click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Leadville, Colorado

Leadville is the statutory city, the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Lake County, United States. The city population was 2,602 at the 2010 census and an estimated 2,762 in 2018. Leadville is situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet. A former silver mining town that lies among the headwaters of the Arkansas River in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, the Leadville Historic District contains many historic structures and sites in its dynamic mining era. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, after Denver. Leadville is notable for having many 14,000 foot peaks viewable from town; the Leadville area was first settled in 1859 when placer gold was discovered in California Gulch during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. By 1860, a town, Oro City, located about a mile from present-day Leadville, had sprung up, a year its population had reached more than 5,000, but the boom was brief because the placer-mined gold soon ran out, Oro City never became a major settlement.

The early miners had noted that mining for placer gold was hampered by heavy black sand in the sluice boxes, in 1874 it was discovered that the heavy sand that impeded gold recovery was the lead mineral cerussite, which has a high silver content. Prospectors traced the cerussite to its source, present day Leadville, by 1876 had discovered several silver-lead lode deposits. Horace Tabor, who became known as the "Leadville Silver King", his wife Augusta were among the first prospectors to arrive in Oro City. Tabor tried his luck at prospecting while his wife worked as a camp cook, laundress and postmistress. Leadville was founded in 1877 by mine owners Horace Tabor and August Meyer at the start of the Colorado Silver Boom; the town was built on desolate flat land below the tree line. The first miners lived in a rough tented camp near the silver deposits in California Gulch; the settlement was called "Slabtown", but when the residents petitioned for a post office the name "Leadville" was chosen.

By 1880 Tabor and Meyer's new town had gas lighting, water mains and 28 miles of streets, five churches, three hospitals, six banks, a school for 1,100 students. Many business buildings were constructed with bricks hauled in by wagons; the first post office was in Tabor's store at Oro, Augusta Tabor was the postmistress. Carriers tried to come back the next. Postage was fifty cents a letter. In early 1878, Meyer and Tabor established a post office in Leadville, with Henderson as postmaster; the post office and the telegraph office both prospered. The town's first newspaper was The Reveille, a Republican weekly, in 1878. Three months a competing Democratic weekly, The Eclipse, emerged; the Chronicle was the town's first daily and first newspaper in America to employ a full-time female reporter. Like the Rocky Mountain News, The Chronicle took the lead in outing criminals and thieves, in an attempt to clean up the town's shady business culture. Despite violent threats, the Chronicle survived without major incident.

William Nye opened the first saloon in 1877, it was followed by many others. The same year the Coliseum Novelty was the first theater to open, it offered sleeping rooms upstairs for a nightly rate and provided a variety of entertainments: dancing girls, cockfighting and boxing matches, rooms for gambling. In June 1881, it burned to the ground. Ben Wood, who arrived in Leadville in 1878, opened the first legitimate theater, Wood's Opera House, with a thousand seats, it was a first-class theater, where gentleman removed their hats and did not smoke or drink in the presence of a lady. Less than a year Wood opened the Windsor Hotel, his opera house was regarded as the largest and best theater constructed in the West, an honor it held until the opening of the Tabor Opera House. Horace Tabor's Opera House was the most costly structure in Colorado at the time. Building materials were brought by wagons from Denver; the massive three-story opera house, constructed of stone and iron, opened on November 20, 1879.

Tabor from Vermont, became the town's first mayor. After striking it rich, he had an estimated net worth of 10 million dollars and was known for his extravagant lifestyle. In 1883 Horace Tabor divorced his wife of 25 years and married Baby Doe McCourt, half his age. Tabor was by a US senator, the divorce and marriage caused a scandal in Colorado and beyond. For several years the couple lived a lavish lifestyle in a Denver mansion, but Tabor, one of the wealthiest men in Colorado, lost his fortune when the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act caused the Panic of 1893. He remained convinced that the price of silver would rebound. According to legend he told Baby Doe to "hold on the Matchless mine... it will make millions again when silver comes back." She returned to Leadville with her daughters, Silver Dollar and Lily, where she spent the rest of her life believing Tabor's prediction. At one time the "best dressed woman in the West", she lived in a cabin at the Matchless Mine for the last three decades of her life.

After a snowstorm in March 1935, she was found frozen in her cabin, aged about 81 years. Mining in the Leadville area began in 1859 when prospectors discovered gold at the mouth of California Gulch. By 1872, placer mining in California Gulch yielded more than $2,500,000 equivalent to $47,674,478 today. In 1876, black sand, once considered bothersome to placer gold miners, was discovered to contain lead carbonates, leading to a rush of miners to the area and the founding of the town in 1877. By 1880, Leadville was one of the world's largest and richest silver camps, with a population of more than 15,000

Government of Transnistria

The Government of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is the political leadership of the unrecognized, but de facto independent, Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, better known in English as Transnistria. The institute of government and the post of Prime minister of Transnistria were introduced on January 1, 2012 in accordance with the amendments made to the Transdniestrian Constitution in June 2011; until January 1, 2012, the PMR Cabinet of Ministers formed the presidential powers as the head of the executive power of the republic. The ministers were directly subordinate to the head of the Transnistrian state. In accordance with the amendments, the supreme executive authority of the PMR becomes a government composed of the chairman of the PMR government, his deputies and heads of state administrations of cities and regions; the government of the PMR operates on the basis of the PMR Constitution, constitutional laws and laws of the PMR, as well as the legal acts of the President of the PMR. Based on the Constitution of Transnistria, the Government exercises the following powers: - develops and submits to the Supreme Council of the PMR a draft republican budget and ensures its implementation.

Source: The Supreme Council or Supreme Soviet is the parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Government of Moldova Politics of Transnistria Politics of Moldova Government of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Official site

Ibō Takahashi

Ibō Takahashi was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Takahashi was a native of Fukushima prefecture, born in a family of Eastern Orthodox faithful, his name "Ibō" was Chinese transliteration of "John". His father is a samurai of the Aizu domain, doctor, he graduated from the 36th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1908 and was ranked 10th out of 191 cadets. He served his midshipman duty aboard the cruisers Soya and Suma and was assigned to the Asama after being commissioned as an ensign in 1910, he subsequently served on the destroyer battleship Shikishima. As a lieutenant from 1914, he served on the Tone and Fusō. After graduation from the Japanese Naval War College in 1919, he was promoted to lieutenant commander and assigned as Chief Gunnery Officer on the Iwami. Around this time, Takahashi became involved in the militant movement within the Japanese military, helped influence the implementation of the proposal to devolve overall naval command from the Minister of the Navy to the Chief of Naval General Staff.

From August 1923 to August 1925, Takahashi was assigned as naval attaché to the United Kingdom, during which time he was promoted to commander. After his return, he served for a year as executive officer on the Tama and became captain of the Tenryū in 1929, he was part of the Japanese delegation to the London Naval Treaty negotiations in late 1929. Takahashi was promoted to captain November 30, 1929 and was given command of the Atago in 1932, the battleship Kirishima in 1933, he was promoted to rear admiral on November 15, 1935, became chief of the Second Section of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. While on the General Staff, he was a strong proponent of the Nanshin-ron, urging that New Guinea and the Celebes in the Netherlands East Indies be considered as part of Japan's strategic sphere-of-interest. On November 15, 1939, Takahashi became vice admiral, was given command of the Mako Guard District. Shortly before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Takahashi served as commander-in-chief of the IJN 3rd Fleet, which included the 5th and 7th Cruiser Squadrons and the 2nd and 4th Destroyer Flotillas and formed part of the Southern Force under the command of Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondō based in Taiwan in 1941.

In January and February 1942, this force was split into the Central Forces. Takahashi was Commander of Central Forces during the invasions of Bali and Java, his forces included the "Direct Support Force" under Rear Admiral Shōji Nishimura, commander of the 4th Destroyer Squadron, the "Second Escort Force" under Rear Admiral Raizo Tanaka, commander of the 2nd Destroyer Squadron, the 1st and 2nd "Naval Base Forces", under Rear Admiral Takeo Kurita, the "Third Escort Force", under Rear-Admiral Chuichi Hara, the "First Air Group" made up of the light carrier Ryūjō and 56 transports. On March 10, 1942, he was transferred to the newly created 2nd Southern Expeditionary Fleet, to the newly created Southwest Area Fleet a month later. In November 1942, he was transferred back to Japan to become Commander in Chief of the Kure Naval District, he held this post until retiring from active duty in 1944. On 2 December 1945, in Tokyo, he was accused of war crimes and arrested by the American occupation forces.

Takahashi had two sons named Taro and Yoshiro, both of whom followed their father into the Imperial Japanese Navy. Taro graduated from the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy as part of the 69th Class on 25 March 1941, was Killed In Action at the Battle of Leyte Gulf on 26 October 1944 while serving as Gunnery Officer of the destroyer Nowaki. Yoshiro graduated as part of the 71st Class on 14 November 1942, survived the war. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy, Ibo". Retrieved 2007-08-25. L, Klemen. "Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. Retrieved 2007-08-25. Agawa, Hiroyuki; the Reluctant Admiral: Yamamoto and the Imperial Navy. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-2539-4. Dupuy, Trevor N.. Encyclopedia of Military Biography. I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-85043-569-3. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-74101-3. Schom, Ronald; the Eagle and the Rising Sun: The Japanese-American War, 1941-1943: Pearl Harbor through Guadalcanal.

W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32628-4

Gibberula

Gibberula is a genus of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Cystiscidae placed in the family Marginellidae, the margin shells or marginellids. The type species of the genus Gibberula Swainson, 1840 is G. zonata Swainson. Other genus-group names are available for small shells resembling Gibberula; these include Granula Jousseaume, 1875 and Kogomea Habe, 1951. They are distinguished from Gibberula only on the basis of smaller size and other rather tenuous conchological differentiations; the shell of this genus is 1.5 to 10 mm in length, stout, with a small, low spire. The outer lip is thickened but without an external varix, it is denticulated inside. The columella has several plaits on a thickened rim, decreasing in size towards the posterior end; the siphonal canal is distinctly notched. The head is divided in two. There are two small anterior lobes; the eyes are a short distance behinde the tentacles. The mouth is provided with an extensible proboscis; the foot is only longer than the shell when extended.

In some species, the sole lies flat on the substrate. Others have the edge of the propodium raised, developed as parapodia which fit the head/tentacles in the manner of many tectibranchs. Color pattern of the head and foot is a useful taxonomic character in all the species; the mantle does not extend over the shell during normal activity. A tongue shaped, translucent lobe may be seen on the left side in some instances; the internal mantle is visible through the shell. It may be brightly coloured in the smaller species with a featureless, translucent shell, its pattern is continued into the spire over the visceral mass; the siphon is short and inconspicuous bordered by a small pad. All species of marginellids have a direct development without a planktonic phase; the separation between the genera Persicula and Gibberula is not clearcut and follows a rather arbitrary criterion where the large species with are placed in Persicula and the smaller species with a banded or uniform colour pattern in Gibberula, leaving in between many ambiguous species.

To date there is no phylogenetic analysis behind the current generic placements. Species brought into synonymy Gibberula bocasensis Olsson & McGinty, 1958: synonym of Plesiocystiscus bocasensis Gibberula jousseaumi Rochebrune, 1881: synonym of Volvarina sauliae Gibberula rachmaninovi Kellner, 2003: synonym of Volvarina sauliae Gibberula sandwicensis: synonym of Cystiscus sandwicensis Coovert, Gary A. and Holly K. Coovert 1995 - Revision of the Supraspecific Classification of Marginelliform Gastropods; the Nautilus 109:43-110 Espinosa y Ortea1999. Descripción de nuevas marginelas de Cuba y del Caribe de Costa Rica y Panamá. Avicennia 10/11:165-176. 2000. Descripción de un género y once especies nuevas de Cystiscidae y Marginellidae del Caribe de Costa Rica. Aviccenia 12/13:95-114. 2002. Nuevas especies de margineliformes de Cuba, Bahamas y el Mar Caribe de Costa Rica. Avicennia 15:101-128. Gofas, Serge1987. Le Genre Gibberula en Mediterranee. Atti del II Congresso Societa Italiana di Malacologia. No.

23, 113-119 1989. The Marginellidae of Angola: The genus Gibberula. Journal of Conchology Vol. 33, No. 3, 109-139Locard 1897. Expeditions Scientifiques du Travailleur et du Talisman. Tomo I Lussi, M. & Smith, G. 1999. Cystiscidae in South Africa. Part 1 Genus Gibberula, Persicula & Canalispira. Mienis, H. K. 1976. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Type specimens of recent Marginellidae. Basteria, Vol. 40, No. 1 Murillo, Luis 1998. Taxones publicados en Iberus. Iberus Okutani, Takashi 2000. 2000 - Marine Mollusks in Japan Rolan & Ryall 1999. Checklist of the Angolan marine molluscs. Reseñas Malacológicas X Roth & Clover, Phillip 1973. A review of the Marginellidae described by Bavay, 1903-1922; the Veliger Vol. 16. The Marine Shells of Port Alfred, S. Africa. Oxford University Press

Etty Bay

Etty Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean and a 700 metres long beach in the far north of the Australian state of Queensland. The beach is 15 kilometres by road from the township of Innisfail, 20 minutes drive from Paronella Park and 7 kilometres from the Bruce Highway; the final kilometre of the route is a scenic drive climbing 100 metres over the Moresby Range before descending into a picturesque bay. The Bay has a small caravan park; the beach is a popular recreational area for surfing, sailing and fishing. Etty Bay is known as one of North Queensland's most scenic beaches; the caravan park is on the serves meals. The bay has sufficient amenities for day visitors. There are shaded picnic spots with electric BBQs near the beach; the Etty Bay beach is enclosed by rainforest that has a wide variety of wildlife and is a suited to bushwalking. The beach is backed by a narrow tree shaded reserve to a steep forested slope rising up to 250 metres behind the beach; the Surf Lifesaving Club and toilets sit behind the middle of the beach.

The beach is fine grain white sand. At high tide it at low tide over 100 metres is exposed. Waves average spill across a shallow bar. There are rocks on either end of the beach. A stinger net is located in front of the Surf Lifesaving Club. Etty Bay is known as the bay; the southern cassowary and chicks frequent the beach, wet tropic rainforest and caravan park. They can be dangerous. Saltwater crocodiles are sometimes seen in the waters near the bay. Monitor lizards are sometimes seen; the Surf Lifesaving Club was founded in 1935. The beach has a stinger net installed for safe swimming during the stinger season from November through to May; this is a safe beach with a shallow surf. Sometimes strong breezes build bigger waves which can produce a rip, it is best to stay in the centre of the beach in the stinger net area. The potential hazards are Box Jellyfish and the deadly Irukandji jellyfish. Owing to the low beach slope it is best to fish at high tide and from the rocks at either end of the bay. Fish caught are barramundi, coral trout, swallow-tail dart, bream, mangrove jack, small sharks and rays.

Soft plastic and popper lures yield big fish, but bait such as squid and prawn provide good results. North Queensland Branch, Surf Life Saving Queensland Cassowary Coast Regional Council

1979 National League season

The 1979 National League was contested as the second division/tier of Speedway in the United Kingdom. The league was reduced from 20 teams to 19 from the previous season. White City Rebels closure saw their riders move to Eastbourne Eagles who moved up to the British League. Barrow Furness Flyers dropped out and Nottingham Outlaws joined the league. Teesside Tigers changed their name to Middlesbrough Tigers. Scunthorpe Saints changed their name to Scunthorpe Stags. There was a controversial end to the season when Rye House Rockets visited Mildenhall Fen Tigers needing a draw to win the title. Needing a 5-1 in the last heat to tie the match, Rocket Karl Fiala's exclusion prompted team-mate Bob Garrad to withdraw from the re-run in protest. Mildenhall went on to win at bottom club Scunthorpe Saints in the last match of the season to win the title by one point The 1979 National League Knockout Cup was the 12th edition of the Knockout Cup for tier two teams. Rye House Rockets were the winners of the competition.

List of United Kingdom Speedway League Champions