Lammas Day, is a holiday celebrated in some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere on 1 August. It is a festival to mark the annual wheat harvest, is the first harvest festival of the year. On this day it was customary to bring to church a loaf made from the new crop, which began to be harvested at Lammastide, which falls at the halfway point between the summer solstice and autumn September equinox; the loaf was blessed, in Anglo-Saxon England it might be employed afterwards in protective rituals: a book of Anglo-Saxon charms directed that the Lammas bread be broken into four bits, which were to be placed at the four corners of the barn, to protect the garnered grain. In many parts of England, tenants were bound to present freshly harvested wheat to their landlords on or before the first day of August. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it is referred to it is called "the feast of first fruits"; the blessing of first fruits was performed annually in both the Eastern and Western Churches on the first or the sixth of August.
Lammas has coincided with the feast of St. Peter in Chains, commemorating St. Peter's miraculous deliverance from prison, but in the liturgical reform of 1969, the feast of St. Alphonsus Liguori was transferred to this day, the day of St. Alphonsus' death. In medieval times the feast was sometimes known in England and Scotland as the "Gule of August", but the meaning of "gule" is unclear. Ronald Hutton suggests following the 18th-century Welsh clergyman antiquary John Pettingall that it is an Anglicisation of Gŵyl Awst, the Welsh name of the "feast of August"; the OED and most etymological dictionaries give it a more circuitous origin similar to gullet. Several antiquaries beginning with John Brady offered a back-construction to its being known as Lamb-mass, under the undocumented supposition that tenants of the Cathedral of York, dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula, of which this is the feast, would have been required to bring a live lamb to the church, or, with John Skinner, "because Lambs grew out of season."
This is a folk etymology, of which OED notes that it was "subsequently felt as if from LAMB + MASS". For many villeins, the wheat must have run low in the days before Lammas, the new harvest began a season of plenty, of hard work and company in the fields, reaping in teams, thus there was a spirit of celebratory play. In the medieval agricultural year, Lammas marked the end of the hay harvest that had begun after Midsummer. At the end of hay-making a sheep would be loosed in the meadow among the mowers, for him to keep who could catch it. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet it is observed of Juliet, "Come Lammas Eve at night shall she be fourteen." Since Juliet was born Lammas eve, she came before the harvest festival, significant since her life ended before she could reap what she had sown and enjoy the bounty of the harvest, in this case full consummation and enjoyment of her love with Romeo. Another well-known cultural reference is the opening of The Battle of Otterburn: "It fell about the Lammas tide when the muir-men win their hay".
William Hone speaks in The Every-Day Book of a festive Lammas day sport common among Scottish farmers near Edinburgh. He says that they "build towers...leaving a hole for a flag-pole in the centre so that they may raise their colours." When the flags over the many peat-constructed towers were raised, farmers would go to others' towers and attempt to "level them to the ground." A successful attempt would bring great praise. However, people were allowed to defend their towers, so everyone was provided with a "tooting-horn" to alert nearby country folk of the impending attack and the battle would turn into a "brawl." According to Hone, more than four people had died at this festival and many more were injured. At the day's end, races were held, with prizes given to the townspeople. Lughnasadh or Lammas is the name used for one of the eight sabbats in the Neopagan Wheel of the Year, it is the first of the three autumn harvest festivals, the other two being the autumn equinox and Samhain. In the Northern Hemisphere it takes place around 1 August, while in the Southern Hemisphere it is celebrated around 1 February.
Lammas is one of the Scottish quarter days. Lammas leaves or Lammas growth refers to a second crop of leaves produced in high summer by some species of trees in temperate countries to replace those lost to insect damage, they differ in shape, texture and/or hairiness from the earlier leaves. A low-impact development project at Tir y Gafel, Pembrokeshire, Lammas Ecovillage, is a collective initiative for nine self-built homes, it was the first such project to obtain planning permission based on a predecessor of what is now the sixth national planning guidance for sustainable rural communities proposed by the One Planet Council.[[ Exeter in Devon is one of the few towns in England that still celebrates its Lammas Fair and has a processional custom which stretches back over 900 years, led by the Lord Mayor. During the fair a white glove on a pole decorated with garlands is raised above the Guildhall; the fair now takes place on the first Thursday in July. The Doctor Who serial The Image of the Fendahl takes place on Lammas Eve.
In the Inspector Morse episode "Day of the Devil", Lammas Day is presented as a Satanic holy day, "the Devil's day". Katherine Kurtz's alternate World War II fantasy "history" takes its title, Lammas Night, from pagan tradition surrounding the first of August and the Divine Right of Kings. Harvest Home Leyton Marshes Ould Lammas Fair Pretanic World—Pre-
The 3rd Singapore Division known as 3rd Division is a combined arms division of the Singapore Army. The 3rd Singapore Division was formed on 31 August 1970 under the name of Area III Command. On 1 May 1976, Area III Command was re-designated as 3rd Singapore Infantry Division. On 21 March 1991, 3rd Singapore Division was inaugurated as the first combined arms division in the Singapore Army. Following the drawdown of 1 People's Defence Force in December 2004, 3rd Singapore Division took command of the former's units. 3rd Singapore Infantry Brigade 754th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 746th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 5th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 6th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 5th Singapore Infantry Brigade 778th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 789th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 798th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 24th Singapore Infantry Brigade 733rd Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 761st Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 786th Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment 8th Singapore Armoured Brigade 40th Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment 41st Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment 489th Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment 121st Command, Communications and Intelligence Battalion 3rd Division Artillery 21st Battalion, Singapore Artillery 290th Battalion, Singapore Artillery 223rd Battalion, Singapore Artillery 3rd Division Support Command 31st Combat Service Support Battalion 32nd Combat Service Support Battalion 33rd Combat Service Support Battalion 38th Combat Service Support Battalion 30th Battalion, Singapore Combat Engineers 321st Battalion, Singapore Combat Engineers 17th Command, Communications and Intelligence Battalion 3rd Intelligence, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance Battalion 3rd Divisional Air Defence Artillery Battalion Citations Bibliography Official website
John Sulyard, of Wetherden, was an English politician. Sulyard was the eldest son of John Sulyard of Wetherden and Margaret Baker, daughter of Robert Baker of Wetherden and was educated at Clifford’s Inn, he married three times, firstly to Elizabeth Bedingfield, daughter of Sir Edmund Bedingfield of Oxborough, Norfolk, by whom he had one daughter. By 1541, he had married his second wife, Elizabeth Jerningham, daughter of Sir John Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk, his third wife was daughter of Humphrey Carvell of Wiggenhall St. Mary, Norfolk. Sulyard was a Roman Catholic lawyer, he was the Justice of the Peace in Suffolk in 1554–1561 and was appointed High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk for 1555–56. He was a standard bearer and gentleman pensioner from late 1553 to late 1558 and commissioner of the sewers for Norfolk and Suffolk in 1566, he was knighted in March 1557/January 1558. Sulyard was elected a Member of Parliament for Ipswich in October 1553 and 1555, for Bodmin in April 1554, for Preston in November 1554 and for Chippenham in 1558.
"SULYARD, John, of Wetherden, Suff". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 20 June 2013
Saas-Almagell is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Saas-Almagell is first mentioned in 1291 as Armenzello. In 1307 it was mentioned as Almenkel; the settlement, at the upper end of the Saastal, was isolated for much of its history. A road suitable for motor vehicles was completed in 1948, whilst the village did not have its own school until 1958; the local economy was boosted in the 1960s by the construction of the Mattmark Dam. Saas-Almagell has an area, as of 2011, of 110.3 square kilometers. Of this area, 7.5 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.5% is settled and 87.9% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Visp district and is located 5 km from Saas-Fee, it is the southern most municipality in the Saas valley. It consists of the village of Saas-Almagell, part of the hamlet of Unter den Bodmen and the hamlets of zum Moos and Furggstalden. Saas Almagell lies in the Pennine Alps and the territory of the municipality encompasses a large number of summits.
The highest are the Rimpfischhorn, Strahlhorn and Weissmies. Other important summits are the Portjengrat, Stellihorn, Jazzihorn and Spechhorn; the Mattmarksee is the largest lake in the valley. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent a Wyvern displayed Gules, on a chief of the second a Cross couped of the first. Saas-Almagell has a population of 370; as of 2008, 7.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -9%, it has changed at a rate of -4.1 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common and Italian is the third. There is 1 person. Of the population in the municipality, 276 or about 69.5% were born in Saas-Almagell and lived there in 2000. There were 71 or 17.9% who were born in the same canton, while 19 or 4.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 22 or 5.5% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 25.7% of the population, while adults make up 56.9% and seniors make up 17.4%.
As of 2000, there were 164 people who never married in the municipality. There were 2 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 143 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 31 households that consist of 19 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 139 apartments were permanently occupied, while 110 apartments were seasonally occupied and 27 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 16 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.69%. The historical population is given in the following chart: It is the starting point for the small independent ski area of Fugglstalden-Heidbodme, part of the combined Saasquistal ski region, albeit connected to the other parts of the region by postal boat, rather than dedicated skilifts; as well as downhill skiing and snowboarding pistes, it has uphill sledging trails. It was the early home of the famous Swiss skier Pirmin Zurbriggen.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 199 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 70.8%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 258 votes were cast, of which 14 or about 5.4% were invalid. The voter participation was 91.8%, much more than the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 199 votes were cast, of which 2 or about 1.0% were invalid. The voter participation was 71.1%, much more than the cantonal average of 59.88%. Saas-Almagell has a small town square with a grocery store and souvenir shops, as well as tourist accommodations, it has a youth hostel and sports center. As of 2010, Saas-Almagell had an unemployment rate of 3.8%. As of 2008, there were 18 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 5 businesses involved in this sector. 43 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 4 businesses in this sector.
164 people were employed with 28 businesses in this sector. There were 175 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 34.3% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 184; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 9. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 40; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 135. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 43 workers who commuted into 73 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 1.7 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 9.1% used public transportation to get to work, 39.4% used a private car. Fro
The year 1714 in science and technology involved some significant events. March – Roger Cotes publishes Logometrica in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, he provides the first proof of what is now known as Euler's formula and constructs the logarithmic spiral. May – Brook Taylor publishes a paper, written in 1708, in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society which describes his solution to the center of oscillation problem. Gottfried Leibniz discusses the harmonic triangle. April 14 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain, performs the last touching for the "King's evil". Dominique Anel uses the first fine-pointed syringe in surgery known as "Anel's syringe". Herman Boerhaave introduces a modern system of clinical teaching at the University of Leiden; the anatomical engravings of Bartolomeo Eustachi are published for the first time as Tabulae anatomicae by Giovanni Maria Lancisi. Henry Mill obtains a British patent for a machine resembling a typewriter. July – The Parliament of Great Britain offers the Longitude prize to anyone who can solve the problem of determining a ship's longitude.
January 21 – Anna Morandi, Bolognese anatomist January 6 – Percivall Pott, English surgeon June 17 – César-François Cassini de Thury, French astronomer September 6 – Robert Whytt, Scottish physician October 16 – Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist October 25 – James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, Scottish philosopher and evolutionary thinker December 19 – John Winthrop, American astronomer December 31 – Arima Yoriyuki, Japanese mathematician Alexander Wilson, Scottish surgeon, type founder, astronomer and mathematician October 5 – Kaibara Ekiken, Japanese philosopher and botanist November 1 – John Radcliffe, English physician and benefactor November 5 – Bernardino Ramazzini, Italian physician
Exminster Hospital is a former mental health facility at Exminster, England. It is a Grade II* listed building; the hospital, designed by Charles Fowler using a radial plan of the panopticon type, opened as the Devon County Lunatic Asylum in July 1845. It was used as military hospital during the First World War and became known as Devon Mental Hospital in the 1920s, it was badly bombed during the Second World War and joined the National Health Service as Exminster Hospital in 1948 before becoming known as Exe Vale Hospital in the 1970s. After the introduction of Care in the Community in the early 1980s, the hospital went into a period of decline and closed in July 1985; the main building was converted into apartments between 2001 and 2008 and is now known as Devington Park. Digby Hospital