Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It was founded in 1889, it works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom. The RSPB has over 1,300 employees, 18,000 volunteers and more than a million members, making it the largest wildlife conservation charity in Europe; the RSPB maintains 200 nature reserves. The origins of the RSPB lie with two groups of women, both formed in 1889; the Plumage League was founded by Emily Williamson at her house in Didsbury, Manchester, as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Fur and Feather Folk was founded in Croydon by Eliza Phillips, Etta Lemon, Catherine Hall and others; the groups gained in popularity and amalgamated in 1891 to form the Society for the Protection of Birds in London.
The Society gained its Royal Charter in 1904. The original members of the RSPB were all women who campaigned against the fashion of the time for women to wear exotic feathers in hats, the consequent encouragement of "plume hunting". To this end the Society had two simple rules: That Members shall discourage the wanton destruction of Birds, interest themselves in their protection That Lady-Members shall refrain from wearing the feathers of any bird not killed for purposes of food, the ostrich only excepted. At the time of founding, the trade in plumage for use in hats was large: in the first quarter of 1884 7,000 bird-of-paradise skins were being imported to Britain, along with 400,000 birds from West India and Brazil, 360,000 birds from East India. In 1890, the society published its first leaflet, entitled Destruction of Ornamental-Plumaged Birds, aimed at saving the egret population by informing wealthy women of the environmental damage wrought by the use of feathers in fashion. A 1897 publication, Bird Food in Winter, aimed to address the use of berries as winter decoration and encouraged the use of synthetic berries to preserve the birds food source.
By 1898 the RSPB had 20,000 members and in 1897 alone had distributed over 16,000 letters and 50,000 leaflets. The Society attracted support from some women of high social standing who belonged to the social classes that popularised the wearing of feathered hats, including the Duchess of Portland and the Ranee of Sarawak; as the organisation began to attract the support of many other influential figures, both male and female, such as the ornithologist Professor Alfred Newton, it gained in popularity and attracted many new members. The society received a Royal Charter in 1904 from Edward VII, just 15 years after its founding, was instrumental in petitioning the Parliament of the United Kingdom to introduce laws banning the use of plumage in clothing. At the time that the Society was founded in Britain, similar societies were founded in other European countries. In 1961, the society acquired The Lodge in Bedfordshire as its new headquarters; the RSPB's logo depicts an Avocet. The first version was designed by Robert Gillmor.
Today, the RSPB works with both the civil service and the Government to advise Government policies on conservation and environmentalism. It is one of several organisations that determine the official conservation status list for all birds found in the UK; the RSPB offer animal rescue services. The RSPB maintains over 200 reserves throughout the United Kingdom, covering a wide range of habitats, from estuaries and mudflats to forests and urban habitats; the reserves have bird hides provided for birdwatchers and many provide visitor centres, which include information about the wildlife that can be seen there. The RSPB confers awards, including the President's Award, for volunteers who make a notable contribution to the work of the society. According to the RSPB: The RSPB Medal is the Society's most prestigious award, it is presented to an individual in recognition of wild bird protection and countryside conservation. It is awarded annually to one or two people; the RSPB has published a members-only magazine for over a century.
Bird Notes and News was first published in April 1903. The title changed to Bird Notes in 1947. In the 1950s, there were four copies per year; each volume covered two years, spread over three calendar years. For example, volume XXV, number one was dated Winter 1951, number eight in the same volume was dated Autumn 1953. From the mid-1950s, many of the covers were by Charles Tunnicliffe. Two of the originals are on long-term loan to the Tunnicliffe gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, but in 1995 the RSPB sold 114 at a Sotheby's auction, raising £210,000, the most expensive being a picture of a partridge which sold for £6,440. From January 1964, publication increased to six per year. Volumes again covered two years, so vol. 30, covering 1962–63, therefore included nine issues, ending with the "Winter 1963–64" edition instead of eight. The final edition, vol. 31 no. 12, was published in late 1965. Miss M. G. Davies, BA, MBOU John Clegg Jeremy Boswell Bird Notes' successor Birds replaced it with volume 1, number 1 being the January
Powys is a principal area and county, one of the preserved counties of Wales. It is named after the Kingdom of Powys, a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. See the list of places in Powys for all towns and villages in Powys. Powys covers the historic counties of Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire, most of Brecknockshire, a small part of Denbighshire – an area of 5,179 km², making it the largest unitary authority in Wales by land area and about the same size as the country of Trinidad and Tobago, it is bounded to the north by Gwynedd and Wrexham. The majority of the Powys population lives in small towns; the largest towns are Newtown, Ystradgynlais and Welshpool with populations of 12,783, 9,004, 7,901 and 6,269 respectively. Powys has the lowest population density of all the principal areas of Wales. Most of Powys is mountainous making north-south transport difficult. Just under a third of the residents have Welsh linguistic skills: Welsh speakers are concentrated in the rural areas both in and around Machynlleth and Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant in Montgomeryshire, the industrial area of Ystradgynlais in the southwest of Brecknockshire.
Radnorshire was completely Anglicised by the end of the 18th century. The 2001 census records show 21% of the population of Powys were able to speak Welsh at that time, the same as for the whole of Wales; the county is named after the ancient Welsh Kingdom of Powys, which in the sixth century AD included the northern two thirds of the area as well as most of Shropshire and adjacent areas now in England, came to an end when it was occupied by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd of Gwynedd during the 1260s. The uplands retain evidence of occupation from long before the Kingdom of Powys, before the Romans, who built roads and forts across the area. There are 1130 identified burial mounds within the county, of varying styles and ages, dating from 4000BC to 1000BC, most of them belonging to the Bronze Age. Of these, 339 are Scheduled Monuments. Standing stones, most again dating to the Bronze Age occur in large numbers, 276 being found across the county, of which 92 are scheduled. From the Iron Age, the county has 90 scheduled Hill forts and a further 54 enclosures and settlement sites.
The gold in the county coat of arms symbolises the wealth of the area. Black is for the Black Mountains; the fountain is a medieval heraldic charge displayed as Azure. It represents water, refers to both the water catchment area and the rivers and lakes. Thus, the arms contain references to the hills and mountains and lakes, water supply and industry; the crest continues the colouring of the arms. A tower has been used in preference to a mural crown, which alludes to the county's military history and remains. From the tower rises a red kite, a bird extinct elsewhere in Britain but thriving in Powys; the bird is a "semé of black lozenges" for the former coal mining industry while the golden fleece it carries is a reference to the importance of sheep rearing in the county. The county motto is: Powys – the paradise of Wales. Powys was created on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, had Montgomery and Radnor and Brecknock as districts under it, which were based directly on the former administrative counties.
On 1 April 1996, the districts were abolished, Powys was reconstituted as a unitary authority with a minor border adjustment in the northeast—specifically, the addition of the communities of Llansilin and Llangedwyn from Glyndwr district in Clwyd—and with moving the border, so that rather than half of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant, all is included. The first Lord Lieutenant of Powys was the Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire; the Lord Lieutenant of Brecknockshire and Lord Lieutenant of Radnorshire were appointed as Lieutenants. The present Lord Lieutenant is The Hon. Mrs Elizabeth Shân Legge-Bourke LVO of Crickhowell. In December 2007 Powys was awarded Fairtrade County status by the Fairtrade Foundation. List of Lord Lieutenants of Powys List of High Sheriffs of Powys List of schools in Powys List of churches in Powys Powys at Curlie Powys County Council official site Powys Heritage Tourism in Powys
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Severn Trent plc is a water company based in the United Kingdom, traded on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Severn Trent, the trading name owned by the company, applies to a group of companies employing more than 15,000 people across the United Kingdom, United States and mainland Europe, with some involvement in the Middle East; the main companies in the group are Severn Trent Services. Severn Trent Laboratories was rebranded as part of Severn Trent Services in 2010 to streamline the company and give it a single worldwide image rather than a series of separate organisations with different identities; as with all water companies in the United Kingdom, Severn Trent is regulated under the Water Industry Act 1991. Severn Trent Water Authority was established in 1974, through the amalgamation of existing water supply authorities, the Severn River Authority, the Trent River Authority and the sewage and sewage disposal responsibilities of the councils within its area.
In 1989, the authority was privatised under the Water Act 1989, together with the rest of the water industry in England and Wales, to form Severn Trent Water, with a responsibility to supply freshwater and treat sewage for around 8 million people living in the Midlands of England and a small area of Wales. It took its name from the two major rivers in the Severn and the Trent. In May 1991, it went on to acquire a leading waste management business. In October 2006, Biffa was de-merged from the group Severn Trent, is now listed separately on the stock exchange. In January 2007, the American side of Severn Trent Laboratories was sold to HIG Capital. In September 2007, the company announced they would be closing their headquarters in Birmingham and relocating to a custom-built office complex in the centre of the city of Coventry in the autumn of 2010. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority granted United Utilities and Severn Trent Water approval to create a new joint venture company in preparation for the water market deregulation.
In June 2016, United Utilities and Severn Trent Water formed Water Plus in readiness to provide the retail services for their non-household customers. The water authority took over the following public-sector statutory water undertakers: Birmingham Corporation Water Department the water supply department of Coventry Corporation the water supply department of Leicester Corporation City of Nottingham Water Department the water supply department of Stafford Corporation the water supply department of Wolverhampton Corporation the water supply department of Cannock Rural District Council Central Nottinghamshire Water Board East Shropshire Water Board Montgomeryshire Water Board North Derbyshire Water Board North East Warwickshire Water Board North West Gloucestershire Water Board North West Leicestershire Water Board North West Worcestershire Water Board Rugby Joint Water Board South Derbyshire Water Board South Warwickshire Water Board South West Worcestershire Water Board Staffordshire Potteries Water Board West Shropshire Water BoardSection 12 of the Water Act 1973 stated that “where the area of a water authority includes the whole or part of the limits of supply of a statutory water company, the authority shall discharge their duties with respect to the supply of water within those limits through the company.”
The following two private statutory water companies continued to supply water as before within their limits as supply but only as "agents" of the water authority: East Worcestershire Waterworks Company – from 1 September 1993, the water undertaking of this company was transferred to Severn Trent as per The East Worcester and Severn Trent Water Order 1993 South Staffordshire Waterworks Company The water authority remained responsible for sewerage and sewage disposal within the limits of supply of these two companies. The water authority took over the following public-sector bulk water suppliers: Derwent Valley Water Board River Dove Water BoardThe water authority took over the following main drainage authorities, which were joint boards set up to deal with the main sewerage and sewage treatment in their respective areas: Upper Tame Main Drainage Authority Upper Stour Main Drainage AuthorityIt took over two river authorities, responsible for control of water pollution: Trent River Authority Severn Trent AuthorityThe water authority took over the functions responsible for sewerage and sewage disposal from all local authorities, including main drainage authorities, within its area.
The company supplies about 4.5 million businesses in its area. Severn Trent Water has a call centre in Coventry, dealing with operational emergencies and billing enquiries, two other call centres in Derby and Shrewsbury, which deal with billing enquiries, its head office is the new custom-built Severn Trent Centre in Coventry. In July 2007, the Mythe Water Treatment Works near Tewkesbury became inundated with water from the River Severn during the Summer 2007 United Kingdom floods; the water coming into the plant was contaminated, this led to the loss of all running water for 150,000 people in Cheltenham and Tewkesbury. In July 2008, OWAT confirmed that it had fined Severn Trent Water £35.8 million for deliberately providing false information to Ofwat and for delivering poor service to its customers. In July 2008, the company was fined £2m for poor information reporting and covering up misleading leakage data. Despite improvem
The Elan Valley is a river valley situated to the west of Rhayader, in Powys, sometimes known as the "Welsh Lake District". It covers 70 square miles of countryside; the valley contains the Elan Valley Reservoirs and Elan Village, designed by architect Herbert Tudor Buckland as part of the same scheme. Elan Village is the only purpose-built Arts and Crafts "Model Village" in Wales, it is famous for its picturesque scenery. Over 80% of the valley is designated as Sites of Special Scientific Interest, a popular cycle trail, the Elan Valley Trail, makes a loop from Rhayader around the reservoirs. Part of the trail overlaps with a spur of National Cycle Route 81. Elan Valley Reservoirs Elan Valley aqueduct Elan Valley Railway River Elan Sustrans Routes2Ride: Cycling in the Elan Valley Sustrans map and description for Route 81, Lon Cambria Official site by Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water and the Elan Valley Trust City council to fund water museum at BBC News, 26 July 2006 Abandoned communities..... Elan Valley From Shelley to the Dambusters www.geograph.co.uk: photos of the Elan Valley and surrounding area Photographs of the Elan Valley in Winter from the August 2009 Exhibition, The Beauty of Winter at the Elan Valley Visitor centre
Melverley is a village in Shropshire, situated on the River Severn and the River Vyrnwy, near the Powys hills and the border with Wales. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 156; the village, the large rural area that surrounds it, was years ago famous for flooding from the nearby rivers but since the extensive defences being installed in Shrewsbury and improvements to the flood defences in and around the Melverley area flooding causes no problems for the majority of residents. It is a controlled flood area, meaning that water is allowed to flow across the open fields and held for a few hours until the river levels fall. Melverley Green is a small village to the north of Melverley; the notable building in Melverley is the black and white timber-framed St Peter's Church which stands on the banks of the River Vyrnwy. The church was rebuilt in 1406 after Owain Glyndŵr burnt it to the ground; the church has a chained bible. The stained glass in the chancel window, installed 1925 -- 28, is all by the Kempe workshops.
One of its lights is a memorial to parish men who died in World War I. It is thought that the design of St Peter's may have inspired the architecture of St Andrew's Episcopalian church in Newcastle, Maine. Melverley was situated on the Potts Railway Line designed to link Shrewsbury with the small village of Llanymynech, near Oswestry. Unlike many stops on the line, the station at Melverley had a brick shed for waiting passengers. A viaduct was built at Melverley in order for the line to cross the Severn but this crashed into the river in 1902; the viaduct was rebuilt to enable the re-opening of the line on April 13, 1911. It was subsequently declared unsafe on several occasions and was a contributory factor to the demise of the Potts Line. Today, little evidence of the railway remains at Melverley save for some bricks marking the platform edge. However, a road has been built along the course of part of this branch line to Criggion utilizing the old railway bridge over the Severn and making a convenient connection to the main road at Crew Green.
This is a single-track road with passing places but is unusually direct and level compared to other country lanes in the area. Listed buildings in Melverley BBC: Panoramic view of Melverley Media related to Melverley at Wikimedia Commons