The River Severn is the longest river in Great Britain at a length of 220 miles, the second longest in the British Isles after the River Shannon in Ireland. It rises at an altitude of 2,001 feet on Plynlimon, close to the Ceredigion/Powys border near Llanidloes, in the Cambrian Mountains of mid Wales, it flows through Shropshire and Gloucestershire, with the county towns of Shrewsbury and Gloucester on its banks. With an average discharge of 107 m3/s at Apperley, the Severn is by far the greatest river in terms of water flow in England and Wales; the river is considered to become the Severn Estuary after the Second Severn Crossing between Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire and Sudbrook, Monmouthshire. The river discharges into the Bristol Channel which in turn discharges into the Celtic Sea and the wider Atlantic Ocean; the Severn's drainage basin area is 4,409 square miles, excluding the River Wye and Bristol Avon which flow into the Severn Estuary. The major tributaries to the Severn are the Vyrnwy, Teme and Stour.
The name Severn is thought to derive from a Celtic original name *sabrinnā, of uncertain meaning. That name developed in different languages to become Sabrina to the Romans, Hafren in Welsh, Severn in English. A folk etymology developed, deriving the name from a mythical story of a nymph, who drowned in the river. Sabrina is the goddess of the River Severn in Celtic mythology; the story of Sabrina is featured in Milton's 1634 masque Comus. There is a statue of Sabrina in the Dingle Gardens at the Quarry, Shrewsbury, as well as a metal sculpture erected in 2013 in the town; as the Severn becomes tidal the associated deity changed to Nodens, represented mounted on a seahorse, riding on the crest of the Severn bore. The River Stour rises in the north of Worcestershire in the Clent Hills, near St Kenelm's Church at Romsley, it flows north into the adjacent West Midlands at Halesowen. It flows westwards through Cradley Heath and Stourbridge where it leaves the Black Country, it is joined by the Smestow Brook at Prestwood before it winds around southwards to Kinver, flows back into Worcestershire.
It passes through Wolverley and Wilden to its confluence with the Severn at Stourport-on-Severn. The River Vyrnwy, which begins at Lake Vyrnwy, flows eastwards through Powys before forming part of the border between England and Wales, joining the Severn near Melverley, Shropshire; the Rea Brook joins the Severn at Shrewsbury. The River Tern, after flowing south from Market Drayton and being joined by the River Meese and the River Roden, meets the Severn at Attingham Park; the River Worfe joins the Severn, just above Bridgnorth. The River Stour rising on the Clent Hills and flowing through Halesowen and Kidderminster, joins the Severn at Stourport. On the opposite bank, the tributaries are only brooks, Borle Brook, Dowles Brook draining the Wyre Forest, Dick Brook and Shrawley Brook; the River Teme flows eastwards from its source in Mid Wales, straddling the border between Shropshire and Herefordshire, it is joined by the River Onny, River Corve and River Rea before it joins the Severn downstream of Worcester.
Shit Brook near Much Wenlock was culverted to flow into the Severn. One of the several rivers named Avon, in this case the Warwickshire Avon, flows west through Rugby and Stratford-upon-Avon, it is joined by its tributary the River Arrow, before joining the Severn at Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire. The port of Bristol is on the Severn Estuary, where another River Avon flows into it through the Avon Gorge; the River Wye, from its source in Plynlimon in Wales, flows south east through the Welsh towns of Rhayader and Builth Wells. It enters Herefordshire, flows through Hereford, is shortly afterwards joined by the River Lugg, before flowing through Ross-on-Wye and Monmouth, southwards where it forms part of the boundary between England and Wales, it flows into the Severn near the town of Chepstow upstream of the Bristol Avon on the opposite bank. The River Usk flows into the Severn Estuary just south of Newport; the Rad Brook is a small river in England. It enters the River Severn there. Below is a list of major towns and cities that the Severn flows through: Through Powys: Llanidloes Newtown WelshpoolThrough Shropshire: Shrewsbury Ironbridge BridgnorthThrough Worcestershire: Bewdley Stourport-on-Severn Worcester Upton-upon-SevernThrough Gloucestershire: Tewkesbury Gloucester The Severn is bridged at many places, many of these bridges are notable in their own right, with several designed and built by the engineer Thomas Telford.
There is the famous Iron Bridge at Ironbridge, the world's first iron arch bridge. The two major road bridges of the Severn crossing link south eastern Wales with the southern counties of England. Severn Bridge — opened in 1966 carrying what is now the M48 Second Severn Crossing — opened in 1996 carrying the M4 motorwayPrior to the construction of the first bridge in 1966, the channel was crossed by the Aust Ferry. Other notable bridges include: Buttington Bridge — built in 1872 Montford Bridge — Thomas Telford's first bridge design, built between 1790 and 1792 Welsh Bridge — in the centre of Shrewsbury, built in 1795 at a cost of £8,000 English Bridge — in Shrewsbury and completed in 1774 by John Gwynn Atcham Bridges — the old one built in 1774, while the newer one in 1929 carries th
Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall, including the unitary authority areas of Plymouth and the Isles of Scilly. The geographical area covered is the largest for any police force in England, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom; the total resident population of the force area is 1.5 million, with around 11 million visitors annually. The force was formed on 1 April 1967 by the amalgamation of the Devon and Exeter Police, Cornwall County Constabulary and Plymouth City Police, these three constabularies were an amalgamation of 23 city and borough police forces that were absorbed between 1856 and 1947. Bodmin Borough Police 1836 to 1865: Three constables were appointed on 1 January 1836 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, they acted as firemen. In 1865 a public inquiry was held on the matter of amalgamating Bodmin Borough Police with the Cornwall Constabulary. Although the proposal was unpopular, amalgamation took place on 21 October 1865.
Falmouth Borough Police 1836 to 1889: Six officers were appointed in 1836 comprising two serjeants-at-mace and three constables. In 1857, the force was led by an officer with the rank of superintendent with two constables in his charge. On 1 April 1889, the Falmouth Borough Police was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by virtue of section 35 of the Local Government Act 1888; the Act made it mandatory for all police forces covering a populace of less than 10,000 to merge with the county police. Helston Borough Police 1851 to 1889: Although Helston was mandated to create an organised police force, it continued to appoint parish officers until the 1850s when the increase in population and crime rate demanded the appointment of a full-time head constable and a handful of part-time constables. A popular pastime among drunken miners in Helston was the attempted strangulation of Head Constable Bishop, who found himself being throttled on many occasions while attempting to make arrests; the force was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary in 1889.
Launceston Borough Police 1846 to 1883: Edward Barrett, for many years the only constable in Launceston, garnered a menacing reputation thanks to the gratuitous use of his ‘black book’ and for the ravenous dog that accompanied him on his patrols. In 1883, the loss of a government grant to the Launceston authorities forced them to reconsider Barratt's position, from that year the Borough of Launceston was policed by the Cornwall Constabulary. Liskeard Borough Police 1853 to 1877: A police force for the cash-strapped Borough of Liskeard did not materialise until 1853 when they resolved to appoint Inspector Humphreys and Constable Spry as the first and only members of the Liskeard Borough Police. In 1877, after repeated condemnation of the force by the HMI, it was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary. Penryn Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The Penryn Borough Police numbered more than two full-time constables, supported by special constables at times of disorder. Along with the Falmouth, Helston and St Ives constabularies, Penryn's lawmen amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by Act of Parliament in 1889.
Penzance Borough Police 1836 to 1947: Formed on 1 January 1836 and consisting of three constables paid from the borough rate. The first chief constable carried the title of ‘Le Yeoman,’ an archaic term taken from Penzance's second charter of 1614. In 1852 the Great Western Railway arrived in Penzance, increasing tourism and the general population considerably; the increase in population brought with it an increase in crime and the Penzance force grew accordingly. During the First World War many constables resigned to join the colours and hundreds of ordinary citizens enrolled as special constables. During the Second World War a large war reserve constabulary was built and formed part of Penzance's civil defence response to air raids, it was a efficient and organised force, ordered to merge with the Cornwall Constabulary on 1 April 1947. St. Ives Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The St Ives authorities could only afford to appoint one constable and this remained the case for the force's 53-year history.
A few years before the St Ives Borough Police amalgamated with the county police, the elderly head constable Mr Bennett had become frail and eccentric. Said to have spent much of his time sat on a stool watching the ships sail into St Ives Bay, Bennett's final and most inauspicious act was the transfer of a prisoner by train to Bodmin. During a stop, the head constable decided to get off and stretch his legs, an activity he became so preoccupied with that the train, his prisoner, left without him. Truro Borough Police 1836 to 1921: An ad hoc force for Truro existed between 1836 and 1838 when it was resolved to appoint a superintendent and constables proper. "I’ll have you under the clock!" was on oft uttered warning to miscreants by the borough constables – a reference to the police cells situated under the town hall clock on Boscawen Street. In 1877 Truro was granted city status and the police force was renamed accordingly to Truro City Police; the long and varied history of the Truro City Police concluded on 28 February 1921 when the constables were forcibly merged with the Cornwall Constabulary.
Cornwall County Constabulary 1856 to 1967: Esteemed members of the Cornish judiciary met at Bodmin in November 1856 to discuss the formation of the Cornwall Constabulary and decided on a force numbering 178 constables under Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert. The building of the force, conducted by Gilbert, two superintendents and a sergeant major, was a troubled process. Gilbert set impossibly high standards for recruits and many did not meet the requirements. By the summer of 1857, the force was only at half-strength, drawing criticism from the Bo
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Penwith is an area of Cornwall, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is the name of a former local government district, whose council was based in Penzance; the area is named after one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning'headland' and wydh meaning'at the end'. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and named it West Penwith, it is known as the Land's End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a rugged coastline with many fine beaches; the contact between the granite and the adjoining sedimentary rock is most seen forming the cliffs at Land's End, the most westerly point in the district and this geology has resulted in the mining that has made Cornwall famous. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times and the landscape is dotted with ruined mine buildings. Inland, the peninsula is granite with a thin top soil.
This combined with Cornwall's exposed position and the prevailing weather systems from the Atlantic Ocean means that, with the exception of the high moor areas, much of the area is a semi-bare plateau standing around 130 m above sea level. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible, its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep valleys cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast, where sufficient shelter from the weather is gained for trees to establish and grow; the shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK. Penzance's Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith contains an artificial lake, Drift Reservoir, located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwith's status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, an area of 90 square kilometres, is considered an Environmentally Sensitive Area. Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. The principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, St Ives, one of the county's most popular seaside resorts; the district is rural, contains many villages, principal amongst them being Botallack, Carbis Bay, Drift, Gwithian, Lamorna, Levant, Long Rock, Madron, Morvah, Nancledra, Paul, Pendeen, Sancreed, Sennen, St Buryan, St Erth, St Hilary, St Just in Penwith, St Levan and Zennor. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in PenwithAs a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, the district is somewhat isolated from the rest of the UK. Two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway; the St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, the main line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly, 28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance. Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Celtic British archaeological remains.
The most significant of them are described in a field guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the mid-6th century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwith's population has remained broadly static for the last one hundred and fifty years. Penwith is believed to be the last part of Cornwall where Cornish was spoken as a community language. Dolly Pentreath, known as the last recorded speaker came from Paul in Penwith. A year following the death of Dolly Pentreath in 1777 Daines Barrington received a letter, written in Cornish and accompanied by an English translation, from a fisherman in Mousehole named William Bodinar stating that he knew of five people who could speak Cornish in that village alone. Barrington speaks of a John Nancarrow from Marazion, a native speaker and survived into the 1790s. Chesten Marchant, d. 1676, a woman from Gwithian, is believed to have been the last monoglot Cornish speaker. Canon Doble's Cornish Saints Series included saints from this area: nine of these were reissued in 1960.
Penwith had a population of 65,000 in the mid-2007 estimates. 96.4% of Penwith residents were born in the UK. 72% of people in the district gave Christianity as their religion, whilst nearly 18% of people stated that they are non-religious, compared to 15 percent nationally. Penwith has the 6th highest rate of divorce of any district in England and Wales at 13.4% of the over 16 population, correspondingly has one of the lowest percentages of married couple households. Penwith district has one of the lowest levels of home ownership in the country and is ranked 4th for those without central heating; the district has one of the lowest rates of second car ownership and is ranked 300 out of 376 districts in England and Wales. The district has some of the highest indicators of bad health in the country and is ranked 28th and 41st for those described as having long term illness and general poor health respectively. Penwith has one of the highest unemployment rates of any district, ranked 51st out of 376 districts, one of the lowest rates of degree level education at 16%, compared to the national average of 20%.
Penwith is ranked as the district having the 28th largest retired population in England and Wales. Penwith is an area of extreme economic deprivation, it is ranked as the 25th most deprived district in Engl
Sennen Cove is a small coastal village in the parish of Sennen in Cornwall, United Kingdom. According to the Penwith District Council, the population of this settlement was estimated at 180 persons in 2000; the South West Coast Path passes through Sennen Cove. The village of Sennen Cove overlooks the southern end of Whitesand Bay. There is not a cove in the usual geological sense; the village, is on a spur road. Thus it is the first village from Land's End along the north coast; the road descends for about 300 yards and steeply for another 300 yards to the village which lies above the beach. The beach extends further north along Whitesand Bay. There are a few dozen houses built of granite and some of concrete, arranged in terraces, typical of many of the villages in Cornwall. Several submarine telecommunications cables reach land at Sennen Cove and are connected via landlines to the cable terminating equipment at Skewjack together with others from Porthcurno. Sennen Cove Lifeboat Station is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution base founded in 1853.
It operates a Tamar-class all-weather lifeboat and an IB1 inshore lifeboat. They are manned by a crew of 24 people who ensure that the boats are operational and on call 24 hours a day, throughout the year. Next to the lifeboat station is the restored Roundhouse, now used as an art gallery and souvenir shop, but used to house a winch for hauling boats up from the beach. Sennen Cove has become renowned for its surfing conditions and is regarded by local and non-local surfers alike. Sennen tends to be more protected from winds and swell than Gwenver at the other end of Whitesand Bay. Sennen is good at most tides, except extreme high tide, but works best with a westerly swell and a light easterly wind. Surf gear can be hired at the beach, next to a car park and beach café; the beach was home to Bilbo, the first UK canine lifeguard. The Newfoundland first started working on the beach in 2005, but the dog was suspended from service on the beach when the lifeguards were taken over by the RNLI in early 2008, because Bilbo was not being allowed to walk on the sand, the new RNLI regulation that restricts the carrying of more than one person on the beach's quad bike.
During the three years he was in service, he raised many tourists' awareness of the dangers of swimming outside the designated zones controlled by the lifeguards, led by the'Bilbo Says' campaign. Since the restriction of just 4 hours a week in 2008, there has been a public cry for Bilbo's reinstatement. A number of petitions have been posted online, a paper petition has been created inside the Old Success Inn, Sennen Cove. Bilbo died in May 2015, his death was noted in many national newspapers and news sources. In 2005, the popular children's book Shanti The Wandering Dog of Sennen & The Land's End was published, tells the story of a collie dog who goes off on his lone wanderings around Sennen Cove, whilst his owner, an old man who spends his day looking out to sea from his hill-top house window, snoozes; the old man never knows. Alfie The MerCat of Sennen Cove is an illustrated story book by one of Cornwall's youngest published authors, Charlie Rose Elliott Peake; the story has a subtle sea-safety message and is about a ginger feral kitten named Alfie whose life is transformed by some mermaids who live in the bay.
The village is dependent on tourism and is popular with sea surfing enthusiasts. The main tourist season runs from spring until autumn. "The Old Boathouse", a surf shop called "Chapel Idne", a public house are located here as well as various small cafes, ice cream stands, souvenir shops, small private art galleries, including The Round House, most of which are only open during the tourist season. The South West Coast Path passes through Sennen Cove, being about half an hour's walk from Land's End. On 8 June 1881 the Faraday landed the eastern end of the trans-atlantic cable known as the "Direct American line". A temporary hut was erected about 30 yards west of the Cowloe Rocks. Below the ″hevva″ station and close to the road leading out of the cove; the western end of the cable was off Canada. A small fishing fleet of seven is protected by a breakwater built in 1908. Mullet used to be an important catch in the bay with the fishery beginning at the end of January and continued towards the end of April.
Sennen Cove was the most important seine fishery in Cornwall and, in Edwardian times, large schools were still entering the bay with as many as 12,000 caught at one time. Seining continued into the 20th century with 1200 stone caught on 3 March 1977; the area of cliffs known as "Pedn men du" in the cove is popular with rock climbers, having non-tidal access. First South West runs bus services to Sennen Cove. Service A1 calls at Sennen Cove on the journey between Penzance and Lands End every hour during the daytime. In summer, open top bus A3 calls into the cove on the trip between Lands End; until their demise in 2006, Sennen Cove was a popular destination with enthusiasts of the Bristol VR bus due to the steep incline leaving the cove. Shoegaze indie-rock band from the UK, Ride titled a track in their 1990 album Nowhere after Sennen Cove, named'Sennen'. Leach, Nicholas Sennen Cove Lifeboats: 150 years of lifesaving. Stroud: Tempus ISBN 0752431110• The True Story of Bilbo The Surf Lifeguard Dog, by Steve Jmo and Janeta Hevizi, published b
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Flora and fauna of Cornwall
Cornwall is the county that forms the tip of the southwestern peninsula of England. The mild climate allows rich plant cover, such as palm trees in the far south and west of the county and in the Isles of Scilly, due to sub-tropical conditions in the summer. On Cornwall's moors and high ground areas the high elevation makes tree cover impossible because of the wind, so these areas are populated by shrubs and bushes such as gorse and heather. Ferns, liverworts and fungi can all be found in the county. In the wettest areas of Bodmin Moor, sphagnum or bog moss can be found. Cornwall is home to many rare flower species at the southern end of the Lizard, due to its unique soil and geology. On the Lizard Peninsula, Cornish heath – the floral emblem of Cornwall – mesembryanthemums, butcher's broom, early meadow grass and a wide range of clovers including the Lizard clover and yellow wallpepper can be found; the north coast of Cornwall features maritime grassland and stunted woodland. The county's coastal waters are home to large populations of seals.
Porpoises and sharks are not uncommonly seen. St Ives made newspaper headlines after a reported sighting of a great white shark. Porbeagles inhabit the coastal waters but the etymology of the word is obscure. A common suggestion is that it combines "porpoise" and "beagle", referencing this shark's shape and tenacious hunting habits. Another is that it is derived from the Cornish porth, meaning "harbour", bugel, meaning "shepherd"; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the word was either borrowed from Cornish or formed from a Cornish first element with the English "beagle". Squalus cornubicus. Swanpool is the only location in the British Isles; the sea cliffs host many marine bird species with the Cornish chough returning to the county after a long absence. This rare bird holds the honour of appearing on the Cornish coat of arms and being the county animal of Cornwall; the tidal estuaries along the coasts contain large numbers of wading birds, while marshland bird species settle in the bogs and mires inland.
Bodmin Moor is a breeding ground for species such as lapwing and curlew. On and around the rivers, sand martins and kingfishers are seen, while after a decline in the 1960s and 1970s, otters have been returning in large numbers; the Camel Valley is one of the habitats for otters. Bude Canal offers an ideal habitat for water voles, although the population is declining because of habitat degradation and pollution, like in other parts of the country. Cornish chough: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, the nominate subspecies and smallest form, is endemic to the British Isles, where it is restricted to Ireland, the Isle of Man, the far west of Wales and Scotland, although it has recolonised Cornwall after an absence of many years. Mousehole Wild Bird Hospital and Sanctuary is a wildlife hospital based near Mousehole; the hospital was founded in 1928 by Dorothy and Phyllis Yglesias and became famous following the Torrey Canyon disaster. Cornish Seal Sanctuary, Gweek The Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher.
It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995. The Tamar Otter and Wildlife Centre has European and Asian short-clawed otters and a medium-sized duck pond, a nature trail including snowy and barn owls and other birds along it, it has a restaurant area and a gift shop. The nature trail is full of wildlife such as fallow and muntjac deer and the not quite so English wallabies; as well as this the nature trail has a waterfall falling down from the top of an old quarry and every few years different segments of the woodlands are coppiced. Some of the wood from this scheme is piled up in random areas of the woodlands as it makes a perfect home for badgers and many creepy crawlies. Several nature sites exist on the Lizard Peninsula, it is home to one of England's rarest breeding birds – the Cornish chough. This species of crow, distinctive due to its red beak and legs, as well as the haunting "chee-aw" call, began breeding on Lizard in 2002; this followed a concerted effort by the Cornish Chough Project in conjunction with DEFRA and the RSPB.
The Lizard contains some of the most specialised flora of any area in Britain, including many Red Data Book plant species. Of particular note is the Cornish heath, Erica vagans, that occurs in abundance here, but, found nowhere else in Britain, it is one of the few places where the rare formicine ant, Formica exsecta, can be found. The Lizard district has a local organisation, the Lizard Field Club, whose members have studied the natural history of the area since 1953. At Polruan the gorse covered south facing cliffs between Polruan and Polperro provide habitats for the goldfinch and stonechat in particular. Viparian life includes the adder; the latter is numerous. Marine life includes the basking shark. In 1972 a large example was seen at the end of Polruan Quay. Other fish that may be found in local waters including the estuary include: bass, seahorse, pipe fish, coalfish, plaice, conger eel, Eu