Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel is controversial due to its impact on global warming and ocean acidification. Fossil fuels, including petroleum, need to be phased out by the end of 21st century to avoid "severe and irreversable impacts for people and ecosystems", according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal, refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Arabic chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan; these fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes.
Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century. Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by sl
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge
The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge is located at the Tablazo Strait outlet of Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. The bridge connects Maracaibo with much of the rest of the country, it is named after a Venezuelan hero in the War of Independence. Made of reinforced and prestressed concrete, the cable-stayed bridge spans 8,678 metres from shore to shore; the five main spans are each 235 metres long. They are supported from 92-metre tall towers, provide 46 metres of clearance to the water below; the bridge carries only vehicles. The competition to design the bridge started in 1957 and was won by Riccardo Morandi, an Italian civil engineer. Morandi's was the only concrete design out of twelve entries, was expected to be less expensive to maintain, as well as providing valuable experience of prestressed concrete technology for Venezuela. Construction was carried out by several companies, including Grün & Bilfinger, Julius Berger, Bauboag AG, Philipp Holzmann AG, Precomprimido C. A. Wayss & Freytag and K Ingeniería.
According to eminent bridge engineer Michel Virlogeux: the Lake Maracaibo Bridge deserves to be part of the series of the most famous bridges over the world, with the Golden Gate Bridge, the bridge over the Firth of Forth, the Brooklyn Bridge, the Garabit Viaduct. It was opened on 24 August 1962 by the then-president of Venezuela Romulo Betancourt. In April 1964, parts of the bridge collapsed after a collision with the tanker Esso Maracaibo, causing the deaths of seven people; the construction of a second cable-stayed bridge has been proposed since 1982, with a series of studies made since 2000. The cost of the new bridge has been estimated at US$440m, to be privately financed via tolls; the bridge's structural integrity received heightened concern after the August 2018 collapse of a stayed pier on a similar bridge, Ponte Morandi in Genoa, Italy. List of bridges by length Dupré, Judith: "Bridges", Könemann, 1998, ISBN 3-8290-0408-7 Virlogeux, Michel: "Bridges with Multiple Cable Stayed Spans", Structural Engineering International, 1/2001 General Rafael Urdaneta Website in spanish Second Lake Maracaibo Bridge at Structurae Info on Maracaibo including the bridge Esso Maracaibo website https://www.venezuelatuya.com/occidente/puenterafaelurdanetaeng.htm
History of the Venezuelan oil industry
Venezuela is one of the world's largest exporters of oil and has the world's largest proven oil reserves at an estimated 296.5 billion barrels as of 2012. In 2008, crude oil production in Venezuela was the tenth-highest in the world at 2,394,020 barrels per day and the country was the eighth-largest net oil exporter in the world. Venezuela is a founding member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; the Indigenous peoples in Venezuela, like many ancient societies utilized crude oils and asphalts from petroleum seeps, which ooze through the ground to the surface, in the years before the Spanish conquistadors. The thick black liquid, known to the locals as mene, was used for medical purposes, as an illumination source, for the caulking of canoes. Upon arrival in the early 16th century, the Spanish conquerors learned from the indigenous people to use the occurring bitumen for caulking their ships as well, for treating their weapons; the first documented shipment of petroleum from Venezuela was in 1539 when a single barrel of oil was sent to Spain to alleviate the gout of Emperor Charles V.
Despite the knowledge of the existence of oil reserves in Venezuela for centuries, the first oil wells of significance were not drilled until the early 1910s. In 1908, Juan Vicente Gómez replaced his ailing predecessor, Cipriano Castro, as the president of Venezuela. Over the next few years, Gómez granted several concessions to explore and refine oil. Most of these oil concessions were granted to his closest friends, they in turn passed them on to foreign oil companies that could develop them. One such concession was granted to Rafael Max Valladares who hired Caribbean Petroleum Company to carry out his oil exploration project. On 15 April 1914, upon the completion of the Zumaque-I oil well, the first Venezuelan oilfield of importance, Mene Grande, was discovered by Caribbean Petroleum in the Maracaibo Basin; this major discovery encouraged a massive wave of foreign oil companies to Venezuela in an attempt to get a piece of the action. From 1914 to 1917, several more oil fields were discovered across the country including the emblematic Bolivar Coastal Field.
Due to the difficulty in purchasing and transporting the necessary tools and machinery, some oil companies were forced to forego drilling until after the war. By the end of 1917, the first refining operations began at the San Lorenzo refinery to process the Mene Grande field production, the first significant exports of Venezuelan oil by Caribbean Petroleum left from the San Lorenzo terminal. By the end of 1918, petroleum appeared for the first time on the Venezuelan export statistics at 21,194 metric tons, it was the blowout of the Barroso No. 2 well in Cabimas in 1922 that marked the beginning of Venezuela's modern history as a major producer. This discovery captured the attention of the world. Soon dozens of foreign companies acquired vast tracts of territory in the hope of striking it rich, by 1928 Venezuela became the world's leading oil exporter. Oil ended Venezuela's relative anonymity in the eyes of world powers, making it a linchpin of an ever-expanding international oil industry and a new consideration in global policymaking.
Venezuela's oil production became a major factor in policy making in Washington before the Second World War. Cabimas still plays an important role in production from the nation's largest oil fields, which are located around and beneath Lake Maracaibo. Other fields are increasing in importance in eastern Venezuela. About twenty years after the completion of the first oil-producing well Venezuela had become the largest oil exporter in the world and, after the United States, the second largest oil producer. Exports of oil boomed between 1920 and 1935. By the end of the 1930s, Venezuela had become the third-leading oil producer in the world, behind the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the leading exporter. By 1929, the dramatic development of the Venezuela oil industry had begun to dominate all other economic sectors in the country, agricultural production began to decrease dramatically; this sudden increase of attention to oil and neglect of the agrarian sector caused the Venezuelan economy to suffer from a phenomenon which became known as the Dutch Disease.
This "disease" occurs when a commodity brings a substantial increase of income in one sector of the economy, causing a strengthening of currency which in turn harms exports of manufacturing and other sectors. Agriculture accounted for about one-third of economic production in the 1920s, but by the 1950s this fraction reduced to one-tenth; this sudden increase of oil production restricted Venezuela's overall ability to create and maintain other industries. The government had ignored serious social problems, including education, infrastructure and domestic industries, causing Venezuela to fall well behind other industrialized countries. With a large influx of foreign "invaders", the effects of a xenophobia that had not been seen before became apparent. Novelist Jose Rafael Pocaterra described the oilmen as "the new Spaniards", he wrote in 1918:One day some Spaniards mounted a dark apparatus on three legs, a grotesque stork with crystal eyes. They opened their way through the forest. Other new Spaniards would open roads…would drill the earth from the top of fantastic towers, producing the fetid fluid…the liquid gold converted into petroleum.
Popular resentment of the foreign oil companies was evident and expressed in several ways. Rufino Blanco Fombona, a Venezuelan writer and
Ciudad Ojeda is a city located in the northeastern shore of Lake Maracaibo in Zulia State in northwestern Venezuela. Its population as of the 2005 census was listed as 128,941. Ciudad Ojeda was founded on January 19, 1937 by former president Eleazar López Contreras as a settlement for the inhabitants of Lagunillas de Aguas Today, it is a major center for the oil and gas industry in the Lake Maracaibo region. On November 13, 1939 a terrible fire destroyed Lagunillas de Agua. There are several hypotheses about the cause of the fire that prompted the final and decisive transfer of population to the mainland; the truth is that the oil industry was an oily layer on the lake, which had the potential to ignite the wooden houses built on stilts in the lake. One hypothesis is the accidental fall of a kerosene lamp to the lake from the Bar Caracas. Another is a fire caused by an oil company when he was going to beat his concession, that company helped reconstruction and retained the award after all, there is no evidence of this fact.
Ciudad Ojeda was named in honor of Alonso de Ojeda, the Spaniard, the first European to discover Lake Maracaibo. Ciudad Ojeda is medium-sized among Venezuelan cities, with a population of 130,000 inhabitants; the majority of Citojenses are of Venezuelan origin. It is home to numerous foreign communities of Italian, Portuguese and Arabs who have the biggest commercial businesses in the city. Iglesia de Santa Lucia Casa de la Cultura Muro de contencion del Lago de Maracaibo Plaza Alonso de Ojeda Plaza Simón Bolívar El Mural Más Grande Universidad Alonso de Ojeda - Universidad Nacional Experimental Rafael María Baralt - Instituto Universitario Pedro Emilio Coll - Denyse Floreano - Miss Venezuela 1994 Eddie Pérez, former Major League Baseball player
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built as a protection against flooding, they keep out vermin; the shady space under the house can be used for storage. In the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, stilt-house settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura Padana regions. Remains have been found at the Ljubljana Marshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example. Early archaeologists like Ferdinand Keller thought they formed artificial islands, much like the Irish and Scottish Crannogs, but today it is clear that the majority of settlements were located on the shores of lakes and were only inundated on. Reconstructed stilt houses are shown in open-air museums in Zürich. In June 2011, the prehistoric pile dwellings in six Alpine states were designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A single Scandinavian pile dwelling, the Alvastra stilt houses, has been excavated in Sweden. According to archeological evidence, stilt-house settlements were an architectural norm in the Caroline Islands and Micronesia, these are still present in Oceania today.
Today, stilt houses are still common in parts of the Mosquito Coast in northeastern Nicaragua, northern Brazil, South East Asia, Papua New Guinea, West Africa. In the Alps, similar buildings, known as raccards, are still in use as granaries. In England, granaries are placed on staddle stones, similar to stilts, to prevent mice and rats getting to the grain. Stilted granaries are a common feature in West Africa, e.g. in the Malinke language regions of Mali and Guinea. Herodotus has described in his Histories the dwellings of the "lake-dwellers" in Paeonia and how those were constructed. Stilt houses are common in the western hemisphere, are an example of multiple discovery, they were built by Amerindians in pre-Columbian times. Palafitos are widespread along the banks of the tropical river valleys of South America, notably the Amazon and Orinoco river systems. Stilt houses were such a prevalent feature along the shores of Lake Maracaibo that Amerigo Vespucci was inspired to name the region "Venezuela".
As the costs of hurricane damage increase and more houses along the Gulf Coast are being built as or converted to stilt houses. Houses where permafrost is present, in the Arctic, are built on stilts to keep permafrost under them from melting. Permafrost can be up to 70% water. While it is frozen, it provides a stable foundation. If heat radiating from the bottom of a home melts the permafrost, the home goes out of level and starts sinking into the ground. Other means of keeping the permafrost from melting are available, but raising the home off the ground on stilts is one of the most effective ways. Diaojiaolou – Stilt houses in southern China. Heliotrope – A concept house designed by Rolf Disch with a single stilt, optimized for harnessing solar power. Kelong – Built for fishing, but doubling up as offshore dwellings in the following countries: Philippines, Malaysia and Singapore. Bahay Kubo – The traditional house type prevalent in the Philippines. Palafito – Found throughout South America since Pre-Columbian times.
In the late 19th century, numerous palafitos were built in Chilean cities such as Castro and other towns in the Chiloé Archipelago, are now considered a typical element of Chilotan architecture. Pang uk – A special kind of house found in Tai O, Hong Kong built by Tankas. Papua New Guinea stilt house – A kind of stilt house constructed by Motuans found in the southern coastal area of PNG. Queenslander – Stilt house common in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. Sang Ghar - A type of stilt house built in Assam state of India, it is found in flood-prone areas of the Brahmaputra river valley. Thai stilt house – A kind of house built on freshwater, e.g. a lotus pond. Vietnamese stilt house – Similar to the Thai ones, except having a front door with a smaller height for religious reasons. Pfahlbaumuseum Unteruhldingen – an English-language article about the stilt house museum in Unteruhldingen, Germany Pit-house Post in ground Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Rumah Melayu Stiltsville Treehouse Venice Wood pilings Ernest Ingersoll.
"Lake Dwellings". Encyclopedia Americana. View on OSM wiki
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, is a form of pollution. The term is given to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills penetrate into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water, the types of shorelines and beaches involved. Spills may take weeks, months or years to clean up.
Oil spills can have disastrous consequences for society. As a result, oil spill accidents have initiated intense media attention and political uproar, bringing many together in a political struggle concerning government response to oil spills and what actions can best prevent them from happening. Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged vulnerable ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, the Sundarbans and many other places; the quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons, but volume is a limited measure of damage or impact. Smaller spills have proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill because of the remoteness of the site or the difficulty of an emergency environmental response. Since 2004, between 300 and 700 barrels of oil per day have been leaking from the site of an oil-production platform 12 miles off the Louisiana coast which sank in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan.
The oil spill, which officials estimate could continue throughout the 21st century, will overtake the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizion disaster as the largest but there are no efforts to cap the many leaking well heads. Oil spills at sea are much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil; these can kill seabirds, mammals and other organisms they coat. Oil spills on land are more containable if a makeshift earth dam can be bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes, land animals can avoid the oil more easily. An oil spill represents an immediate fire hazard; the Kuwaiti oil fires produced air pollution. The Deepwater Horizon explosion killed eleven oil rig workers; the fire resulting from the Lac-Mégantic derailment killed 47 and destroyed half of the town's centre. Spilled oil can contaminate drinking water supplies. For example, in 2013 two different oil spills contaminated water supplies for 300,000 in Miri, Malaysia.
In 2000, springs were contaminated by an oil spill in Kentucky. Contamination can have an economic impact on tourism and marine resource extraction industries. For example, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted beach tourism and fishing along the Gulf Coast, the responsible parties were required to compensate economic victims. In general, spilled oil can affect animals and plants in two ways: dirесt from the oil and from the response or cleanup process. There is no clear relationship between the amount of oil in the aquatic environment and the impact on biodiversity. A smaller spill at the wrong time/wrong season and in a sensitive environment may prove much more harmful than a larger spill at another time of the year in another or the same environment. Oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing their insulating ability, making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Animals who rely on scent to find their babies or mothers cannot due to the strong scent of the oil.
This causes a baby to be rejected and abandoned, leaving the babies to starve and die. Oil can impair a bird's ability preventing it from foraging or escaping from predators; as they preen, birds may ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the digestive tract, altering liver function, causing kidney damage. Together with their diminished foraging capacity, this can result in dehydration and metabolic imbalance; some birds exposed to petroleum experience changes in their hormonal balance, including changes in their luteinizing protein. The majority of birds affected by oil spills die from complications without human intervention; some studies have suggested that less than one percent of oil-soaked birds survive after cleaning, although the survival rate can exceed ninety percent, as in the case of the Treasure oil spill. Furred marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways. Oil coats the fur of sea otters and seals, reducing its insulating effect, leading to fluctuations in body temperature and hypothermia.
Oil can blind an animal, leaving it defenseless. The ingestion of oil impairs the digestive process. Animals can be poisoned, may die from oil entering the lungs or liver. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria. Su
Cabimas is a city on the shore of Maracaibo Lake in Zulia State in northwestern Venezuela. Its current population is around 200,859. Before 1900, Venezuela was known to possess commercial quantities of petroleum. One major find was the'Zumaque 1' well in 1914, in the area of Mene Grande, about 50 miles southeast of Cabimas, it was the blowout of the Barroso No. 2 well in Cabimas in 1922 that marked the beginning of Venezuela's modern history as a major producer. Cabimas still plays an important role in production from the nation's largest oil fields, which are located around and beneath Lake Maracaibo. Other fields are increasing in importance in eastern Venezuela. Most refining in Venezuela takes place in refineries outside the Cabimas area; the city has an area of 604 km², a population of 256,993 inhabitants and a population density of 425.5 hab/km². Its limits are: Lake Maracaibo to the west, the municipalities of Santa Rita and Miranda to the north, the state of Lara Estado Lara to the east and the municipalities of Simón Bolívar and Lagunillas to the south.
Its geographical location is 10°28’ lat. N 70°52’ long. W to 10°19’ lat. N 71°27’ long. W; some neighbourhoods of Cabimas are: "Cabima". Cabimas was founded by a group of Cistercians monks in 1758 as the Mission of Saint Ambrosio of Punta de Piedra, located in the modern day "La Mision"; some archeological remains have been found, however not a single wall survives. The existence of Cabimas is stated in the chronicles of Venezuelan Archbishop Mariano Marti who visited the town in 1771; the town grew as a fishing village on Lake Maracaibo's coast until the discovery of oil by the Venezuelan Oil Concessions with the well Santa Barbara in 1917. However, it was the well "Los Barrosos 2" which 100,000 bpd blow out reached the world newspaper's headlines. Many oil companies and workers from other parts of Venezuela and abroad came to Cabimas, increasing its population. Most foreign personnel were of Dutch origin. La Rosa Oilfield was given in concession by Venezuela president Juan Vicente Gómez; the development and transformation of the city followed the oil industry.
The main avenues were named following a coordinate system made by the oil company Shell to locate its wells. Cabimas was populated by people from different regions of Venezuela people from the east, the Andes, Falcon. Furthermore, a sector founded by Falconians was named "Corito". Other sectors received names from nearby oil facilities like the streets R5 and R10 named after oil wells and Gasplant sector named after a natural gas facility; the city was developed with oil field camps, the newly arrived built their own houses around them, so the city development was not planned. It was populated by Syrians, Chinese, Spanish and Greeks, thus shaping the local markets. Besides oil production, the most outstanding contribution of the city to the country's history was the founding of the first union of workers the Oil Workers and Employees Union, which still operates in the same building since 1936; the weather is humid with an average of over 30 °C year round. The oil well flares produce large amounts of carbon dioxide, which produces greenhouse effects which make the place hotter.
Precipitation is low during most of the year but the rain is heavy during the wet season. The terrain is flat with noticeable depressions which were former lagoons, dried to build houses, for instance, Guavina a place in Guavina is still called "the swamp", the "Bajaíta del Tuerto Teófilo"; the soil is made of sand deposits and few rocks. This, combined with aquifers, allows erosion during the rainy season making the streets collapse, producing notorious holes in the streets; the main activity is the oil industry, since the discovery of the well "Barroso 2" IN 1922. The oil fields of La Rosa in land and La Salina in Maracaibo's lake; those are mature fields producing medium/heavy oil from La Rosa formation of Miocene age. La Rosa field was given in concession to German oil company Preussag Energy from 1996 to 2001 when it passed to the Venezuelan Suelopetrol. On, it became associated with the Venezuelan State own oil company PDVSA in 2006 being 60% PDVSA and 40% Suelopetrol. Cabimas doesn't have facilities for natural gas management and transport, so while the gas produced has been flared for several decades, there is a project to build a cryogenic plant.
Markets are another income for Cabimas, with big stores founded and owned by immigrants from Mediterranean Europe, Middle East and Colombia. There is fishing activity harassed by the growth of algae in the polluted Maracaibo lake, as well as by insecurity. There are some factories like others. There is a former industrial area, no longer operational. In the countryside in the Aristides Calvani parish, fruit trees are grown and cattle is raised; the Cattle Raisers Association of East Maracaibo Lake operates in Cabimas. This municipality is known for a large number of spare auto parts stores; the Cabimas and Maracaibo areas are both known for international credit card fraud. In Cabimas there are no public transport bus routes. Old cars and vans are the vehicles used for public transportation. Most vehicles are from th