Lake Toba is a large natural lake in Sumatra, Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is located in the middle of the northern part of the island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres, the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E / 2.88. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres wide, up to 505 metres deep, it is the largest volcanic lake in the world. Lake Toba Caldera is one of the nineteen Geoparks in Indonesia, proposed to be included in the UNESCO Global Geopark. Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. Recent advances in dating methods suggest a more accurate identification of 74,000 years ago as the date, it is the largest-known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations, it has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C, up to 15 °C in higher latitudes.
Additional studies in Lake Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa. The Toba caldera complex in North Sumatra comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the Sumatran "volcanic front". With 100 by 30 km it is the world's largest Quaternary caldera, the fourth and youngest caldera, it intersects the three older calderas. An estimated 2,800 km3 of dense-rock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest Toba tuff, was released during one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in recent geological history. Following this eruption, a resurgent dome formed within the new caldera, joining two half-domes separated by a longitudinal graben. At least four cones, four stratovolcanoes, three craters are visible in the lake; the Tandukbenua cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years.
The Pusubukit volcano on the south edge of the caldera is solfatarically active. The Toba eruption occurred at, it was the last in a series of at least four caldera-forming eruptions at this location, with earlier calderas having formed around 788,000±2,200 years ago. This last eruption had an estimated VEI=8, making it the largest-known explosive volcanic eruption within the last 25 million years. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University have estimated that the total amount of material released in the eruption was about 2,800 km3 —about 2,000 km3 of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, 800 km3 that fell as ash to the west. However, based on the new method, Toba erupted 3,200 km3 of ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite; the pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of least 20,000 km2, with ash deposits as thick as 600 m by the main vent. The eruption was large enough to have deposited an ash layer 15 cm thick over all of South Asia. In addition it has been variously calculated that 10,000 million tonnes of sulfurous acid or 6,000 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide were ejected into the atmosphere by the event.
The subsequent collapse formed a caldera that filled with water. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome; the exact year of the eruption is unknown, but the pattern of ash deposits suggests that it occurred during the northern summer because only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea. The eruption lasted two weeks, the ensuing volcanic winter resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3.0 to 3.5 °C for several years. Ice cores from Greenland record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. However, the global cooling has been discussed by Self, their conclusion is that the cooling had started before Toba's eruption. This conclusion was supported by Lane and Zielinski who studied the lake-core from Africa and GISP2, they concluded that there was no volcanic winter after Toba eruption and that high H2SO4 deposits do not cause long-term effects.
Evidence from studies of mitochondrial DNA suggests that humans may have passed through a genetic bottleneck around this time that reduced genetic diversity below what would be expected given the age of the species. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1998, the effects of the Toba eruption may have decreased the size of human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. However, this hypothesis is not accepted because similar effects on other animal species have not been observed, paleoanthropology su
Branko Jorović is a Serbian professional basketball coach and former player. He currentrly serves as the head coach for Železničar Čačak, he played both the small power forward positions. Jorović was a member of the Serbia and Montenegro national team at the 2006 FIBA World Championship in Japan, he won a gold medal at the 2003 Summer Universiade in Daegu. In October 207, Jorović was named an assistant coach for Bosna Royal, he left Bosnia in December 2017. In December 2019, he signed for Železničar Čačak. Branko Jorović at aba-liga.com Branko Jorović at balkanleague.net Branko Jorović at archive.fiba.com
Kagoshima 2nd district is a single-member electoral district of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. Located in Southern Kagoshima Prefecture it covers parts of the capital Kagoshima City, Ibusuki City and former Ei Town in the main island part of Kagoshima, Amami City and Ōshima County on the Amami islands; as of 2013, 279,541 eligible voters were registered in the district, giving it above-average vote weight. From 2000 to 2014, the district had been represented by the Tokuda family who runs the Tokushūkai hospital group. A political funds scandal in 2013 over donations from Tokushūkai led to the resignations of Tokyo governor Naoki Inose and Takeshi Tokuda