Mentha is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, the exact distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known; the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Asia and North America. Mints are aromatic exclusively perennial herbs, they have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate downy, with a serrated margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple and sometimes pale yellow; the flowers are white to purple and produced in false whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe the largest; the fruit is a nutlet. While the species that makes up the genus Mentha is distributed and can be found in many environments, most grow best in wet environments and moist soils.
Mints can spread over an indeterminate area. Due to their tendency to spread unchecked, some mints are considered invasive; the list below includes all of the taxa recognized as species in recent works on Mentha. No author has recognized all of them; as with all biological classifications of plants, this list can go out of date at a moment's notice. Common names are given for species that have them. Synonyms, along with varieties, are given in articles on the species. Mentha is a member of the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae; the tribe contains about 65 genera, relationships within it remain obscure. Authors have disagreed on the circumscription of Mentha; some authors have excluded M. cervina from the genus. M. cunninghamii has been excluded by some authors in some recent treatments of the genus. In 2004, a molecular phylogenetic study indicated both of these species should be included in Mentha; the mint genus has a large grouping of recognized hybrids. Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties where available, are included within the specific species.
All mints thrive near pools of water, lakes and cool moist spots in partial shade. In general, mints tolerate a wide range of conditions, can be grown in full sun. Mint grows all year round, they are fast-growing. Due to their speedy growth, one plant of each desired mint, along with a little care, will provide more than enough mint for home use; some mint species are more invasive than others. With the less invasive mints, care should be taken when mixing any mint with any other plants, lest the mint take over. To control mints in an open environment, they should be planted in deep, bottomless containers sunk in the ground, or planted above ground in tubs and barrels; some mints can be propagated by seed, but growth from seed can be an unreliable method for raising mint for two reasons: mint seeds are variable — one might not end up with what one supposed was planted — and some mint varieties are sterile. It is more effective to plant cuttings from the runners of healthy mints; the most common and popular mints for commercial cultivation are peppermint, native spearmint, Scotch spearmint, cornmint.
Mints are supposed to make good companion plants, repelling pesty insects and attracting beneficial ones. They are susceptible to whitefly and aphids. Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at any time. Fresh leaves should be used or stored up to a few days in plastic bags in a refrigerator. Optionally, leaves can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried mint leaves should be stored in an airtight container placed in a cool, dry area; the leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of mint. Fresh mint is preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem; the leaves have a warm, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste, are used in teas, jellies, syrups and ice creams. In Middle Eastern cuisine, mint is used on lamb dishes, while in British cuisine and American cuisine, mint sauce and mint jelly are used, respectively. Mint is a necessary ingredient in a popular tea in northern African and Arab countries. Tea in Arab countries is popularly drunk this way. Alcoholic drinks sometimes feature mint for flavor or garnish, such as the mint julep and the mojito.
Crème de menthe is a mint-flavored liqueur used in drinks such as the grasshopper. Mint essential oil and menthol are extensively used as flavorings in breath fresheners, antiseptic mouth rinses, chewing gum and candies, such as mint and mint chocolate; the substances that give the mints their characteristic aromas and flavors are pulegone. The compound responsible for the aroma and flavor of spearmint is L-carvone. Mints are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including buff ermine moths. Mint was used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. There are several uses in traditional medicine and preliminary research for possible use in treating irritable bowel syndrome. Menthol from mint essential oil is an ingredient of some perfumes. Menthol and mint essential oil are used in aromatherapy which may have clinical use to alleviate post-surgery nausea. Although it is used in many con
Leucas aspera is a species within the genus Leucas and the family Lamiaceae. Although the species has many different common names depending on the region in which it is located, it is most known as Thumbai. Found throughout India, it is known for its various uses in the fields of agriculture. Leucas aspera is found throughout India and the Philippines as well as the plains of Mauritius and Java. In India and the Philippines, it is a common weed. Leucas aspera is found in dry, sandy soil and is abundant in areas with waste, it is an annual undershrub that can reach heights of 15 -- 60 cm. LeavesOpposite, subsessile or short petioled,linear or narrowly oblong- lanceolate,entire or distantly crenate, narrowed at the base, they can reach up to lengths of 8 cm, be 1.25 cm broad. The length of petioles is 2.5–6 mm long. The leaves epidermis is traversed with stomata. StemThe stem contains a wide stele; the epidermis of the stem contains few traversed stomata. In younger stems the xylem tissue is radially organized and the parenchymatous pholem tissue is narrow.
As the stem ages the pholem tissue can be found on both sides of the radial xylem tissue. RootsThe roots of Leucas aspera contains epidermal cells which are narrow and packed together; the cell walls of the epidermal cells are thin and straight. The parenchyma in the cortex contains thick walls; the parenchyma cells contain a large amount of starch grains. The cambium separates the xylem, which are globose to subglobose. InfloresenceVerticillaster, flowers white and directly attached to the base without a peduncle or stalk; the flowers are held together in dense terminals. They contain 6 mm long bracts equaling the calyx that are bristle-tipped, linear and are "ciliate with long slender hairs".. Flower Complete,bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, white. Calyx Sepals 5, gomosepalous, 10 nerved, curved,6-10 toothed, contracted at the mouth, glabrous below and scabrid above. CorollaPetals 5, bilabiate; the corolla of Leucas aspera is 1 cm in length and the tube is 5 mm in length. It is annulate in the middle pubescent on the upper region.
The corolla is "densely white-woolly", upper lip is 3 mm in length and the lower lip is 6 mm in length. The middle lobe is rounded and the lateral lobes are subacute and small in size. Androecium- Stamens 4, didynamous, the upper pair shorter. Gynoecium- Carples 2, ovary superior, 2 celled but at maturity four celled due to the formation of septum, axile placentation, 1 ovule in each chamber. FruitThe fruit of L. aspera is 2.5 mm long. They are nutlets that are brown and oblong in shape; the outer portion of the fruit is rounded. It is a herb used in food to provide fragrance to food. Leucas aspera is reported to have antifungal, prostaglandin inhibitory, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Leucas aspera is used in the traditional medicine of the Philippines to treat scorpion bites, it is an antipyretic, it is a herb that has the ability to help reduce fevers. In some forms of traditional medicine, the steam formed by crushing the Samoolam, can be inhaled; the juice of the flowers can be used for intestinal worm infections in children.
Leucas aspera is used as an insecticide. In addition the plant has been used in witchcraft
Hyssopus officinalis or hyssop is a herbaceous plant of the genus Hyssopus native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, the region surrounding the Caspian Sea. Due to its properties as an antiseptic, cough reliever, expectorant, it is used as a medicinal plant. Hyssop is subshrub that ranges from 30 to 60 cm in height; the stem is woody at the base, from. Its leaves are lanceolate, dark green in colour, from 2 to 2.5 cm long. During the summer, the plant produces bunches of pink, blue, or, more white fragrant flowers; these give rise to small oblong achenes. A plant called, its name is a direct adaptation from the Greek ὕσσωπος. The Hebrew word אזוב and the Greek word ὕσσωπος share a common origin; the name hyssop appears as a translation of ezov in some translations of the Bible, notably in verse 7 of Psalm 51: "Thou shalt purge me with hyssop, I shall be clean", but researchers have suggested that the Biblical accounts refer not to the plant known as hyssop but rather to one of a number of different herbs, including Origanum syriacum.
I Kings iv. 33 mentions that'ezov' was a small plant. It was burned with the Red Heifer and used for purification of lepers, at Passover it was used to sprinkle the blood of the sacrificial lamb on the doorposts. A sponge attached to a hyssop branch was used to give Jesus on the cross a drink of vinegar. Hyssop was used for purgation in Egypt, according to Chaeremon the Stoic, the priests used to eat it with bread in order to purify this type of food and make it suitable for their austere diet; the species as a whole is resistant to drought, tolerant of chalky, sandy soils. It thrives in warm climates. Cultivars include'Blue Flower'. Under optimal weather conditions, herb hyssop is harvested twice yearly, once at the end of spring and once more at the beginning of the fall; the plants are preferably harvested. Once the stalks are cut, they are collected and dried either stacked on pallets to allow for draining or hung to dry; the actual drying process takes place in a cool, well-ventilated area, where the materials are mixed several times to ensure drying.
Drying herbs are kept from exposure to the sun to prevent oxidation. The drying process takes six days in its entirety. Once dried, the leaves are removed and both components and flowers, are chopped finely; the final dried product weighs a third of the initial fresh weight and can be stored for up to 18 months. The essential oil includes the chemicals phenol, which give it antiseptic properties, its high concentrations of thujone and chemicals that stimulate the central nervous system, including pinocamphone and cineole, can provoke epileptic reactions. The oil of hyssop can cause seizures and low doses can cause convulsions in children; the fresh herb is used in cooking. Za'atar is a famous Middle Eastern herbal mix which has dried Hyssop leaves as one of the main ingredients. Essence of hyssop can be obtained by steaming, is used in cooking to a lesser extent; the plant is used by beekeepers to produce a rich and aromatic honey. Herb hyssop leaves are used as an aromatic condiment; the leaves have a bitter taste due to its tannins, an intense minty aroma.
Due to its intensity, it is used moderately in cooking. The herb is used to flavor liqueur, is part of the official formulation of Chartreuse. In herbal medicine hyssop is believed to have soothing and cough suppressant properties. Hyssop has been used for centuries in traditional medicine in order to increase circulation and to treat multiple conditions such as coughing and sore throat. Hyssop can stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Media related to Hyssopus officinalis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Hyssopus officinalis at Wikispecies
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Lavandula is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia, China to southeast India. Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, for use as culinary herbs, commercially for the extraction of essential oils; the most cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is referred to as lavender, there is a color named for the shade of the flowers of this species. The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, shrub-like perennials, subshrubs or small shrubs. Leaf shape is diverse across the genus, they are simple in some cultivated species. In most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which contain the essential oils. Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, the spikes being branched in some species.
Some species produce coloured bracts at the apices. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species blackish purple or yellowish; the calyx is tubular. The corolla is tubular with five lobes. Lavandula stoechas, L. pedunculata and L. dentata were known in Roman times. From the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera and Lavandula, until Linnaeus combined them, he only recognised five species in Species Plantarum, L. multifida and L. dentata and L. stoechas and L. spica from Southern Europe. L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas. By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised. The latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, by 1848 eighteen species were known. One of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew; the six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not be assigned.
Her sections included Stoechas, Subnudae, Pterostoechas and Dentatae. However all the major cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas and Spica sections. There were four species within Stoechas, she believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender. More work has been done by Upson and Andrews, Lavandula is considered to have three subgenera. Subgenus Lavandula is of woody shrubs with entire leaves, it contains the principal species grown for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to western Arabia. Subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India, it contains some ornamental plants. Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are rather distinct from the other species, are sometimes placed in their own genus Sabaudia. In addition, there are numerous cultivars in commercial and horticultural usage; the first major clade corresponds to subgenus Lavendula, the second Fabricia.
The Sabaudia group is less defined. Within the lavendula clade, the subclades correspond to the existing sections, but place Dentatae separately from Stoechas, not within it. Within the Fabricia clade, the subclades correspond to Pterostoechas and Chaetostachys, thus the current classification includes 39 species distributed across 8 sections, in three subgenera. However, since lavender cross-pollinates there are countless variations that present difficulties in classification; the English word lavender is thought to be derived from Old French lavandre from the Latin lavare, referring to the use of infusions of the plants. The botanic name Lavandula as used by Linnaeus is considered to be derived from this and other European vernacular names for the plants; however it is suggested that this explanation may be apocryphal, that the name may be derived from Latin livere, "blueish". The names used for some of the species, "English lavender", "French lavender" and "Spanish lavender" are all imprecisely applied.
"English lavender" is used for L. angustifolia, though some references say the proper term is "Old English Lavender". The name "French lavender" may be used to refer to L. dentata. "Spanish lavender" may be used to refer to L. lanata or L. dentata. The most common form in cultivation is the common or English lavender Lavandula angustifolia. A wide range of cultivars can be found. Other grown ornamental species are L. stoechas, L. dentata, L. multifida. Because the cultivated forms are planted in gardens worldwide, they are found growing wild as garden escapes, well beyond their natural range; such spontaneous growth is harmless, but in some cases Lavandula species have become invasive. For example, in Australia, Lavandula stoechas has become a cause for concern.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may allow selfing; some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization. Flowers are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds. In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to bring beauty to their environment, as objects of romance, religion, medicine and as a source of food; the essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts: the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk.
Each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls are as follows: Collectively the calyx and corolla form the perianth. Calyx: the outermost whorl consisting of units called sepals. Corolla: the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are thin and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination. Androecium: the next whorl, consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts: a stalk called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis and dispersed. Gynoecium: the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels; the carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes; these give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl is called a pistil.
A pistil may consist of a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen; the supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous. Although the arrangement described above is considered "typical", plant species show a wide variation in floral structure; these modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species. The four main parts of a flower are defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is another part. In some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens.
Flowers show great variation and plant scientists describe this variation in a systematic way to identify and distinguish species. Specific terminology is used to describe their parts. Many flower parts are fused together; when petals are fused into a tube or ring that falls away as a single unit, they are sympetalous. Connate petals may have distinctive regions: the cylindrical base is the tube, the expanding region is the throat and the flaring outer region is the limb. A sympetalous flower, with bilateral symmetry with an upper and lower lip, is bilabiate. Flowers with connate petals or sepals may have various shaped corolla or calyx, including campanulate, tubular, salverform or rotate. Referring to "fusion," as it is done, appears questionable because at least some of the processes involved may be non-fusion processes. For example, the addition of intercalary growth at or below the base of the primordia of floral appendages such as sepals, petals and carpels may lead to a common base, not the result of fusion.
Many flowers have a symmetry. When the perianth is bisected through the central axis from any point and symmetrical halves are produced, the flower is said to be actinomorphic or regular, e.g. rose or trillium. This is an example of radial symmetry; when flowers are bisected and produce only one line that produces symmetrical halves, the flower is said to be irregular or zygomorphic, e.g. snapdragon or most orchids. Flowers may be directly attached to the plant at their base; the stem or stalk subtending a flower is called a peduncle. If a peduncle supports more than o
Ivan Ivanovich Martinov was Russian botanist and philologist