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Lake Placid, New York

Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521; the village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba, 50 miles southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, comprise what is known as the Tri-Lakes region. Lake Placid hosted the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid hosted the 1972 Winter Universiade, the 2000 Goodwill Games, will host the 2020 ISU World Synchronized Skating Championships and the 2023 Winter Universiade. Lake Placid was founded in the early 19th century to develop an iron ore mining operation. By 1840, the population of "North Elba" was six families. In 1845, Gerrit Smith arrived in North Elba and not only bought a great deal of land around the village but granted large tracts to former slaves, he demonstrated his support of Abolitionism. The abolitionist John Brown heard about Smith's reforms, left his anti-slavery activities in Kansas to buy 244 acres of land in North Elba.

This parcel became known as the "Freed Slave Utopian Experiment," Timbucto. Shortly before his execution in 1859, John Brown asked to be buried on his farm, preserved as the John Brown Farm State Historic Site; as leisure time increased in the late 19th century, Lake Placid was discovered as a resort by the wealthy, who were drawn to the fashionable Lake Placid Club. Melvil Dewey, who invented the Dewey Decimal System, designed what was called "Placid Park Club" in 1895; this inspired the village to change its name to Lake Placid, which became an incorporated village in 1900. Dewey kept the club open through the winter in 1905, which aided the development of winter sports in the area. Nearby Saranac Lake had hosted an international winter sporting event as early as 1889, was used year-round by patients seeking treatment for tuberculosis at sanatoria; the fresh, clean mountain air was considered good for them and was a common treatment for tuberculosis at the time. By 1921, the Lake Placid area could boast a ski jump, speed skating venue, ski association.

In 1929, Dr. Godfrey Dewey, Melvil's son, convinced the International Olympic Committee Lake Placid had the best winter sports facilities in the United States; the Lake Placid Club was the headquarters for the IOC for the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. In addition to the John Brown Farm and Gravesite, the Mount Van Hoevenberg Olympic Bobsled Run, New York Central Railroad Adirondack Division Historic District, United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lake Placid hosted the Winter Olympics in 1932 and 1980. During the 1932 games, the trails outside of the village served for the cross-country skiing events and the cross-country skiing part of the Nordic combined event. Lake Placid, St Moritz, Innsbruck are the only sites to have twice hosted the Winter Olympic Games. Jack Shea, a resident of the village, became the first person to win two gold medals when he doubled in speed skating at the 1932 Winter Olympics, he carried the Olympic torch through Lake Placid in 2002 shortly before his death.

His grandson, Jimmy Shea, competed in the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, in his honor, winning gold in the Skeleton. In the U. S. the village is remembered as the site of the 1980 USA–USSR hockey game. Dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", a group of American college students and amateurs upset the favored Soviet national ice hockey team, 4–3, two days won the gold medal. Another highpoint during the Games was the performance of American speed-skater Eric Heiden, who won five gold medals. Lake Placid decided against it. Lake Placid shifted its interest toward bidding for the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics, but it again did not submit a bid. Lake Placid is well known among winter-sports enthusiasts for both Alpine and Nordic. Whiteface Mountain, in nearby Wilmington about 13 miles from Lake Placid, offers skiing, gondola rides, mountain biking, is the only one of the High Peaks that can be reached by an auto road. Whiteface Mountain has a vertical elevation of 3,430 feet, the highest vertical elevation of mountains in Eastern North America.

The area has one of only 16 bobsled runs in the Western Hemisphere. In 2010, U. S. News & World Report highlighted Lake Placid as one of the "6 Forgotten Vacation Spots" in North America. Many people use Lake Placid as a base from which to climb the 46 High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains; those who complete these climbs may join the Adirondack 46ers. Lake Placid built its first golf course in 1898, one of the first in the U. S. and has more courses than any other venue in the Adirondacks. Many of its courses were designed by well-known golf course architects, such as John Van Kleek, Seymour Dunn, Alexander H. Findlay, Alister MacKenzie; the geographic features of the Adirondacks were considered reminiscent of the Scottish landscape, where the game started, thus a fitting canvas for original play, or "mountain golf." Lake Placid is near the West Branch of the Ausable River, a well-known stretch of water for fly fishing. More than 6 miles of the West Branch are designated as year-round catch-and-release, artificial-lures-only water.

Since 1999 it has been a site for the annual Ironman Lake Placid Triathlon, the second oldest Ironman in North America and one of only ten official Ironman Triathlons to be held in the continental U. S. ESPN's Great Outdoor Game


Manakkudavar was a Tamil poet and commentator known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. His is the earliest of the available commentaries on the ancient work, hence considered to bear closest semblance with the original work by Valluvar, he was among the canon of ten medieval commentators of the Kural text most esteemed by scholars. He was among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Pari Perumal, Kaalingar and Parimelalhagar. Little is known about Manakkudavar, in comparison with other medieval commentators. Manakkudavar is believed to have been born in Manakkudi, from which he came to be referred to as "Manakkudiyaar", as "Manakkudavar". Since there are several towns in Tamil Nadu bearing the name “Manakkudi”, it is difficult to pinpoint which of these towns was his home town, it is said that “Manakkudi” is the name of his clan. He lived around the 10th century CE, he was the oldest of the ten medieval commentators.

Manakkudavar’s mentioning about several earlier interpretations in various places in his commentary, including his explications to couplets 17 and 389, reveals that there were several earlier commentaries on the Kural literature before his time, which are now lost. Manakkudavar belonged to the Jain community; this is revealed in various places in his commentary, such as his explanations given to couplets 1, 3, 268, 352, 377, 398, 429, 622, 627, 1103. Manakkudavar’s commentary on the Kural text remains the second most popular, next only to that of Parimelalhagar. Manakkudavar's commentary features a lucid flow of language. Scholars consider his commentary as following the Tamil culture without the influence of Sanskrit works, he expresses his hesitations wherever he appears doubtful about his interpretation. In certain places where Valluvar has employed "intentional discrepancies," Manakkudavar clarifies the “discrepancy” by pointing the connection with other couplets elsewhere in the work. Only in few places, such as couplets 2, 401 and 802, does Manakkudavar cite other ancient didactic works, including the Naladiyar and Nanmanikkatigai, to exemplify.

In various places, such as couplets 29, 269 and 274, Manakkudavar cites various stories and incidents from ancient Indian epics such as Mahabharata and various Puranas. He explicates the distinct meaning of difficult words found in such couplets as 125, 154, 211, 340, 350, 548, 580, 649, 674, 715, 731, 1135 and 1324 in order to simplify comprehension. To elucidate the substance of certain couplets, he further elaborates on the synonyms of the key terms found in couplets 4, 431, 637, 725, 762, 897, 944, 1183, 1208, 1234 and 1313. In instances such as couplets 275, 306, 856, 1043, 1129, 1144, 1154 and 1233, he offers linguistic and grammatical explanations. In couplets such as 130 and 134, he provides the reader with the essence of the thought that the couplet attempt to convey. Manakkudavar has employed contemporary colloquial dialect and proverbial sayings in such couplets as 118, 329, 405, 812, 915, 1057 and 1194. In instances such as couplets 327, 429, 586, 631, 941, 945, 1179 and 1323. In few places, Manakkudavar's explanations appear less satisfactory compared with other commentators, as those instances in couplets 21, 153 and 591.

The fact that Manakkudavar’s commentary served as the cornerstone and guide for other medieval commentators, including Parimelalhagar, cannot be overstated. Manakkudavar appears to be the first commentator to divide all the three books of the work into subdivisions known in Tamil as iyals, he and lucidly explains the significance and essence of each subdivision and each chapter within a given subdivision. According to Selvakesavaraya Mudaliyar in his work Tiruvalluvar, Manakkudavar divided Book III of the Kural text into five iyals attributed to the moods of five divisions of the Sangam landscape, known as thinai, namely kurinji, marudam and paalai. However, several modern publishers do not follow these divisions while publishing Manakkudavar's commentary, instead structure the commentary according to Parimelalhagar's divisions; the word arrangement of Manakkudavar is considered by modern scholars to be better than that of Parimelalhagar. According to P. S. Sundaram, Manakkudavar's "division of words makes better sense without any sacrifice of the metrical requirements."

The table at the right depicts the variations among the early commentators' ordering of, for example, the first ten verses of the Tirukkural. Note that the ordering of the verses and chapters as set by Parimelalhagar, followed unanimously for centuries since, has now been accepted as the standard structure of the Kural text. Being the earliest available commentary of the Tirukkural, Manakkudavar's work is considered to bear the closest semblance with the original work of the Kural text by Valluvar. Thus, Manakkudavar's commentary is consider the cornerstone against which other commentaries are compared in order to find variations in them. Researchers have found as many as 16, 20, 120, 171 variations in the ordering of the Kural couplets by Pari Perumal, Paridhi and Kaalingar with respect to the commentary by Manakkudavar; the commentators not only changed the original ordering of the couplets, but changed the ordering of the chapters, chiefly in Book I of the Kural text. The modern chapters 10, 13, 17, 18, 19 appearing under the subsection "Domestic virtues" of the Kural text appear as chapters 26, 27, 30, 31, 32 under the subsection "Ascetic virtues"

Follo FK

Follo Fotballklubb is a football club from Ski, Norway. Follo play in light blue, their home ground is Ski stadion, it was founded in September 2000 and their biggest achievement was playing in the 2010 Norwegian Football Cup Final. It was founded in September 2000 as an umbrella team for the football departments of five local teams. Follo's had a good Norwegian Cup run in 2006, when they made it all the way to the quarter finals losing at home 0-1 to the cup finalists Sandefjord, but on the way to the quarters they beat defending holders Molde. Four years in 2010, they made it to the Norwegian Cup final, beating Tippeligaen club Lillestrøm 4-2 in the third round, later Rosenborg 3-2 in the semi finals. Rosenborg were at the time unbeaten and on top of the Tippeligaen, while Follo were at the bottom of the Adeccoligaen. NRK's match commentator Hallvar Thoresen dubbed Follo's victory against Rosenborg the greatest Norwegian cup shock of all time. In the first cup final in the club's history, Follo lost 2-0 against Strømsgodset.

Thus, despite attaining their best league and cup finish Follo were still relegated to the third tier of Norwegian football. The team managed to stay clear of the relegation zone by the margin of a single point, but were still relegated on account of a clerical error in which they did not finish their application for a 2011 license in time for the 15 September deadline. Before the 2011 Second Division, Follo was considered as one of the favourites to earn promotion back to Adeccoligaen, but when the season was finished Follo was number ten, only four points clear of another relegation. On July 13, 2012, four players were arrested by police due to match fixing allegations in games involving Follo and Asker Fotball. Follo's 4-3 loss after being 3-0 up by Østsiden IL was deemed suspicious because of the odd score line and high bettings placed on this game; the 2012 season saw Follo earn promotion, but the club was relegated after only one season in the First Division. Norwegian Cup: Runners-up: 2010 As of 22 February 2016Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official site Followers Supporters club European Football Club Ranking

Olympus OM system

The Olympus OM System was a line of 35mm single-lens reflex cameras and accessories sold by Olympus between 1972 and 2002. The system was introduced by Olympus in 1972, more than a decade after Nikon and other manufacturers had established their own SLR ranges; the range was designed by Yoshihisa Maitani, chief designer for Olympus, his staff. The nucleus of the system was a series of compact bodies divided into an advanced series and a consumer-oriented series; the first model was the all-mechanical M-1 which, after pressure from Leica, was renamed OM-1. At the same time the M system was renamed OM System; the camera included a full-aperture TTL Cadmium-sulphide exposure meter, a bayonet lens mount of large diameter. By the end of the 1970s it was joined by the semi-automatic OM-2 and consumer-oriented OM-10. Olympus continued the naming pattern with the'professional' OM-3 and OM-4, the consumer-level OM-20, OM-30 and OM-40; the cameras were accompanied by a series of Zuiko-branded lenses, as well as a generous selection of accessories.

The majority of OM bodies and lenses were manual-focus only. Olympus produced a wide variety of OM camera models over the years; these were divided into two distinct series. Cameras with single-digit model numbers were the'professional' series, optimized for more advanced features and durability. Two-digit model numbers, or letters, meant a'consumer' camera designed for ease of use. All the consumer-grade models were discontinued after 1992, since the market for manual-focus SLR cameras had declined greatly; the consumer line returned in 1997 with the Cosina-sourced OM-2000 model. Professional and advanced-amateur demand for the high-end models continued, they were produced until 2002, along with the consumer-grade OM-2000; the Olympus OM-1 was a manually-operated 35 mm single-lens reflex camera forming the basis of the OM system in 1972. At first called the Olympus M-1, Leica disputed this designation and it was changed to OM-1, it was designed by a team led by Yoshihisa Maitani with a through-the-lens exposure meter controlling a needle visible in the viewfinder.

It was noted for its reduction of size and noise. One feature unique to the OM-1, compared to the rest of the OM system, was its mirror lock-up facility which made it ideal for astrophotography and macrophotography. Introduced in 1975, the Olympus OM-2 was a semi-automatic, aperture-priority camera featuring an electronically controlled shutter, it was based on the OM-1 body, retained compatibility with OM-1 accessories and lenses. It boasted automatic through-the-lens off-the-film metering, exposure was considered accurate; this was calculated by the measured light reflected off the surface of the shutter, and/or the film surface during the actual exposure. The camera offered a manual-exposure mode, as in the OM-1, it introduced the integration of electronic flash into the exposure system using the TTL exposure system. The OM-3 was an updated version of the OM-1, a manual camera without automatic exposure modes, an mechanical shutter, it featured a multi-spot metering system in addition to the centre-weighted metering of the earlier body.

It featured an LCD similar to the OM-4 which could be illuminated in low light. Its main advantage over the OM-4 was its ability to operate without batteries due to its mechanical design. Batteries were only needed for the exposure meter and LCD, it lacked a self-timer, however. In 1995, nine years after the OM-3 was discontinued, the OM-3Ti was released, it shared the improvements over the OM-3 that the OM-4Ti held over the OM-4. The Olympus OM-4, an improved version of the OM-2, was manufactured from 1983 to 1987, it was introduced at a US$685 list price for the body alone. It was a battery-powered, electromechanically controlled, manual focus SLR with manual exposure control or aperture priority autoexposure, it used a horizontal cloth focal plane shutter with a speed range of 240s to 1/2000s plus bulb, flash X-sync of 1/60s. The OM-4 featured a built-in spot meter and was the first camera capable of measuring eight individual areas and averaging them; the light meter used a dual-concentric segmented silicon photo-diode to provide spot or centerweighted readings.

It used a graduated linear LCD for the shutter speed at the bottom of the viewfinder to indicate its readings versus the actual camera settings. In 1986 the OM-4 was improved to a tougher OM-4Ti version, with titanium top and bottom plates, improved weatherproofing and high-speed flash sync; this last version was discontinued in 2002. The OM-10 hit the markets in June 1979 at the same time as the OM-2N; the camera was a 35mm focal-plane shutter aperture priority AE SLR camera with an electronic shutter. Only aperture-priority AE was available with the camera unless the optional manual exposure adapter was installed; this allowed the setting of shutter speeds between 1/1000s. The camera was equipped with a fixed pentaprism viewfinder which contained an LED exposure indicator; the finder coverage was measured to be 93%. Exposure control was aperture priority AE using center-weighted light metering. Film speeds of the camera range from ASA 25 to ASA 1600. Film winding was done by using the film-wind lever located on the top right of the camera.

Film rewinding was done manually using the film-rewind crank located at the top left. The camera body measured 136 × 83 × 50 mm and weighed 430 grams; the OM-20 (s

Jonathan Wentz

Jonathan Michael Wentz was an American Paralympic equestrian competitor. He competed at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, where he finished fourth in the Grade 1b individual championship event. Wentz was born on November 1990 in Austin, Texas to James and Christina Wentz, he had cerebral palsy since birth. He was 6 feet 3 inches tall; when not competing in equestrian, he played soccer, football and baseball. In 2008, while he was in high school, he was featured on the television show The Real Winning Edge, where the episode focused on overcoming challenges to compete at the highest level, he had a partial scholarship to Southern Methodist University and was a senior in 2012. Wentz died September 30, 2012 at age 21. A cause of death was not established. News of his death was first shared by his parents on Facebook. At the time of his death, he was living in Texas. Wentz was an American Paralympic equestrian, he was coached by Kai Handt from 2009 to 2012. He started riding for therapy at age 2. In 2008 he began riding at the North Texas Equestrian Center and trained six days a week under Kai Handt.

Wentz competed at the 2010 World Equestrian Games, where he finished 11th in the freestyle event and 15th in the team test event. He competed at the 2011 USEF Para-Equestrian Dressage National Championships, where he finished first. Wentz competed at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in September, where he finished fourth in the Grade 1b individual championship event, he was narrowly defeated by Austrian Pep Puch who finished with 4.695 points ahead of Wentz in earning a bronze medal. He had a fifth-place finish in London in the individual freestyle event, he was the country's only male representative in the sport and his performance was the best of any American competitor in the sport at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Friends and family made the trip from the United States to watch him compete. Going into the Paralympics, Wentz was ranked tenth in the world, he earned his selection to the Paralympic Games at the Gladstone, New Jersey-hosted 2012 USEF Para-Equestrian Dressage National Championships where he rode his horse, Richter Scale, in the freestyle event and scored 72.899% for a first-place finish.

He rode a horse called Silvano and finished second in the event with a score of 72.101%

Antonella Anedda

Antonella Anedda is an Italian poet and essayist. Of Sardinian and Corsican descent, she was born in Rome and was educated there and in Venice, receiving a degree in the history of modern art from Sapienza University of Rome. Anedda received a scholarship from the Cini Foundation, she worked for the Museo nazionale delle arti e tradizioni popolari in Rome and taught at the University of Siena and the University of Lugano. Anedda has participated in radio programs for Rai 3, her work has appeared in various magazines such as alfabeta2, Ipso facto and Doppiozero and she has contributed articles on art criticism to various magazines and newspapers. Her first volume of poetry Residenze invernali received the Premio Sinisgalli, the Premio Diego Valeri and the Tratti Poetry Prize, her collection Notti di pace occidental received the Premio Internazionale Montale for poetry. Her work has been included in various anthologies and has been translated into various languages including Japanese, Hebrew, Spanish and English.

Anedda translated some prose by Philippe Jaccottet for the volume Appunti per una semina. He participated with an installation and a performance at the exhibition Lontano da dove at the Macro Museum in Testaccio. In 2013 one of her texts written for Nicoletta Braschi, entitled A Lunar Woman, was staged in Rome under the direction of Francesco Saponaro and was published in a plaquette with engravings by Lino Fiorito. In 2014 he collaborate to the book Una forma di attenzione alongside artist Sabrina Mezzaqui, which follows the study day entitled Incollare mondi, cucire parole. Anedda, Gisiger, Mezzaqui held at the Scuola Normale di Pisa in 2010. In September 2019 she was awarded an honorary PhD by the University of Paris Sorbonne IV. Cosa sono gli anni, essays & short stories Nomi distanti, translated works by Ovid, Philippe Jaccottet and others La luce delle cose and short stories Il catalogo della gioia, poetry Don’t Waste my Beauty/Non guastare la mia bellezza, works by Barbara Carle, co-translator and co-editor, Salva con nome, received the Viareggio Prize, the Premio Pascoli and the Premio Alghero Donna Archipelago, bilingual selection translated by Jamie McKendrick, awarded the John Florio Translation Prize 2014 and a Poetry Book Society Recommended Translation, 9781780371085 Isolatria 9781780371085 Historiae