Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2; the continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba, an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, Venezuela exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas; the country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.

There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century.

Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution; the revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written. This new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis.

Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak. The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave; the Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. In 2013, Hugo Chávez died, shortly after being elected to a fourth term, was succeeded by Nicolás Maduro, elected by a narrow majority in a disputed election. Maduro with disastrous results; the nation's economy collapsed because of their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—and are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy. The destabilized economy led to a crisis in Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime.

These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country. By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year and 10,000,000% in 2019. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela.

Thus, the name "Ve

Ralph Howard, 1st Viscount Wicklow

Ralph Howard, 1st Viscount Wicklow PC was an Anglo-Irish politician and nobleman. Ralph Howard was born at County Wicklow, the eldest son of the Rt.. Rev. Robert Howard, Bishop of Elphin. Howard was High Sheriff of Wicklow in 1749, of County Carlow in 1754. In 1761 and 1768 he was elected M. P. for both Wicklow County and the borough of St Johnstown, choosing to sit for the county. In May 1770, he was appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland and on 12 July 1776 Howard was raised to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Clonmore of Clonmore Castle, County Carlow. In June 1785 he was further honoured as Viscount Wicklow, died a year on 26 June 1786, his widow, Alice and sole heiress of William Forward of Castle Forward, co. Donegal, was created Countess of Wicklow in her own right on the 20 December 1793, she died 7 March 1807. Their son, Robert Howard, succeeded her as Earl of Wicklow, their great-grandnephew Ralph Howard became the seventh Earl of Wicklow

John Freudenberg

John Freudenberg is an American attorney and Associate Justice of the Nebraska Supreme Court. Freudenberg attended Chadron State College for his undergraduate degree and the University of Nebraska College of Law for his Juris Doctor He worked as a county attorney and as Nebraska Assistant Attorney General. From 2007 to 2017, he was the Special Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Nebraska, he was appointed as a Lancaster County Judge in 2017. Freudenberg was one of three finalists named for the vacancy. On June 18, 2018 Governor Pete Ricketts announced the appointment of Freudenberg the state Supreme Court, he fills the seat vacated due to the death of Associate Justice John F. Wright; this is Governor Ricketts’ fifth appointment to the Nebraska Supreme Court. John Freudenberg at Ballotpedia