The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. On July 23, 1972 the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched; this was renamed to Landsat. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched on February 11, 2013; the instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. The images, archived in the United States and at Landsat receiving stations around the world, are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, geology, regional planning and education, can be viewed through the U. S. Geological Survey'EarthExplorer' website. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters. Landsat images are divided into scenes for easy downloading; each Landsat scene is 115 miles wide. The Hughes Aircraft company's Santa Barbara Research Center initiated and fabricated the first three Multispectral Scanners in 1969; the first prototype MSS was completed within nine months, in the fall of 1970.
It was tested by scanning Half Dome at Yosemite National Park. Working at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Valerie L. Thomas managed the development of early Landsat image processing software systems and became the resident expert on the Computer Compatible Tapes, or CCTs, that were used to store early Landsat imagery. Thomas was one of the image processing specialists who facilitated the ambitious Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, known as LACIE—a project that showed for the first time that global crop monitoring could be done with Landsat satellite imagery; the program was called the Earth Resources Technology Satellites Program, used from 1966 to 1975. In 1975, the name was changed to Landsat. In 1979, President of the United States Jimmy Carter's Presidential Directive 54 transferred Landsat operations from NASA to NOAA, recommended development of a long term operational system with four additional satellites beyond Landsat 3, recommended transition to private sector operation of Landsat.
This occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company, a partnership of Hughes Aircraft and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system with a ten-year contract. EOSAT operated Landsat 4 and Landsat 5, had exclusive rights to market Landsat data, was to build Landsats 6 and 7. In 1989, this transition had not been completed when NOAA's funding for the Landsat program was due to run out and NOAA directed that Landsats 4 and 5 be shut down; the head of the newly formed National Space Council, Vice President Dan Quayle, noted the situation and arranged emergency funding that allowed the program to continue with the data archives intact. Again in 1990 and 1991, Congress provided only half of the year's funding to NOAA, requesting that agencies that used Landsat data provide the funding for the other six months of the upcoming year. In 1992, various efforts were made to procure funding for follow on Landsats and continued operations, but by the end of the year EOSAT ceased processing Landsat data.
Landsat 6 was launched on October 5, 1993, but was lost in a launch failure. Processing of Landsat 4 and 5 data was resumed by EOSAT in 1994. NASA launched Landsat 7 on April 15, 1999; the value of the Landsat program was recognized by Congress in October 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availability of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data. Timeline Landsat 1 through 5 carried the Landsat Multispectral Scanner. Landsat 4 and 5 carried both the Thematic Mapper instruments. Landsat 7 uses the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scanner. Landsat 8 uses two instruments, the Operational Land Imager for optical bands and the Thermal Infrared Sensor for thermal bands; the band designations and pixel sizes for the Landsat instruments are: * Original MSS pixel size was 79 x 57 meters. * TM Band 6 was acquired at 120-meter resolution. * ETM + Band 6 is acquired at 60-meter resolution.
* TIRS bands are acquired at 100 meter resolution, but are resampled to 30 meter in delivered data product. The spectral band placement for each sensor is visually displayed here; the Multispectral Scanner onboard Landsat missions 1 through 5 had a 230 mm fused silica dinner-plate mirror epoxy bonded to three invar tangent bars mounted to base of a Ni/Au brazed Invar frame in a Serrurier truss, arranged with four "Hobbs-Links", crossing at mid-truss. This construct ensured the secondary mirror would oscillate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 360 mm beryllium scan mirror; this engineering solution allowed the United States to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of the French SPOT, which first used CCD arrays to stare without need for a scanner. However, LANDSAT data prices climbed from $250 per computer compatible data tape and $10 for black-and-white print to $4,400 for data tape and $2,700 for black-and-white print by 1984, making SPOT data a much more affordable option for satellite imaging data.
This was a direct result of the commercialization efforts begun under the Carter admin
The Estonian Defence League is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia. The Defence League is a paramilitary defence organization whose aim is to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land area and its constitutional order; the Defence League possesses arms and engages in military exercises, fulfilling the tasks given to it by the law. The organization is divided into 15 Defence League regional units, called malevs, whose areas of responsibility coincide with the borders of Estonian counties; the Defence League is a voluntary military national defence organisation, which acts in the area of government of the Ministry of Defence. The Defence League engages in military exercises; the main goal of the Defence League is, on the basis of the citizens’ free will and initiative, to enhance the readiness of the nation to defend its independence and its constitutional order, including in the event of military threat.
The Defence League plays an important role in supporting the civil structures. Its members aid in putting out wildfires, volunteer as assistant police members, ensure safety at various events. Units, consisting of voluntary members of the Defence League participate in international peace support operations such as in the Balkan states; the Defence League and its affiliated organisations have positive relations with partner organisations in the Nordic countries, the United States, the United Kingdom. 1918 – The Estonian Defence League was preceded by Estonia's first armed home defence organisation: Omakaitse the Citizens' Defence Organisation against the public disorder accompanying the Russian Revolution. 1918 – On 11 November the Citizens' Defence Organisation was renamed the Estonian Defence League which performed the tasks of a national guard in the War of Independence. 1924 – The attempted Communist coup on December 1 dispelled any doubts about the necessity for the Defence League. Development of the Defence League for the performance of tasks of national defence was started.
1925 – In October the Estonian Defence League magazine "Kaitse Kodu!" was founded. 1926 – On 19–20 June the first Estonian Defence League Festival took place in Tallinn, to be followed by six more such events held before 1940. 1927 – To develop the Defence League and give it a family dimension, the Commander of the Defence League approved the temporary statutes of the Women's Home Defence. 1928 – The Body of Elders decided to invite the boy scout organisation the Young Eagles to join the Defence League. 1931 – The Government of the Republic approved the Statutes of the Defence League which have remained in force until the present day. 1932 – The Girl Scout organisation Home Daughters was established at the Women's Home Defence. 1934 – To regulate the life and work of the organisation, House Rules of the Defence League were adopted. 1940 – With the Soviet occupation starting from 17 June, the liquidation of both the Republic of Estonia and the Defence League started. 1974 – Defence League in exile was founded by Avdy Andresson, Estonian Minister of War in exile.
1990 – The Defence League was re-founded on 17 February at Järvakandi on popular initiative in order to defend Estonia's independent statehood. 1991 – On 4 September the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia reinstated the rights of the Defence League as a legal organization, days after its personnel were deployed as the Soviet Airborne Troops occupied the Tallinn TV Tower but owing to EDL personnel deployed to the signal rooms, did not disrupt the radio broadcasts. 1992 – On 28 April the Defence League was included in the Defence Forces as a national defence organisation. In 1999 the Estonian Parliament adopted the EDL Law, which provided the position of the Kaitseliit in society and national defence and described its main tasks, legal basis for operations and control and co-operation with the Defence Forces and other state organizations; the organisation is divided into 15 Defence League regional brigades whose areas of responsibility coincide with the borders of Estonia’s counties.
Today, the Defence League has over 15,000 reservists. The affiliated organisations of the Defence League combine more than 25,000 volunteers, in all, include the Estonian Defence League’s women’s corps Naiskodukaitse, the Estonian Defence League’s boys’ corps Noored Kotkad, the Estonian Defence League’s girls’ corps Kodutütred. Defence League’s women’s corps – "Women's Home Defence"The Defence League's women's corps – Naiskodukaitse is a support organisation of Kaitseliit; the main functions of the women’s corps include the following: • to assist the Defence League in defending the independence of Estonia and its constitutional order, to ensure the safety of its citizens, to discharge any other functions. Defence League’s girls’ corps – "Home Daughters"The Defence League’s girls’ corps – Kodutütred was established to increase patriotic feelings and readiness to defend the independence of Estonia among young girls. Defence League’s boys’ corps – "Young Eagles"The Defence
Factory is an American comedy television series. The series received a six-episode order from Spike, where it premiered on June 29, 2008; the series, produced by 3 Arts Entertainment, was directed by and stars Mitch Rouse, features fellow comedians Michael Coleman, Jay Leggett and David Pasquesi. Factory is the story of four guys who grew up together in the same small town, who drank a lot of beer, dreamt of one day making a name for themselves; the four guys are still friends and still drink a lot of beer, only now they all work in the town's local factory. When not figuring out new ways to avoid doing their jobs, the guys are trying to appease their wives and girlfriends, without great success. Gary – The unspoken leader and ladies' man of the group, Gary has been putting in long days at the factory for years just to get away from his bi-polar wife, he epitomizes the classic slacker-underachiever. Smitty – Smitty is the sarcastic one of the group, he fancies himself an intellectual, he lives in the same house as his ex-wife, but a glimmer of hope has shined on him in the form of his ex-wife's stepfather's sister's daughter.
Gus – Gus is working up the courage to propose to his live-in girlfriend of 11 years. A big teddy bear of a guy, Gus manipulates his friends to get what he wants. Chase – Chase is a naïve 12-year-old in the body of a 35-year-old linebacker, in desperate need of a girlfriend, his naiveté makes him the butt of many jokes, but his friends are always encouraging him to meet women if it means they have the chance to live through him vicariously. Factory on IMDb Factory at TV.com Wizzard.tv/factory
The 2012 Star Mazda Championship was the 14th season of the Star Mazda Championship, an American-based open-wheel racing series sanctioned by IndyCar as part of the Road to Indy program. It featured 17 races held over 10 race weekends. Five race weekends were held on temporary street courses, three on permanent road courses, two on ovals; the series increased the number of double-header weekends to reduce the costs per race for competitors. Fastest lap times in race 1 determined the starting grid for race 2 on double-header race weekends; the championship consisted of a main championship as well as a Star Mazda Expert Series for drivers over 30 years old. The expert class consists of a driver's best 10 races, enabling an Expert Series competitor to complete a full complement of races in just five race weekends.21-year-old Englishman Jack Hawksworth driving for Team Pelfrey dominated the championship, winning eight of the 17 races and four of the eight poles awarded, setting a series record for wins in a season.
He sat out the final race of the year but still won the championship over Colombian-American Gabby Chaves by 37 points. Chaves won the final two races of the season. American Sage Karam won three races and finished third in points in a tie-breaker over fellow American Connor De Phillippi who won two races after finishing second in points a year ago. Finn Petri Suvanto finished fifth in points, in his first season in Star Mazda, winning the seat by winning the Road to Indy's U. S. F2000 National Championship the year before. Other race winners were Chile's Martin Scuncio and Venezuela's Camilo Schmidt, who won a bizarre wet-dry race in Edmonton. American Walt Bowlin won the Expert series championship by virtue of being the only Expert series competitor to participate in more than two race weekends; the series schedule was announced December 1, 2011. Two race weekends were listed on the schedule with the location yet to be determined; the season finale was confirmed to be held at Road Atlanta, supporting the Petit Le Mans sportscar event.
Star Mazda Championship Official website
The shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs in the family Teredinidae: a group of saltwater clams with long, naked bodies. They are notorious for boring into wood, immersed in sea water, including such structures as wooden piers and ships. Sometimes called "termites of the sea", they are known as "Teredo worms" or Teredo, from the Greek τερηδών teredōn, via Latin. Biologists adopted the common name Teredo as the name for the best-known genus. Removed from its burrow, the grown teredo ranges from several centimetres to about a metre in length, depending on the species; the body is cylindrical, slender and superficially vermiform, meaning "worm-shaped". In spite of their slender, worm-like forms, shipworms possess the characteristic morphology of bivalves; the ctinidia lie within the branchial siphon, through which the animal pumps the water that passes over the gills. The two siphons are long and protrude from the posterior end of the animal. Where they leave the end of the main part of the body, the siphons pass between a pair of calcareous plates called pallets.
If the animal is alarmed, it withdraws the siphons and the pallets protectively block the opening of the tunnel. The pallets are not to be confused with the two valves of the main shell, which are at the anterior end of the animal; because they are the organs that the animal applies to boring its tunnel, they are located at the tunnel's end. They are borne on the thickened, muscular anterior end of the cylindrical body and they are triangular in shape and markedly concave on their interior surfaces; the outer surfaces are convex and in most species are sculpted into sharp grinding surfaces with which the animals bore their way through the wood or similar medium in which they live and feed. The valves of shipworms are separated and the aperture of the mantle lies between them; the small "foot" can protrude through the aperture. The shipworm lives in waters with oceanic salinity. Accordingly, it is rare in the brackish Baltic Sea, where wooden shipwrecks are preserved for much longer than in the oceans.
The range of various species has changed over time based on human activity. Many waters in developed countries, plagued by shipworms were cleared of them by pollution from the Industrial Revolution and the modern era. Climate change has changed the range of species; when shipworms bore into submerged wood, bacteria, in a special organ called the gland of Deshayes, digest the cellulose exposed in the fine particles created by the excavation. The excavated burrow is lined with a calcareous tube; the valves of the shell of shipworms are small separate parts located at the anterior end of the worm, used for excavating the burrow. Shipworms are marine animals in the order Bivalvia, family Teredinidae, they were included in the now obsolete order Eulamellibranchiata, in which many documents still place them. Ruth Turner of Harvard University was the leading 20th century expert on the Teredinidae. More the endosymbionts that are found in the gills have been subject to study the bioconversion of cellulose for fuel energy research.
Shipworm species comprise several genera, of which Teredo is the most mentioned. The best known species is Teredo navalis. Teredo concentrations in the Caribbean Sea have been higher than in most other salt water bodies. Kuphus polythalamia The longest marine bivalve Kuphus polythalamia was found from a lagoon near Mindanao island in the southeastern part of the Philippines, which belongs to the same group of mussels and clams; the existence of huge mollusks was established for centuries and studied by the scientists, based on the shells they've left behind that were the size of baseball bats. The bivalve animal is a rare creature that spends its life inside an elephant tusk-like hard shell made of calcium carbonate, it has a protective cap over its head. The case of the shipworm is not just the home of the black slimy worm. Instead, it acts as the primary source of nourishment in a non-traditional way; the animal can reach a diameter of 6 cm. It has the ability to reabsorb the shell when it needs to burrow deeper into the mud.
The K.polythalamia sifts sediment with its gills. Most shipworms are smaller and feed on rotten wood. Instead, the shipworm does not eat, they rely on a beneficial symbiotic bacteria living in its gills; the bacteria use the hydrogen sulfide as energy to produce organic carbons. The process is similar to the green plants' photosynthesis to convert the carbon dioxide in the air into simple carbon compounds during photosynthesis. Scientists found that K. polythalamia cooperates with different bacteria than other shipworms which could be the reason why it evolved from consuming rotten wood to living on hydrogen sulfide in the mud. The internal organs of the shipworm have shrunk from lack of use over the course of its evolution; the scientists are planning to study the microbes found in the single gill of the K.polythalamia to find a new possible antimicrobial substance. Genera wit
Lucia Caporaso is an Italian mathematician, holding a professorship in mathematics at Roma Tre University. She was born in Rome, Italy, on May 25,1965, her research includes work in algebraic geometry, arithmetic geometry, tropical geometry and enumerative geometry. Caporaso earned a laurea from Sapienza University of Rome in 1989, she completed her Ph. D. at Harvard University in 1993. Her dissertation, On a Compactification of the Universal Picard Variety over the Moduli Space of Stable Curves, was supervised by Joe Harris, she became a Benjamin Pierce Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Harvard, a researcher at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an associate professor at the University of Sannio, before moving to Roma Tre as a professor in 2001. Since 2013, she has headed the Department of Mathematics and Physics at Roma Tre. Caporaso was the 1997 winner of the Bartolozzi Prize, she is an invited speaker at the 2018 International Congress of Mathematicians, speaking in the section on algebraic and complex geometry.