Baron Landonis Balthazar "Lando" Calrissian III is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. In The Empire Strikes Back, Lando is introduced as an old friend of Han Solo. Prior to the events of the film, Lando made a career as a gambler, con artist, mining engineer and was the original owner of the Millennium Falcon until losing the ship to Han in a bet, he has become the Baron Administrator of Cloud City on the gas planet Bespin, in the film, reluctantly betrays Han to Darth Vader. In Return of the Jedi, he helps rescue Han from Jabba the Hutt and becomes a general in the Rebel Alliance and leads the attack on the second Death Star, he is portrayed by Billy Dee Williams in the original trilogy, as well as The Rise of Skywalker, marking one of the longest intervals between portrayals of a character by the same actor in American film history. Donald Glover portrayed a younger Lando in the standalone Solo: A Star Wars Story. Lando appears in the Star Wars Expanded Universe of novels, comic books and video games, including a series of Legends novels in which he is the protagonist.
Actor Yaphet Kotto was an early choice for the role of Lando Calrissian, but chose to star in the prison drama Brubaker instead. In writing The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas considered that Lando Calrissian was a clone from a planet of clones which caused the Clone Wars mentioned in A New Hope. An early trailer for the film introduced him as "Landau Calrissian". Lando was portrayed by Billy Dee Williams in The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi and The Rise of Skywalker, was played by Donald Glover in the film Solo: A Star Wars Story; the Verge noted that despite Han Solo's first name being written as "Han" and franchise creator George Lucas pronouncing the name as "Han" off-screen, within the films most characters, including Luke Skywalker, pronounce it as "Hahn". The Verge noted how Billy Dee Williams' Lando seems to be the only character to pronounce it as "Han" like Lucas, that when, in The Empire Strikes Back, Lando is choked by Chewbacca for betraying Han, Lando causes most other characters to shift to "Han".
In Solo: A Star Wars Story, Glover decided to deliberately use "Han" instead of the other characters "Hahn" in order to honor the character's trait. Dialogue in Solo suggests that Lando is sexually interested in men and droids, including both Han and L3-37; when asked about a scene where L3 jokes about Lando's flirtatiousness towards Han, writer Lawrence Kasdan said, "That is her personality. Maybe it means something, maybe it doesn't." Co-writer Jonathan Kasdan confirmed that Lando is pansexual, stating, "There's a fluidity to Donald and Billy Dee's sexuality I would have loved to have gotten a more explicitly LGBT character into this movie. I think it's time for that, I love the fluidity ― sort of the spectrum of sexuality that Donald appeals to and that droids are a part of, he doesn't make any hard and fast rules." Lando Calrissian first appears in The Empire Strikes Back as the administrator of Cloud City, an old friend of Han Solo, the former owner of Han's ship, The Millennium Falcon. When Han, Princess Leia, Chewbacca, C-3PO, R2-D2 arrive at Cloud City, Lando welcomes them as guests of honor - only to betray them to Darth Vader, who plans to use them as bait to ensnare Luke Skywalker.
Lando had reluctantly agreed to betray Han and company after Vader threatened to put Cloud City under the Galactic Empire's control if he refused. Lando allows Vader to freeze Han in carbonite and give him to bounty hunter Boba Fett). In the ensuing evacuation of Cloud City, he helps them escape in the Falcon, he assists in rescuing Luke from the underside of Cloud City. Afterwards, he promises to help find Han. In Return of the Jedi, Lando goes undercover to help Luke rescue Han from crime lord Jabba the Hutt. During a battle with Jabba's henchmen, Han saves Lando from being devoured by the Sarlacc. For his heroics, he is made a general in the Rebel Alliance. Lando takes the pilot chair in his old ship, the Millennium Falcon, leads the attack on the second Death Star, he leads the Rebel strike on the battle station, destroys its power core, causing the station to explode. He joins the other Rebels on Endor in celebrating their victory and the end of the Empire. Lando did not appear in the first film of The Force Awakens.
According to Williams, the reason Lando did not return may have been that he did not fit into the storyline. His absence from the casting announcement caused the displeasure of some fans. Lando was absent from The Last Jedi. During the early development of the film, director Rian Johnson considered bringing back Lando as the codebreaker that Resistance members Finn and Rose Tico seek in the coastal city of Canto Bight, but Lando was written out of the film's script, with the codebreaker role going to Benicio del Toro's character DJ. In the years of peace after the Galactic Civil War, Lando attempted to start a family, his daughter was born. In the time they were together, he was a loving father, however when she was two years old, she vanished, kidnapped by unknown culprits. In time, it became clear that the First Order was behind both her and other children of former Rebel leaders' abductions. After the tragedy of losing his daught
Ercole Gonzaga was an Italian Cardinal. Born in Mantua, he was the son of the Marquis Francesco Gonzaga and Isabella d'Este, nephew of Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga, he studied philosophy at Bologna under Pietro Pomponazzi, took up theology. In 1520, or as some say, 1525, Sigismondo renounced in his favour the See of Mantua, he was chosen to be a cardinal at the young age of 20, this quick ascention to power being the fruit of the diplomatic mastery of Isabella Gonzaga. Notwithstanding his youth, he showed great zeal for church reform in his own diocese, his mode of life was stainless and a manuscript work of his, Vitae Christianae institutio, bears witness to his piety. He published a Latin catechism for the use of the priests of his diocese and built the diocesan seminary, thus carrying out reforms urged by the Council of Trent, as his friends Contarini, Gilberti and other bishops had done or were doing before the council had assembled, his charity was unbounded, many young men of talent and genius had their university expenses paid by him.
The popes employed him on many embassies, e.g. to the Emperor Charles V in 1530. Because of his prudence and his business-like methods, he was a favourite with the popes, with Charles V, Ferdinand I of Spain, with Francis I of France and Henry II of France. From 1540 to 1556 he was guardian to the young sons of his brother Federico II Gonzaga who had died, in their name he governed the Duchy of Mantua; the elder of the boys, died in 1550 and was succeeded by his brother Guglielmo. In the Papal conclave, 1559 it was thought he would be made pope. In 1561 Pope Pius IV named him papal legate to the Council of Trent, for which he had from the beginning laboured by every means at his command and material. In its early stages, because not a few considered he was in favour of Communion under both kinds, he met with many difficulties, interested motives were attributed to him, he contracted. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ercole Gonzaga".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
HMS Sunflower was a Flower-class corvette of the Royal Navy. She served during the Second World War, she was built at Smith’s Dock Company, South Bank on Tees and launched on 19 August 1940. Smith's Dock are most famous for preparing the design of the Flower-class corvette, an anti-submarine convoy escort of the Second World War, she was sold on 17 May 1947 and scrapped at Hayle, Cornwall, in September 1947. HMS Sunflower was the most successful of the Royal Navy Flower-class, she single-handedly sank two U-boats: U-638 on 5 May 1943 and U-631 on 17 October 1943. She shared sinking of U-282 on 29 October 1943. Undoubtable the task faced by Lt. Cdr. John Treasure Jones, RNR, with his new crew was the same for all corvettes which were manned by volunteers: Treasure Jones writes: "Around 90% of my crew had not been to sea before, they had been called-up, done a little training in barracks and sent to man the ships. They were knit together by a small number of trained ratings and naval pensioners. I had three officers plus an Engin-room Artificer, in charge of the engine and boiler rooms, with a Stoker Petty Officer to assist him.
Of my three officers, only one had been to sea as an officer and he had just joined the Royal Naval Reserve prior to the war. My Second Officer was little older. My Third Officer was a young man of 19, he had joined-up straight from school, done six months on the lower deck as a rating, followed by 3 months at an officers training college before being appointed to my ship. I was daddy to these men was well as Captain, since I was 35 at the time.""We sailed from Middlesbrough in January 1940 for Tobermory, to work-up before being sent to join a group on ocean escort of convoys. To start with I had difficulty in finding three men who could steer the ship, as we had encountered bad weather as soon as we had put to sea, most of them were seasick."After a few weeks working-up the ship and the crew, Admiral Stephenson would personally inspect each escort and put the Captain and crew through a stiff test before releasing them for operational service. During work-up Sunflower was deployed as escort for HM Submarine Thunderbolt and the large Free French submarine Surcouf during passage to the Firth of Clyde.
In 1941 Western Approaches Command had formed eight escort groups. The 1st Escort Group consisted of four Flower-class corvettes, they were soon in action with other groups between 19 July – 1 August 1941 with Convoy ON 69 defending 26 merchant ships from 8 U-boats and 2 Italian submarines. In February and March 1942 the original eight escort groups were reorganized into the Mid-Ocean Escort Force. Sunflower was part of Escort Group B7, one of seven such British naval groups which served with the Mid-Ocean Escort Force, it provided convoy protection in the most dangerous midsection of the North Atlantic route. B7's first convoys, in the spring of 1942, were uneventful, as the pace of the Battle of the Atlantic hotted up in the summer and autumn, the group's charges were escorted without loss, but in December, while escorting ON 153, the convoy came under attack, three ships were sunk. During this action, on 11 December, Firedrake was torpedoed by the U-boat U-211 and sank with the loss of 168 of her crew, including her current commander, the group's Senior Officer – Escort, Commander Eric Tilden.
35 survived the torpedoing, but only 27 managed to get on board Sunflower, under the command of Lieut- Commander John Treasure Jones. B7 was involved in the battles for convoys ONS 20 and ON 206, ON 207 and ON 208, during which period nine U-boats were destroyed. In February 1943 the command passed to A/Lt. Cdr. James Plomer, RCNVR and during the following nine months they would have a series of notable successes. Convoy ONS5, comprising 46 merchant ships, departed Liverpool on 21 April 1943. In early May they were under sustained submarine attacks. On 5 May U-638 was sunk by Sunflower; the convoy arrived in Nova Scotia on 12 May. This was a major convoy battle which saw the destruction of six U-boats for the loss of thirteen ships. Convoy N206, comprising 68 merchant ships, departed Liverpool on 11 October 1943, it arrived in New York on 27 October 1943 without loss. On 17 October U-631 was sunk in the North Atlantic, South-east of Cape Farewell, Greenland, by depth charges from Sunflower. On 29 October 1943 U-282, shadowing Convoy ON208, was sunk by Hedgehog attacks carried out together with HMS Duncan and HMS Vidette.
In May 1944 Sunflower was nominated for service in Force L for the Normandy Landings, code name Operation Neptune. She was assigned as part of Escort Group 154 with HM Corvettes Sweetbriar K209 and Oxlip K123, they were employed in convoy defence during the build-up operations in the English Chanel and retained in the Channel for convoy defence after termination of Neptune. On 30 August Sunflower was deployed for Channel convoy defence based at Sheerness. By the beginning of October merchant convoys were being detached from joined ocean convoys in Southwestern Approaches and routed through the English Channel for passage to and from London because the air threat from bases in France had been removed by the military advance to Germany. In February 1945 she resumed Channel convoy defence. German submarines and E-Boats were active in Channel area for mine and attacks by snorkel fitted U-boats were being made on assembly points for convoys and coastal traffic in Home waters. In May 1945 she was de-stored and reduced to'Reserve' status.