Lake Huron

Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Hydrologically, it comprises the easterly portion of Lake Michigan–Huron, having the same surface elevation as its westerly counterpart, to which it is connected by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, it is shared on the north and east by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south and west by the state of Michigan in the United States. The name of the lake is derived from early French explorers who named it for the Huron people inhabiting the region; the Huronian glaciation was named due to evidence collected from Lake Huron region. The northern parts of the lake include the North Georgian Bay. Across the lake to the southwest is Saginaw Bay; the main inlet is the St. Marys River, the main outlet is the St. Clair River. By surface area, Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 23,007 square miles – of which 9,103 square miles lies in Michigan. By volume however, Lake Huron is only the third largest of the Great Lakes, being surpassed by Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

When measured at the low water datum, the lake contains a volume of 850 cubic miles and a shoreline length of 3,827 mi. The surface of Lake Huron is 577 feet above sea level; the lake's average depth is 32 fathoms 3 feet. It has a greatest breadth of 183 statute miles. Cities with over 10,000 people on Lake Huron include Sarnia, the largest city on Lake Huron, Saugeen Shores in Canada and Bay City, Port Huron, Alpena in the United States. A large bay that protrudes northeast from Lake Huron into Ontario, Canada, is called Georgian Bay. A notable feature of the lake is Manitoulin Island, which separates the North Channel and Georgian Bay from Lake Huron's main body of water, it is the world's largest lake island. Major centres on Georgian Bay include Owen Sound, Wasaga Beach, Midland, Port Severn and Parry Sound. A smaller bay that protrudes southwest from Lake Huron into Michigan is called Saginaw Bay. Historic High Water The lake fluctuates from month to month with the highest lake levels in October and November.

The normal high-water mark is 2.00 feet above datum. In the summer of 1986, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their highest level at 5.92 feet above datum. The high-water records began in February 1986 and lasted through the year, ending with January 1987. Water levels ranged from 3.67 to 5.92 feet above Chart Datum. Historic Low Water Lake levels tend to be the lowest in winter; the normal low-water mark is 1.00 foot below datum. In the winter of 1964, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their lowest level at 1.38 feet below datum. As with the high-water records, monthly low-water records were set each month from February 1964 through January 1965. During this twelve-month period, water levels ranged from 1.38 to 0.71 feet below Chart Datum. The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Lake Huron has the largest shore line length of any of the Great Lakes, counting its 30,000 islands. Lake Huron is separated from Lake Michigan, which lies at the same level, by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, making them hydrologically the same body of water.

Aggregated, Lake Huron-Michigan, at 45,300 square miles, "is technically the world's largest freshwater lake." When counted separately, Lake Superior is 8,700 square miles higher. Lake Superior drains into the St. Marys River which flows southward into Lake Huron; the water flows south to the St. Clair River, at Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario; the Great Lakes Waterway continues thence to Lake St. Clair. Like the other Great Lakes, it was formed by melting ice as the continental glaciers retreated toward the end of the last ice age. Before this, Lake Huron was a low-lying depression through which flowed the now-buried Laurentian and Huronian Rivers; the Alpena-Amberley Ridge is an ancient ridge beneath the surface of Lake Huron, running between Alpena and Point Clark, Ontario. About 9,000 years ago, when water levels in Lake Huron were about 100 m below today's levels, the ridge was exposed and the land bridge was used as a migration route for large herds of caribou. Since 2008, archaeologists have discovered at least 60 stone constructions along the submerged ridge that are thought to have been used as hunting blinds by Paleo-Indians.

The extent of development among Eastern Woodlands Native American societies on the eve of European contact is indicated by the archaeological evidence of a town on or near Lake Huron that contained more than one hundred large structures housing a total population of between 4,000 and 6,000. The French, the first European visitors to the region referred to Lake Huron as La Mer Douce, "the fresh-water sea". In 1656, a map by French cartogr

Spiritual distress

Spiritual distress is a disturbance in a person's belief system. As an approved nursing diagnosis, spiritual distress is defined as "a disruption in the life principle that pervades a person's entire being and that integrates and transcends one's biological and psychological nature." Authors in the field of nursing who contributed to the definition of the characteristics of spiritual distress used indicators to validate diagnoses. The following manifestations of spiritual distress are a part of an abstract data gathered by LearnWell Resources, Inc from the studies of Mary Elizabeth O'Brien and is used as a "Spiritual Assessment Guide" to present alterations in spiritual integrity; the diagnosis of spiritual distress is defined by indicators that are present: spiritual pain, spiritual alienation, spiritual anxiety, spiritual guilt, spiritual loss, spiritual despair. "Nursing diagnoses: spiritual pain, as evidenced by expressions of discomfort of suffering relative to one's relationship with God, verbalization of feelings of having a void or lack of spiritual fulfillment, and/or a lack of peace in terms of one's relationship to one's creator.

Nursing- diagnoses: spiritual alienation, as evidenced by expressions of loneliness or the feeling that God seems far away and remote from one's everyday life, verbalization that one has to depend upon one's self in times of trial or need, and/or a negative attitude toward receiving any comfort or help from God. Nursing diagnoses: spiritual anxiety, as evidenced by expression of fear of God's wrath and punishment. Nursing diagnoses: spiritual guilt, as evidenced by expressions suggesting that one has failed to do the things which he should have done in life and/or done things which were not pleasing to God. Nursing diagnoses: spiritual anger, as evidenced by expression of frustration or outrage at God for having allowed illness or other trials, comments about the "unfairness" of God, and/or negative remarks about institutionalized religion and/or its ministers or spiritual care givers. Nursing diagnoses: spiritual loss, as evidenced by expression of feelings of having temporarily lost or terminated the love of God, fear that one's relationship with God has been threatened, and/or a feeling of emptiness with regard to spiritual things.

Nursing- diagnoses: spiritual despair, as evidenced by expressions suggesting that there is no hope of having a relationship with God or of pleasing Him and/or a feeling that God no longer can or does care for one." The indicators may be present in defining the characteristics of spiritual distress. The use of indicators in diagnosing alterations in spiritual health is controversial because indicators may appear related to both spiritual and psychosocial problems. Wilfred McSherry, a senior lecturer in the School of Care Sciences at the University of Glamorgan, published an article on the Journal of Advanced Nursing about potential dilemmas in conducting a spiritual assessment; the article argued that "the area of spiritual assessment needs careful consideration, both nationally and internationally, by those professionals involved in the provision of spiritual care so that potential dilemmas can be identified and reviewed. Such consideration may prevent the construction and subsequent use of inappropriate assessment tools within practice."

Nursing care plan Lynda Juall. Nursing diagnosis: application to clinical practice. Lippincott. ISBN 978-0-7817-1970-4

Goomeri Hall of Memory

Goomeri Hall of Memory is a heritage-listed war memorial hall at Boonara Street, Gympie Region, Australia. It was designed by Philip Oliver Ellard Hawkes and built in 1926, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Hall of Memory at Goomeri was opened in 1926 to commemorate all those from the district who had served in World War I, but this dedication has since been extended to honour all those who have served in subsequent wars. European settlement in the district took place in 1843–50 as large pastoral holdings were taken up. By 1870 these had been subdivided into smaller grazing farms. In 1902, the Nanango railway line reached Goomeri and at that time was used principally by local farmers and to transport timber. In 1911, a sale of town commercial and residential blocks was held. More farms were established and a butter factory was built; the town of Goomeri developed with a school and churches as a rural district centre in the 1930s. The First World War, although fought in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, had a profound impact on Australia.

At the outbreak of war Australia, settled as a British colony and with strong ties to the "motherland" entered the war in support of Britain and her allies. Over 300,000 Australians out of a population of 4 million volunteered for service overseas, with 60,000 of these making the supreme sacrifice; every Australian community, including that of Goomeri, lost young men in this war. Following the war, most communities wished to erect a memorial for those who served, those who had not returned. At Goomeri, a memorial was erected in Digger Perrett Park, although the Goomeri War Memorial Clock, which stands opposite the site, replaced this in 1940; the Goomeri sub-branch of the RSL received its charter on 1 January 1926 and members of this branch were a driving force behind the establishment of the Hall of Memory. A public meeting was held in March 1926 and a Memorial Hall Building Committee comprising Messrs. Mayne, Wimberley and Wise was appointed with authority to obtain land and a building for use as a community hall.

At the time, this was not a common form of memorial, most tributes to Queensland volunteers and war dead being monuments. It was not until the wake of World War II that such practical memorials as buildings and community facilities were favoured, so that the Goomeri Hall of Memory is one of only a small number of such buildings remaining; the building committee purchased an existing timber store building from Cuthbert Butt at Nanango and A Kopp and W Toop had erected it on the site by May 1926. A crow's ash floor was laid for dancing and the hall was painted, it was leased to a Mr A Rich, who moved his silent picture show there from Boonara. Mrs Rich had a sweet stall under the hall, which appears to have been enclosed soon after the relocation. Funds to clear the debt and cover the purchase of furniture and other essential items were raised by holding a series of events from 1927; these included a concert and ball, a sports day and procession and a popular girl competition, won by Myrtle Wieland, one of the cinema pianists.

These events were announced to have cleared the debt of £844 at Easter 1929 with a surplus of just £1/3/6. In 1931 a large supper room with a kitchen was added; this room was used for meetings and small functions. In 1935 sections of wall were removed between the hall and the enclosed verandahs to increase available space. Mr A Duffy held a long lease on the hall to show films, he acted as caretaker and installed electricity and equipment to show "talkies". In the 1940s he became one of the first operators in the country to install CinemaScope. During the Second World War, the basement area was used to store 600 long tons of emergency supplies for the area in case of Japanese invasion. Following the war these were removed and the area was partitioned as clubrooms for the RSL; the Citizen's Military Forces used the RSL space as a drill room and the grounds of the hall for parades. World War II memorials to match those for WWI were ordered in 1950 from Smiths Rubber Stamp, Brass Plate and Stencil Manufacturing Coy in Brisbane for the sum of 7 guineas each.

Murray Studios in Gympie supplied the photographs and the memorials were unveiled on Anzac Day 1951. In the 1950s, the demand for film shows fell. Films were shown only once a week and were discontinued in the late 1950s, although the hall continued to be used for other events. In 1971, the Kilkivan Shire Council accepted responsibility for the hall at the Trustee's request. Following this, the kitchens were modernised and a bar and cold room installed at the supper room end of the hall; the RSL kitchenette was modernised in 1991 and it is thought that the hall was re-roofed in 1995. The hall is still in regular use for a wide range of social functions; the Hall of Memory is a high set timber building with a corrugated iron roof, prominently sited on Boonara Street, at the corner of McGregor Street, Goomeri. It is set in well-tended gardens and comprises a rectangular hall with a gabled roof and a smaller gabled addition set at one end. To the rear, toilet blocks are connected to the hall and it has been built in underneath to form a basement storey.

The main hall is a long rectangular building with its long axis presented to the street elevation. Along this elevation is central gabled porch entry flanked by stairs. On the porch gable is the Commonwealth coat of arms surmounted by the words "Hall of Memory 1914 – 1918". A decorative timber ventilator surmounts the main roof. Attached to one side of the hall is the smaller separately roofed building which has a front verandah and separate stair ent