in all directions, it is close to central Colorado's Collegiate Peaks. The neighboring Mount Massive, to the north, is the second-highest peak in the Rocky Mountains and the third-highest in the contiguous United States, La Plata Peak, to the south, is the fifth-highest in the Rockies; the community of Twin Lakes lies at the base of Mount Elbert, Denver is about 130 miles to the east, Vail is 50 miles to the north, Aspen is 40 miles to the west. Leadville, about 16 miles to the northeast, is the nearest large town. Elbert's parent peak is Mount Whitney in California. Including Alaska and Hawaii, Mount Elbert is the fourteenth-highest mountain in the United States. Weather conditions change and afternoon thunderstorms are common in the summertime. An electrical storm on the mountain's summit was considered remarkable enough to be reported in the July 1894 issue of Science. Mount Elbert is part of the Sawatch Range, an uplift of the Laramide Orogeny which separated from the Mosquito Range to the east around 28 million years ago.
The tops of this range were glaciated, leaving behind characteristic summit features and other such clues. For example, the base of Elbert on the eastern side exhibits large igneous and metamorphic rocks deposited when the glaciers receded, which lie on a lateral moraine. Further up the eastern side there is a large cirque with a small tarn. There are lakes to both the north and south and Twin Lakes respectively. Mount Elbert is composed of quartzite. However, the summit ridge consists of metamorphic basement rock, Pre-Cambrian in origin and about 1.7 billion years old. There are various igneous intrusions including pegmatite, as well as bands of gneiss and schist. Unlike mountains of similar altitude elsewhere, Elbert lacks both a permanent snowpack and a prominent north-facing cirque, which can be attributed to its position among other mountains of similar height, causing it to receive small quantities of precipitation. Mount Elbert was named by miners in honor of Samuel Hitt Elbert, the governor of the then-Territory of Colorado, because he brokered a treaty in September 1873 with the Ute tribe that opened up more than 3,000,000 acres of reservation land to mining and railroad activity.
The first recorded ascent of the peak was by H. W. Stuckle in 1874, surveying the mountain as part of the Hayden Survey. Measured as 14,433 feet in height, Mount Elbert's elevation was adjusted to 14,440 feet following a re-evaluation of mapped elevations, which sparked protests; the actual change was made in 1988 as a result of the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. A matter of some contention arose after the Great Depression over the heights of Elbert and its neighbor Mount Massive, which differ in elevation by only 12 feet; this led to an ongoing dispute that came to a head with the Mount Massive supporters building large piles of stones on the summit to boost its height, only to have the Mount Elbert proponents demolish them. The effort was unsuccessful and Mount Elbert has remained the highest peak in Colorado; the first motorized ascent of Elbert occurred in 1949, when a Jeep was driven to the summit to judge suitability for skiing development. The summit of Mount Elbert is an alpine environment, featuring plants such as Phacelia sericea, Hymenoxys grandiflora, Geum rossii.
Noted are Carex atrata var. pullata, Salix desertorum, Platanthera hyperborea, Thalictrum fendleri, Aquilegia canadensis, Chenopodium album, Gentiana detonsa var. hallii, Bigelovia parryi. Below treeline the mountain is forested, with the lower slopes covered with a mixture of lodgepole pine, spruce and fir; some of the fauna reported on the climb to the summit include black bears, mule deer and pocket gophers. Elk, grouse and bighorn sheep are present in the area during the summer. There are three main routes which ascend the mountain, all of which gain over 4,100 feet of elevation; the standard route ascends the peak from the east, starting from the Colorado Trail just north of Twin Lakes. The 4.6 miles long North Elbert Trail begins close to the Elbert Creek Campground, gains about 4,500 feet. The trail is open to equestrians, mountain bikers and hunte