Ghee, is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India. It is used in Middle Eastern cuisine, cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asian cuisine, traditional medicine, religious rituals. Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, churned from cream, skimming any impurities from the surface pouring and retaining the clear liquid fat while discarding the solid residue that has settled to the bottom. Spices can be added for flavor; the texture and taste of ghee depends on the quality of the butter, the milk source used in the process and the duration of time spent boiling. The word ghee comes from Sanskrit: घृत'clarified butter', from ghṛ-'to sprinkle'. Traditionally, ghee is always made from bovine milk, as cows are considered sacred, it is a sacred requirement in Vedic yajña and homa, through the medium of Agni to offer oblations to various deities.. Fire ritual have been performed dating back over 5,000 years, they are thought to be auspicious for ceremonies such as marriage, etc.
Ghee is necessary in Vedic worship of mūrtis, with aarti called diyā or dīpa and for Pañcāmṛta where ghee along with mishri, honey and dahi is used for bathing the deities on the appearance day of Krishna on Janmashtami, Śiva on Mahā-śivarātrī. There is a hymn to ghee. In the Mahabharata, the kaurava were born from pots of ghee. Finding ghee pure enough to use for sacred purposes is a problem these days for devout Hindus, since many large-scale producers add salt to their product. Ghee is used in bhang in order to heat the cannabis to cause decarboxylation, making the drink psychoactive. Ghee is common in cuisines including traditional rice preparations. In Maharashtra, polis or Indian breads are accompanied with ghee. For example,'Puranpoli', a typical Maharashtrian dish is eaten with lots of ghee. In Rajasthan, ghee accompanies baati. All over north India, ghee tops roti. In Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, ghee tops dosa, kesari bhath. In Bengal and Gujarat, khichdi is a traditional evening meal of rice with lentils, cooked in curry made from dahi, cumin seeds, curry leaves, turmeric, garlic and ghee.
It is an ingredient in kadhi and Indian sweets, such as Mysore pak and varieties of halva and laddu. Pakistani and Punjabi restaurants incorporate large amounts of ghee, sometimes brushing naan and roti with it, either during preparation or just before serving. In the state of Odisha ghee is used in regional Odia cusines such as'Khechedi' and'Dalma'; the satwik type of food prepared in temples in Odisha use a ghee as a major ingredient for their culnary skills. Ghee is used in South Indian cuisine for tempering curries, in preparation of rice dishes and sweets. South Indians have a habit of adding ghee to their rice before eating it with curries. South Indians are one of the biggest consumers of ghee; the people from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh use ghee for preparation of savoury and sweet dishes alike. Ghee is important to traditional Punjabi cuisine, with parathas and curries using ghee instead of oil for a richer taste; the type of ghee, in terms of animal source, tends to vary with the dish.
Ghee is an ideal fat for deep frying because its smoke point is 250 °C, well above typical cooking temperatures of around 200 °C and above that of most vegetable oils. The main flavor components of ghee are carbonyls, free fatty acids and alcohols. Along with the flavor of milk fat, the ripening of the butter and temperature at which it is clarified affect the flavor. For example, ghee produced by the clarification of butter at 100 °C or less results in a mild flavor, whereas batches produced at 120 °C produce a strong flavor. Ghee differs in its production; the process of creating traditional clarified butter is complete once the water is evaporated and the fat is separated from the milk solids. However, the production of ghee includes simmering the butter, which makes it nutty-tasting and aromatic. A traditional Ayurvedic recipe for ghee is to boil raw milk, let it cool to 110 °F. After letting it sit covered at room temperature for around 12 hours, add a bit of dahi to it and let it sit overnight.
This makes more yogurt. This is churned with water, to obtain cultured butter, used to simmer into ghee. Ayurveda considers pure ghee to be sattva-guṇi, when used as food, it is the main ingredient in some of the Ayurvedic medicines, is included under catuh mahā sneha along with sesame oil, muscle fat, bone marrow. Though eight types of ghee are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, ghee made of human breast milk and cow's ghee are favored. Ghee is used in Ayurvedas for constipation and ulcers. In Sri Lankan indigenous medical traditions, ghee is included in pas tel. Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats, it is rich in oxidized cholesterol
Tihar known as Deepawali and Yamapanchak or Swanti, is a five-day-long Hindu festival celebrated in the Indian subcontinent, notably in Nepal and the Indian states of Assam and Sikkim including in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It is the festival of lights, as diyas are lit inside and outside the houses to make it illuminate at night, it is popularly known as Swanti as Deepawali among Madhesis. Set in the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag Tihar in Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha and ends with Bhai Tika in Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year. Tihar is the second biggest Nepalese festival after Dashain, it is considered to be of great importance as it shows contribution to not just the humans and the gods, but to the animals like crows and dogs that maintain an intimate relationship with humans. People make patterns on the floor of living rooms or courtyards using materials such as colored rice, dry flour, colored sand or flower petals outside their house, called Rangoli, meant to be a sacred welcoming area for the Gods and Goddesses of Hinduism Goddess Laxmi.
Crows and ravens are worshiped by offerings of dishes placed on the roofs of houses. The cawing of crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and grief in Hinduism, so devotees offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes. Tihar represents the divine attachment between other animals; the second day is called Dog Tihar. It is called the Khicha Puja by the Newars. People offer garlands and delicious food to dogs and acknowledge the cherished relationship between humans and dogs. Dogs occupy a special place in Hindu mythology every home or street and they get special treatment in this day; as mentioned in the Mahabharata, Bhairava, a fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva, had a dog as a vahana. Yama, the god of death, is believed to own two guard dogs – each with four eyes; the dogs are said to watch over the gates of the Hindu concept of Hell. Owing to this belief, this day is observed as Naraka Chaturdashi; the morning of the third day is Gai Tihar. In Hinduism, cow signifies wealth. In ancient times people benefited a lot from the cow.
Its milk, dung urine was used for purposes like purification. Thus, on this day people show their gratefulness to the cow by garlanding and feeding them with the best grass. Houses are cleaned and the doorways and windows are decorated with garlands made of Saya Patri and makhamali flowers. In the evening Laxmi, the goddess of wealth is thanked for all the benefits that were bestowed on the families by lighting oil lamps or candles on doorways and windows to welcome prosperity and well being. At night the girls enjoy dancing and visiting all the houses in the neighborhood with musical instruments singing and dancing known as Bhailo all night long collecting money as a tip from houses and share the bounty amongst themselves. From the third day onward Tihar is celebrated with Bhailo with light and fireworks. Ceremony is sung by the boys while the Bhailo is sung by the girls. Deusi is balladic and tells the story of the festival, with one person narrating and the rest as the chorus. In return, the home owners give them money and selroti.
Nowadays social workers and young people visit local homes, sing these songs, collect funds for welfare and social activities. Coincidentally, Laxmi Puja marks the birthday of Laxmi Prasad Devkota, revered and honoured as the greatest poet of Nepali language. On the fourth day of Tihar, there are three different known pujas, depending on the people's cultural background. Ox is worshipped in this day by giving different foods, it is observed as Goru Puja. People who follow Vaishnavism perform Govardhan Puja, worship towards Govardhan mountain. Cow dung is worshiped. Additionally, the majority of the Newar community on the night perform Mha Puja; this day is seen as the beginning of the new Nepal Sambat calendar year. The fifth and last day of Tihar is called Kija Puja, it is observed by sisters applying tilaka or tika to the foreheads of their brothers to ensure long life and thank them for the protection they provide. It is believed that Yamraj, the God of Death, visited his sister, Goddess Yamuna, on this day during which she applied the auspicious tika on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him special dishes.
Together, they ate sweets and enjoyed themselves to their hearts' content. Upon parting, Yamraj gave the Yamuna a special gift as a token of his affection and, in return, Yamuna gave him a lovely gift which she had made with her own hands; that day Yamraj announced. Sisters make a special garland for their brothers from a flower that wilts only after a couple of months, symbolizing the sister's prayer for her brother's long life. Brothers sit on the floor; the puja follows a traditional ritual in which sisters circle brothers, dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher and applying oil to their brother's hair, following which a seven-color tikas is applied on the brother's forehead. Next, brothers give tikas to their sisters in the same fashion with an exchange of gifts; this ritual is practiced regardless of whether the brother is older than the sister. Those without a sister or brother join friends for tika; this festival strengthens the close relationship between sisters. In addition to these, New
Kubera known as Kuvera, Kuber or Kuberan, is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology. He is regarded as the regent of the North, a protector of the world, his many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is depicted with a plump body, adorned with jewels, carrying a money-pot and a club. Described as the chief of evil spirits in Vedic-era texts, Kubera acquired the status of a Deva only in the Puranas and the Hindu epics; the scriptures describe that Kubera once ruled Lanka, but was overthrown by his demon half-brother Ravana settling in the city of Alaka in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. Descriptions of the "glory" and "splendours" of Kubera's city are found in many scriptures. Kubera has been assimilated into the Buddhist and Jain pantheons. In Buddhism, he is known as Vaisravana, the patronymic used of the Hindu Kubera and is equated with Pañcika, while in Jainism, he is known as Sarvanubhuti.
Kubera is depicted as a dwarf, with complexion of lotus leaves and a big belly. He is described as having three legs, only eight teeth, one eye, being adorned with jewels, he is sometimes depicted riding a man. The description of deformities like the broken teeth, three legs, three heads and four arms appear only in the Puranic texts. Kubera holds a pomegranate or a money bag in his hand, he may carry a sheaf of jewels or a mongoose with him. In Tibet, the mongoose is considered a symbol of Kubera's victory over Nāgas—the guardians of treasures. Kubera is depicted with a mongoose in Buddhist iconography. In the Vishnudharmottara Purana, Kubera is described as the embodiment of both Artha and Arthashastras, the treatises related to it—and his iconography mirrors it. Kubera's complexion is described as that of lotus leaves, he rides a man—the state personified, adorned in golden clothes and ornaments, symbolizing his wealth. His left eye is yellow, he wears a necklace down to his large belly. The Vishnudharmottara Purana further describes his face to be inclined to the left, sporting a beard and mustache, with two small tusks protruding from the ends of his mouth, representing his powers to punish and to bestow favours.
His wife Riddhi, representing the journey of life, is seated on his left lap, with her left hand on the back of Kubera and the right holding a ratna-patra. Kubera should be four-armed, holding a gada and a shakti in his left pair, standards bearing a lion—representing Artha and a shibika; the nidhi treasures Padma and Shankha stand beside him in human form, with their heads emerging from a lotus and a conch respectively. The Agni Purana states that Kubera should be installed in temples as seated on a goat, with a club in his hand. Kubera's image is prescribed to be that of gold, with multi-coloured attributes. In some sources in Jain depictions, Kubera is depicted as a drunkard, signified by the "nectar vessel" in his hand; the exact origins of the name Kubera are unknown. "Kubera" or "Kuvera" as spelt in Sanskrit, means "deformed or monstrous" or "ill-shaped one". Another theory suggests. Kuvera is split as ku, vira; as the son of Vishrava, Kubera is called Vaisravana and as the son of Ailavila.
Vaisravana is sometimes translated as the "Son of Fame". The Sutta Nitapa commentary says that Vaisravana is derived from a name of Visana. Once, Kubera looked at his wife Parvati with jealousy, so he lost one of his eyes. Parvati turned this deformed eye yellow. So, Kubera gained the name Ekaksipingala, he is called Bhutesha like Shiva. Kubera is drawn by spirits or men, so is called Nara-vahana, one whose vahana is nara. Hopkins interprets naras as being water-spirits. Kubera rides the elephant called Sarvabhauma as a loka-pala, his garden is named Chaitrarath. Kubera enjoys the titles "king of the whole world", "king of kings", "Lord of wealth" and "giver of wealth", his titles are sometimes related to his subjects: "king of Yakshas", "Lord of Rakshasas", "Lord of Guhyakas", "king of Kinnaras", "king of animals resembling men", "king of men". Kubera is called Guhyadhipa; the Atharvaveda calls him the "god of hiding". In the Atharvaveda—where he first appears—and the Shatapatha Brahmana, Kubera is the chief of evil spirits or spirits of darkness, son of Vaishravana.
The Shatapatha Brahmana calls him the Lord of criminals. In the Manusmriti, he becomes the patron of merchants. In the epic Mahabharata, Kubera is described as the son of Prajapati Pulastya and his wife Idavida and the brother of sage Vishrava. Kubera is described. However, from the Puranas, he is described as the grandson of Pulastya and the son of Vishrava and his wife Ilavida, daughter of the sage Bharadvaja or Trinabindu. By this time, though still described as an asura, Kubera is offered prayers at the end of all ritual sacrifices, his titles, such as "best of kings" and "Lord of kings", in contrast to the god-king of heaven, whose title of "best of go
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Dashain Bijayā Daśamī) is a festival originating from the Indian subcontinent. In parts of India, it is called Dashera. Dashain is celebrated by the Buddhist and Kirats of Nepal and the ethnic Nepali speaking Indian Gorkhas of Darjeeling hills, Sikkim and other North-Eastern states of India and among the Lhotshampa of Bhutan and the Burmese Gurkhas of Myanmar, it is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Bikram Sambat and Nepal Sambat annual calendar, celebrated by Nepalese people, along with their diaspora throughout the globe. It is the most anticipated festival in Nepal, Bhutan and North Indian hills. People return from all parts of the world, as well as different parts of the country, to celebrate together. All government offices, educational institutions and other offices remain closed during the festival period; the festival falls in September or October, starting from the shukla paksha of the month of Ashwin and ending on Purnima, the full moon. Among the fifteen days on which it is celebrated, the most important days are the first, eighth, ninth and the fifteenth.
Among the Newa of the Kathmandu Valley Dashain is celebrated as the most important festival of Nepal Sambat calendar year. Among the Hindus and Newars, it is celebrated with slight differences and interpretations, where each nine days Navaratri leading up to the 10th day called'Dashami' carry special importance; the goddess Durga and her various manifestations are worshiped by Hindu Newars throughout the Shaktipeeths of Kathmandu Valley. Among Newars, Mwohni is important for its emphasis on family gatherings as well as on a renewal of community ties, highlighted by special family dinners called Nakhtyā and various community processions of deities called Jātrā throughout the three royal cities of Kathmandu Valley. In these 10th days the Buddhist prays for the victims of Bali animals. Dashain symbolizes the victory of good over evil. For followers of Shaktism, it represents the victory of the goddess Parvati. In Hindu mythology, the demon Mahishasura had created terror in the devaloka but Durga killed the rakshas.
The first nine days of Dashain symbolize the battle which took place between the different manifestations of Durga and Mahishasura. The tenth day is the day when Durga defeated him. For other Hindus, this festival symbolizes the victory of Ram over Ravan as recounted in the Ramayana. Ghaṭasthāpanā marks the beginning of Dashain, it means placing a kalasha or a pot, which symbolizes goddess Durga. Ghaṭasthāpanā falls on the first day of the festival. On this day the Kalash is filled with holy water and is sewn with barley seeds; the Kalash is put in the center of a rectangular sand block. The remaining bed of sand is seeded with grains; the priest starts the puja by asking Durga to bless the vessel with her presence. This ritual is performed at a certain auspicious time, determined by the astrologers; the goddess is believed to reside in the vessel during Navratri. The room where all this is done is known as the Dasain Ghar. Traditionally, outsiders are not allowed to enter it. A family member worships the Kalash twice every day, once in the morning and in the evening.
The Kalash is kept away from direct sunlight and holy water is offered to it every day, so that by the tenth day of the festival the seed will have grown to five or six inches long yellow grass. This sacred grass is known as jamara; these rituals continue until the ninth day. Phulpati is a major celebration occurring on the seventh day of Dashain. Traditionally, on this day, the royal Kalash, banana stalks and sugar cane tied with red cloth is brought by Brahmins from Gorkha, a three-day walk, about 169 kilometres away from the Kathmandu Valley. Hundreds of government officials gather together in the Tundikhel grounds in conventional formal dress to witness the event; the king used to observe the ceremony in Tundikhel while the Phulpati parade was headed towards the Hanuman Dhoka royal palace. There is a majestic display of the Nepalese Army along with a celebratory firing of weapons that continues for ten to fifteen minutes honoring Phulpati; the Phulpati is taken to the Hanuman Dhoka Royal Palace by the time the occasion ends in Tundikhel, where a parade is held.
Since 2008, when the royal family was overthrown, the two-century old tradition is changed so that the holy offering of Phulpati goes to the residence of the president. The President has taken over the king's social and religious roles after the fall of the royal government; the eighth day is called as'Maha Asthami'. This is the day when the most fierce of Goddess Durga’s manifestations, the bloodthirsty Kali, is appeased through the sacrifice of buffaloes, goats and ducks in temples throughout the nation. Blood, symbolic for its fertility, is offered to the Goddesses. Appropriately enough, the night of this day is called Kal Ratri, it is the norm for buffaloes to be sacrificed in the courtyards of all the land revenue offices in the country on this day. The old palace in Basantapur Hanuman Dhoka is active throughout the night with worships and sacrifices in every courtyard. On the midnight of the day the Dasain Ghar, a total of 54 buffaloes and 54 goats are sacrificed in observance of the rites.
After the offering of the blood, the meat is taken home and cooked as "prasad", or food blessed by divinity. This food is offered in tiny leaf plates to the household Gods distributed amongst the family. Eating this food is thought to be auspicious. While the puja is being carried out, great feast
The swastika or sauwastika is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon in the cultures of Eurasia. It is used as a symbol of spirituality in Indian religions. In the Western world, it was a symbol of auspiciousness and good luck until the 1930s, when it became a feature of Nazi symbolism as an emblem of Aryan identity and, as a result, was stigmatized by its association with racism and antisemitism; the name swastika comes from Sanskrit meaning'conducive to well being' or'auspicious'. In Hinduism, the symbol with arms pointing clockwise is called swastika, symbolizing surya and good luck, while the counterclockwise symbol is called sauvastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. In Jainism, a swastika is the symbol for Suparshvanatha—the 7th of 24 Tirthankaras, while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the Buddha. In several major Indo-European religions, the swastika symbolizes lightning bolts, representing the thunder god and the king of the gods, such as Indra in the religion of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Zeus in the ancient Greek religion, Jupiter in the ancient Roman religion, Thor in the ancient Germanic religion.
The swastika is an icon, found in both human history and the modern world. In various forms, it is otherwise known as the fylfot, tetraskelion, or cross cramponnée. In China it is named. A swastika takes the form of a cross, the arms of which are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle; the symbol is found in the archeological remains of the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia, as well as in early Byzantine and Christian artwork. The swastika was adopted by several organizations in pre–World War I Europe, by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany prior to World War II, it was used by the Nazi Party to symbolize German nationalistic pride. To Jews and the enemies of Nazi Germany, it became a symbol of terror. In many Western countries, the swastika is viewed as a symbol of racial supremacism and intimidation because of its association with Nazism. Reverence for the swastika symbol in Asian cultures, in contrast to the West's stigma of the symbol, has led to misinterpretations and misunderstandings.
The word swastika has been used in the Indian subcontinent and the middle east since 500 BC. Its appearance in English dates to the 1870s, replacing gammadion from Greek γαμμάδιον, it is alternatively spelled in contemporary texts as svastika, other spellings were used in the 19th and early 20th century, such as suastika. It was derived from the Sanskrit term, which transliterates to svastika under the used IAST transliteration system, but is pronounced closer to swastika when letters are used with their English values; the first use of the word swastika in a European text is found in 1871 with the publications of Heinrich Schliemann, who discovered more than 1,800 ancient samples of the swastika symbol and its variants while digging the Hisarlik mound near the Aegean Sea coast for the history of Troy. Schliemann linked his findings to the Sanskrit swastika; the word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit root swasti, composed of su and asti. The word swasti occurs in the Vedas as well as in classical literature, meaning'health, success, prosperity', it was used as a greeting.
The final ka is a common suffix with the same meaning as the English adverbial suffix -ly, so swastika means'associated with well-being'. According to Monier-Williams, a majority of scholars consider it a solar symbol; the sign implies something fortunate, lucky, or auspicious, it denotes auspiciousness or well-being. The earliest known use of the word swastika is in Panini's Ashtadhyayi which uses it to explain one of the Sanskrit grammar rules, in the context of a type of identifying mark on a cow's ear. Most scholarship suggests that Panini lived in or before the 4th-century BC in 6th or 5th century BC. Other names for the symbol include: tetragammadion or cross gammadion, as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ hooked cross, angled cross, or crooked cross cross cramponned, cramponnée, or cramponny in heraldry, as each arm resembles a crampon or angle-iron fylfot, chiefly in heraldry and architecture tetraskelion meaning'four-legged' when composed of four conjoined legs whirling logs: can denote abundance, prosperity and luck All swastikas are bent crosses based on a chiral symmetry—but they appear with different geometric details: as compact crosses with short legs, as crosses with large arms and as motifs in a pattern of unbroken lines.
One distinct representation of a swastika, as a double swastika or swastika made of squares, appears in a Nepalese silver mohar coin of 1685, kingdom of Patan KM# 337. Chirality describes an absence of reflective symmetry, with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other; the mirror-image forms are described as: left-facing and right-facing. The left-facing version is distinguished in some traditions and languages as a distinct symbol from the right-facing and is called the "sauwastika"; the compact swastika can be seen