Waterhen River (Manitoba)
The Waterhen River is a river of Manitoba, Canada. It flows into Lake Manitoba. From Long Island Bay at the southeast end of the Lake Winnipegosis the West Waterhen and Little Waterhen rivers flow north about 16 kilometres into Waterhen Lake the Waterhen River flows south 22 kilometres into Lake Manitoba. List of rivers of Manitoba
Dauphin Lake is located in western Manitoba near the city of Dauphin, Manitoba. The lake has a drainage basin of about 3,420 square miles; the Mossy River drains the lake into Lake Winnipegosis. The basin has a total relief of 1,900 feet; the lake is located within the territory of three rural municipalities. The lake provides wonderful recreational opportunities. Fishing is popular in both winter and summer, many people camp on the lake's shores and there are many cottages. Dauphin Lake was named after the Dauphin of France, heir to the French throne, by Francois de La Verendrye in 1739. Dauphin Lake is located south of Lake Winnipegosis, it receives most of its waters from the west. Several efforts have been made to control lake levels in the last century. In 1964 the Mossy River Dam was constructed at Terin's Landing at the outlet of the lake; the ten bay concrete stoplog structure complete with a fish ladder is operated by the Province. The summer target since 1993 has been 854.8 feet. The dam can restrict the outflow when conditions are dry and levels low but the river limits the outflow when the lake is high.
Regulation of the lake is difficult. Conditions can change quickly. For example, a four-day rain in June 1947 produced an estimated peak inflow of 60,000 cubic feet per second. At normal levels, the Mossy River can only take out about 500 cubic feet per second. Tributaries include the Turtle River, Kerosene Creek, Ochre River, Edwards Creek Drain, Vermillion River, Wilson River, Valley River, Mowat Creek and the Mink River. List of lakes of Manitoba Hind, Henry Youle. Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857. London: Longmans. 1916: David Thompson's narrative of his explorations in western America, 1784–1812
The Pembina Escarpment is a scarp that marks the boundary of glacial Lake Agassiz. It rises up to 300–400 feet and occurs in South Dakota, North Dakota, Manitoba; the escarpment was formed by the undercutting of Cretaceous sandstones by the ancestral Red River. The escarpment was steepened by glacial scouring; the escarpment is preserved due to a layer of erosion-resistant shale on top of the sandstone. The vista today, of wooded hills with small farms tucked into valleys, is reminiscent of pastoral sections of New England. Streams flowing off the escarpment have a cobble substrate. Native plants to the escarpment include burr oak, beaked hazel, high bush cranberry, saskatoon berry, red osier dogwood. In Manitoba, the scarp forms the eastern edge of Riding Mountain National Park, home of a large bison herd, Duck Mountain Provincial Park. Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, Pembina Valley Provincial Park, the Porcupine Hills are part of the Manitoba Escarpment; the Pembina Escarpment is a distinct ecoregion, as defined by the U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency; the ecoregion covers 274 square miles, is part of the larger Northern Glaciated Plains ecoregion. "Map of key land features in Manitoba". Government of Manitoba. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22
The northern pike, known as a pike in Britain, most of Canada, most parts of the United States, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox. They are typical of fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Pike can grow to a large size: the average length is about 40–55 cm, with maximum recorded lengths of up to 150 cm and published weights of 28.4 kg. The IGFA recognizes a 25 kg pike caught by Lothar Louis in Lake on Grefeern, Germany, on 16 October 1986, as the all-tackle world-record northern pike; the northern pike gets its common name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the pike. Various other unofficial trivial names are common pike, great northern pike, Lakes pike, snot rocket, slough shark, slimer, slough snake, gator, jackfish, hammer handle, other such names as long head and pointy nose. Numerous other names can be found in Field Museum Zool. Leaflet Number 9, its earlier common name, the luci, is used in heraldry. Northern pike are most olive green, shading from yellow to white along the belly.
The flank is marked with a few to many dark spots on the fins. Sometimes, the fins are reddish. Younger pike have yellow stripes along a green body; the lower half of the gill cover lacks scales, it has large sensory pores on its head and on the underside of its lower jaw which are part of the lateral line system. Unlike the similar-looking and related muskellunge, the northern pike has light markings on a dark body background and fewer than six sensory pores on the underside of each side of the lower jaw. A hybrid between northern pike and muskellunge is known as a tiger muskellunge. In the hybrids, the males are invariably sterile, while females are fertile, may back-cross with the parent species. Another form of northern pike, the silver pike, is not a subspecies but rather a mutation that occurs in scattered populations. Silver pike, sometimes called silver muskellunge, lack the rows of spots and appear silver, white, or silvery-blue in color; when ill, silver pike have been known to display a somewhat purplish hue.
In Italy, the newly identified species Esox cisalpinus was long thought to be a color variation of the northern pike, but was in 2011 announced to be a species of its own. Northern pike in North America reach the size of their European counterparts, it was caught in Great Sacandaga Lake on 15 September 1940 by Peter Dubuc. Reports of far larger pike have been made, but these are either misidentifications of the pike's larger relative, the muskellunge, or have not been properly documented and belong in the realm of legend; as northern pike grow longer, they increase in weight, the relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between total length and total weight for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form W = c L b. Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant that varies among species. For northern pike, b = 3.096 and c = 0.000180. The relationship described in this section suggests a 20-inch northern pike will weigh about 2 lb, while a 26-inch northern pike will weigh about 4 lb.
Pike are found in sluggish streams and shallow, weedy places in lakes and reservoirs, as well as in cold, rocky waters. They are typical ambush predators, they inhabit any water body that contains fish, but suitable places for spawning are essential. Because of their cannibalistic nature, young pike need places where they can take shelter between plants so they are not eaten. In both cases, rich submerged vegetation is needed. Pike are found in brackish water, except for the Baltic Sea area, here they can be found spending time both in the mouths of rivers and in the open brackish waters of the Baltic Sea, it is normal for pike to return to fresh water after a period in these brackish waters. They seem to prefer water with less turbidity, but, related to their dependence on the presence of vegetation and not to their being sight hunters; the northern pike is a aggressive species with regard to feeding. For example, when food sources are scarce, cannibalism develops, starting around five weeks in a small percentage of populations.
This cannibalism occurs. One can expect this because when food is scarce, Northern pike fight for survival, such as turning on smaller pike to feed. Pike tend to feed on smaller fish, such as the banded killifish. However, when pike exceed 700 mm long, they feed on larger fish; because of cannibalism when food is short, pike suffer a high young morta
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Lake Winnipeg is a large, but shallow 24,514-square-kilometre lake in North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Its southern end is about 55 kilometres north of the city of Winnipeg, it is the largest lake within southern Canada's borders, is part of the most undeveloped large watershed of southern Canada. Lake Winnipeg is Canada's sixth-largest freshwater lake, the third-largest freshwater lake contained within Canada, but it is shallow excluding a narrow 36 m deep channel between the northern and southern basins, it is the eleventh-largest freshwater lake on Earth. The lake's east side has pristine boreal forests and rivers that are being promoted as a potential United Nations World Heritage Park; the lake is 416 km from north to south, with remote sandy beaches, large limestone cliffs, many bat caves in some areas. Manitoba Hydro uses the lake as one of the largest reservoirs in the world. There are many islands, most of them undeveloped; the Sagkeeng First Nation holds a reserve on Turtle Island, in the southern part of the lake.
The Anishinaabe people have been in this area for hundreds of years. Lake Winnipeg has the largest watershed of any lake in Canada, receiving water from three US states and four Canadian provinces; the lake's watershed measures about 982,900 square kilometres. Its drainage is about 40 times larger than its surface, a ratio bigger than any other large lake in the world. Given the lake's massive watershed and small volume of water, it is dominated by events in its watershed, it is not surprising to find it showing the effects of materials being added to it as a result of activities in the watershed. Lake Winnipeg drains northward into the Nelson River at an average annual rate of 2,066 cubic metres per second, forms part of the Hudson Bay watershed, one of the largest in the world; this watershed area was known as Rupert's Land when the Hudson's Bay Company was chartered in 1670. The Saskatchewan River flows in from the west through Cedar Lake, the Red River flows in from the south and the Winnipeg River enters from the southeast.
The Dauphin River enters from the west draining Lake Winnipegosis. The Bloodvein River, Berens River, Poplar River and the Manigotagan River flow in from the eastern side of the lake, within the Canadian Shield. Other tributaries of Lake Winnipeg include. Lake Winnipeg and Lake Manitoba are remnants of prehistoric Glacial Lake Agassiz, although there is evidence of a desiccated south basin of Lake Winnipeg 4,000 years ago; the area between the lakes is called the Interlake Region, the whole region is called the Manitoba Lowlands. The varying habitats found within the lake support a large number of fish species, more than any other lake in Canada west of the Great Lakes. Sixty of seventy-nine native species found in Manitoba are present in the lake. Families represented include lampreys, mooneyes, suckers, pikes and whitefish, codfishes, sculpins, sunfishes and drums. Two fish species present in the lake are considered to be at risk; the Shortjaw cisco is considered a threatened species. The Bigmouth buffalo is considered a species of special concern.
Rainbow trout and Brown trout are stocked in Manitoba waters by provincial fisheries as part of a put and take program to support angling opportunities. Neither species is able to sustain itself independently in Manitoba. Smallmouth bass was first recorded from the lake in 2002, indicating populations introduced elsewhere in the watershed are now present in the lake. White bass were first recorded from the lake in 1963, ten years after being introduced into Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota. Common carp were introduced to the lake through the Red River of the North and are established. Lake Winnipeg provides feeding and nesting sites for a wide variety of birds associated with water during the summer months. Isolated, uninhabited islands provide nesting sites for colonial nesting birds including pelicans and terns. Large marshes and shallows allow these birds to feed themselves and their young. Pipestone Rocks are considered a globally significant site for American white pelicans. In 1998, an estimated 3.7% of the world's population of this bird at the time were counted nesting on the rocky outcrops.
The same site is significant within North America for the numbers of colonial waterbirds using the area
Hudson Bay is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2. It drains a large area, about 3,861,400 km2, that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, most of Manitoba, Ontario and indirectly through smaller passages of water to parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay; the Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw or Wînipâkw, meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg; the bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is named. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2, making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world; the bay is shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea, with an average depth of about 100 m. It is 1,050 km wide. On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait. Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic Ocean.
Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean. Some sources describe Hudson Bay as the Arctic Ocean. Canada has claimed it as such on historic grounds; this claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay; when the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterwards.
In 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company which still bears the historic name. The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers; the strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. More they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season; the HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX. HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of 3,900,000 km2, as part of the Northwest Territories.
Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows: A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point on the Mainland. North of Hudson Bay has a polar climate being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. From Arviat, Nunavut to the west to the south and southeast prevails the subarctic climate; this is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance and leave the weather cool, where the average temperature of the month is above 10 °C.
At the southern end in the extension known as James Bay arises the humid continental climate with a more pronounced and hot summer. The average annual temperature in the entire bay is around 0 ° C or below. Except for the James Bay area the average water temperature is only 7° C to the south in January. Although the difference is small in summer in the extreme northeast, wintery temperatures are four to five colder degrees coming near -27 °C; the Hudson Bay region has low year-round average temperatures. The average annual temperature for Churchill at 59°N is −5 °C and Inukjuak facing cool wester