The landed gentry, or the gentry, is a historical British social class consisting in theory of landowners who could live from rental income, or at least had a country estate. It belonged to aristocracy, but was distinct from, "below", British peerage, although in fact some of the landed gentry were wealthier than some peers, many gentry were related to peers, they worked as administrators of their own lands, while others became public, political and armed forces figures. The decline of this privileged class stemmed from the 1870s agricultural depression; the designation "landed gentry" referred to members of the upper class who were landlords and commoners in the British sense – that is, they did not hold peerages – but usage became more fluid over time. Similar or analogous social systems of landed gentry sprang up in countries that maintained a colonial system. By the late 19th century, the term was applied to peers such as the Duke of Westminster who lived on landed estates; the book series Burke's Landed Gentry recorded the members of this class.
Successful burghers used their accumulated wealth to buy country estates, with the aim of establishing themselves as landed gentry. The term gentry, some of whom were landed, included four separate groups in England: Baronets: a hereditary title created in the 14th century and revived by King James in 1611, giving the holder the right to be addressed as Sir. Knights: a military rank, this status was awarded to civilians as a reward for service to the Crown. Holders have the right to be addressed as Sir, as are baronets, but unlike baronet, the title of knight is not hereditary. Esquires: men aspiring to knighthood, they were the principal attendants on a knight. After the Middle Ages the title of Esquire became an honour that could be conferred by the Crown, by custom the holders of certain offices were deemed to be Esquires. Gentlemen: possessors of a social status recognised as a separate title by the Statute of Additions of 1413. Men of high birth or rank, good social standing and wealth, who did not need to work for a living, were considered gentlemen.
All of the first group, many of the last three, were "armigerous", having obtained the right to carry a coats of arms. In many Continental societies, this was the right of the nobility, at least the upper clergy. In France this was true but many of the landed gentry and wealthy merchants were allowed to register coats of arms and become "armigerous"; the term landed gentry, although used to mean nobility, came to be used of the lesser nobility in England around 1540. Once identical nobility and landed gentry became complementary, in the sense that their definitions began to fill in parts of what the other lacked; the historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single definition remains desirable; the phrase landed gentry referred in particular to the untitled members of the landowning upper class. The most stable and respected form of wealth has been land, great prestige and political qualifications were attached to land ownership.
The primary meaning of "landed gentry" encompasses those members of the land-owning classes who are not members of the peerage. It was an informal designation: one belonged to the landed gentry if other members of that class accepted one as such. A newly rich man who wished his family to join the gentry, was expected not only to buy a country house and estate, but to sever all financial ties with the business which had made him wealthy in order to cleanse his family of the "taint of trade". However, during the 19th century, as the new rich of the Industrial Revolution became more and more numerous and politically powerful, this expectation was relaxed. From the late 16th-century, the gentry emerged as the class most involved in politics, the military and law, it provided the bulk of Members of Parliament, with many gentry families maintaining political control in a certain locality over several generations. Owning land was a prerequisite for suffrage in county constituencies until the Reform Act 1832.
Members of the landed gentry were upper class. Particular prestige was attached to those; these are described as being from "old" families. Titles are considered central to the upper class, but this is not universally the case. For example, both Captain Mark Phillips and Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, the first and second husbands of the Princess Anne, lacked any rank of peerage, yet could scarcely be considered anything other than upper class; the agricultural sector's middle class, on the other hand, comprise the larger tenant farmers, who rent land from the landowners, yeoman farmers, who we
Khansar is a city and capital of Khansar County, Isfahan Province, Iran. Khansar is located in a place not far from just 150 km from Isfahan, it is 900 square km and situated in the central part of Iran surrounded by Zagros Mountains.. Khansar is governed by Ostadrahimi. According to the 2006 census, the city's population was 20,490 people in 6,019 families; the majority of the population consists of Persians in national composition. The nearest airport is in the city of Aligudarz, 32 km west of Khansar. Adib Khansari, classical musician Ali Shojaei, Iranian football player Hacham Uriel Davidi, Jewish religious leader Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iranian Diplomat and Academic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Seyyed Ahmad Khansari, theologian Yadollah Kaboli Khansari, calligrapher Mahmoud Mahmoudi Khansari, traditional singer
Thomas Turner Fauntleroy was a Virginia attorney and judge of the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. Fauntleroy was born in Virginia, he was the second son of Colonel Thomas Turner and his wife Ann Magdalene Magill Fauntleroy, had several brothers and sisters. His son would trace the family's ancestry to Charles Magill of Winchester and Charles Mynn Thruston who both served in the American Revolutionary War. Although his father was assigned various commands in the western U. S. territories, Thomas Jr. was educated at Benjamin Hallowell High School in Alexandria and the University of Virginia, where he graduated with the law class of 1844. In 1847, he began private practice in Winchester and in 1850 was elected Commonwealth's Attorney in Frederick County, he twice served in the legislature from 1857 to 1859 and again in 1877. In the prewar election, he and M. R. Kaufman ousted the previous delegates for the two Frederick County seats, the following term, George W. Ward received the most votes and was seated alongside Kaufman.
Fauntleroy resumed practicing law. In 187, Nimrod Whitacre and Fauntleroy ousted the previous incumbents, but after the subsequent redistricting, E. P. Dandridge was the only representative of Winchester and Frederick County. Nonetheless, in 1879 Fauntleroy became the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Virginia. In 1882, the Virginia General Assembly elected four members to the Supreme Court of Appeals for twelve-year terms effective January 1, 1883. Fauntleroy, Benjamin W. Lacy, Drury A. Hinton and Robert A. Richardson served together on the appellate bench for their twelve-year terms until five successors took office in January 1895. After his term ended, Fauntleroy moved first to St. Paul, to St. Louis, where he died, he is buried in Virginia. S. S. P. Patteson, "The Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia," Green Bag5: 417-418. Obituary in Virginia Law Register 12: 586–587
Phellodendron amurense is a species of tree in the family Rutaceae called the Amur cork tree. It is a major source of huáng bò, one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine; the Ainu people used this plant, called shikerebe-ni, as a painkiller. It is native to eastern Asia: northern China, northeast China, Ussuri and Japan, the Amur cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America; the State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed. It has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of meningitis, bacillary dysentery, pneumonia and liver cirrhosis. Used orally to treat abdominal pain, diarrhoea and urinary tract infections. Phellodendron amurense may protect cartilage against osteoarthritis progression, it may prove to be a important chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Phellodendron amurense is able to inhibit prostatic contractility suggesting that it may be useful in the treatment of urological disorders caused by prostatic urethral obstruction such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Nexrutine may have potential to prevent prostate tumor development. Proprietary extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense may help overweight/obese people. Compounds in the leaves demonstrated significant free radical scavenging activity comparable to vitamin E. Amur cork tree fruit oil is a pressed oil extracted from the fruit of Phellodendron amurense; the bark of the tree is an important herbal medicine in China. The oil has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum; the oil contains a variety of biologically active substances, including flavonoids, alkaloids and coumarins. Medicinal applications of the oil include treatment of pancreatitis, reduction of cholesterol and sugar in blood and the treatment of various skin diseases. Essential oils: Fruit oil contains myrcene and β-caryophyllene Leaf oil contains β-elemol and -β-ocimene Flower oil contains -β-ocimene, β-elemol and nonacosane Amurensin, a tert-amyl alcohol derivative of kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, can be found in P. amurense.
Spring Garden known as the Lewis Homestead, is a historic home located near Laurel, Sussex County, Delaware. It is an "L"-shaped and frame dwelling built in three sections over a 100-year period; the large brick main core was built about 1782, is a 2 1/2-story, double-pile, center-hall plan structure with a three-bay facade in the Federal style. The interior has Georgian style details, it has a summer kitchen addition built about 1860, it is a 1 1/2-story, single-pile structure added to the rear of the main core. About 1880, a large, two-story, frame addition was built onto the west gable end of the original brick section, it is in the Victorian Gothic style. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982
Guitar Hero: On Tour is a series of music video games based on the Guitar Hero series for the Nintendo DS handheld game system. The series is distributed by RedOctane and Activision. Three games in the series have been released since June 2008: Guitar Hero: On Tour, Guitar Hero On Tour: Decades and Guitar Hero On Tour: Modern Hits; as with other games in the Guitar Hero series, the player is challenged to play through the lead or bass guitar portions of rock songs by matching colored notes that scroll on screen towards the player in time with physical actions to score points and keep the virtual crowd pleased. While the console versions of Guitar Hero use a separate guitar-shaped peripheral, Vicarious Visions developed a "Guitar Grip" unit that slips into the Game Boy Advance port on the DS or the DS Lite to be used with the games; the Guitar Grip provides a strap to hold the game unit while providing the player with four fret buttons. Each game features more than 25 songs, with some variation in track lists depending on the region of release, multiple single-player modes.
The local wi-fi capabilities of the DS are used for multiplayer mode, allow a player to use songs from one installment of the series in competitive modes with a player with a different installment. The core gameplay remains unchanged from the other games in the series; the Guitar Grip is required to play the game and comes as part of a bundle that can be purchased for each installment. The Grip is designed for the DS Lite, but features a small adapter that can be removed for use in the older Nintendo DS models. Four fret; this is one less than the normal five frets, included an orange-colored one, managed by other Guitar Hero controllers. A wriststrap is attached to the underside to provide support while playing; the player holds the unit in a vertical book orientation, uses a special guitar pick-shaped stylus to strum on the touchscreen of the DS with their free hand. The "note highway" and the performance of the chosen character in the band are shown on the opposite screen; as notes scroll down on the note highway, the player must press the correct fret button and strum the touchscreen at the same time to score points.
While holding a long note, the player can use the touch screen to apply a whammy effect by moving the stylus across the on-screen whammy bar or anywhere on the screen. After the player has hit a selected series of notes, he or she will gain "Star Power" which doubles their score until the meter has run out; this is activated by yelling or blowing into the DS's microphone, by pressing any of the face buttons on the DS, or by tapping the Star Power meter on the touchscreen. There is a single player Career Mode, allowing the player to select from new characters introduced for On Tour or previous characters from the other games in the Guitar Hero series. Completing Career Mode will unlock more options for the selected character's appearance; the game uses the local wireless abilities of the Nintendo DS to support both 2-player co-operative play and competitive play. The competitive play introduces concepts found in Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock's "Battle Mode", called "Guitar Duel". In Guitar Duel, one player can create a temporary distraction for the other player by completing certain sections of the song.
In On Tour, these distractions require the affected player to use features of the DS to remove the distraction. Modern Hits introduces a new single player gameplay feature called "Fan Requests", used to progress in the single player career; these requests prompt the player to complete songs with certain requirements, such as hitting a minimum number of consecutive notes or hitting a minimum percentage of the notes in the song. Other requests are based on the effects players use in multiplayer mode, such as playing an entire song at "Hyperspeed" or by using the whammy bar on every sustained note. Work on a Nintendo DS version of Guitar Hero started in early 2007 according to Vicarious Visions CEO, Karthik Bala. Bala stated that the inspiration for the game was to "see if it was possible to do a good music rhythm game on a handheld"; the first six months of development were "touch and go", according to Bala, it took nearly a year of testing and experimentation to determine the best strumming mechanism for the game.
Bala claimed that Vicarious Visions had gone through more than 20 different combinations of software and hardware peripherals until they "hit upon the idea of creating a peripheral that would have the fret buttons plugging into the GBA slot of the DS". This gave the advantage of making the peripheral compact, allowing it to be carried by the user. Other designs that were tested but dropped included a larger guitar-shaped unit that the DS was attached to, different grips with three to six to twelve buttons, gameplay, built only around using the stylus. Not until the initial prototype was done did Vicarious Visions approach Nintendo and RedOctane; this peripheral is not compatible with the Nintendo DSi because it lacks a GBA slot to insert the grip into, but Vicarious Visions has stated that it is eager to continue dev