Languages of the Philippines

There are some 120 to 187 languages spoken in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification. All are Malayo-Polynesian languages native to the archipelago. A number of Spanish-influenced creole varieties called Chavacano are spoken in certain communities; the 1987 constitution designates Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog, as the national language and an official language along with English. Filipino is regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino and therefore serves as a lingua franca used by Filipinos of various ethnolinguistic backgrounds. On October 30, 2018, President Rodrigo Duterte signed into law Republic Act 11106, which declares Filipino Sign Language or FSL to be the country's official sign language and as the Philippine government's official language in communicating with the Filipino Deaf. While Filipino is used for communication across the country's diverse linguistic groups and is used in popular culture, the government operates using English. Including second-language speakers, there are more speakers of Filipino than English in the Philippines.

The other regional languages are given official auxiliary status in their respective places according to the constitution but particular languages are not specified. Some of these regional languages are used in education; the indigenous scripts of the Philippines are used little. Baybayin, though not understood, is one of the most well-known of the indigenous Filipino scripts and is used in artistic applications such as on the Philippine banknotes, where the word "Pilipino" is inscribed using the writing system. Additionally, the Arabic script is used in the Muslim areas in the southern Philippines; the 1987 Constitution declares Filipino as the national language of the country. Filipino and English are the official languages, with the recognition of the regional languages as auxiliary official in their respective regions. Spanish and Arabic are to be promoted on an voluntary basis. Spanish was the official language of the country for more than three centuries under Spanish colonial rule, became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

In 1863, a Spanish decree introduced universal education. It was the language of the Philippine Revolution, the 1899 Malolos Constitution proclaimed it as the official language of the First Philippine Republic. National hero José Rizal wrote most of his works in Spanish. Luciano de la Rosa established that Spanish was spoken by a total of 60% of the population in the early 20th century as a first, second or third language. Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English, the use of Spanish declined especially after the 1940s. Under the U. S. occupation and civil regime, English began to be taught in schools. By 1901, public education used English as the medium of instruction. Around 600 educators who arrived in that year aboard the USAT Thomas replaced the soldiers who functioned as teachers; the 1935 Constitution added English as an official language alongside Spanish. A provision in this constitution called for Congress to "take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages."

On November 12, 1937, the First National Assembly created the National Language Institute. President Manuel L. Quezón appointed native Waray speaker Jaime C. De Veyra to chair a committee of speakers of other regional languages, their aim was to select a national language among the other regional languages. Tagalog was chosen as the base language December 30, 1937, on the basis that it was the most spoken and developed local language. In 1939, President Manuel L. Quezón renamed the Tagalog language as Wikang Pambansa; the language was further renamed in 1959 as Pilipino by Secretary of Education Jose Romero. The 1973 constitution declared the Pilipino language to be co-official, along with English, mandated the development of a national language, to be known as Filipino. In addition, Spanish regained its official status when President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 155, s. 1973. The present constitution, ratified in 1987, designates Filipino and English as joint official languages. Filipino had the distinction of being a national language, to be "developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages."

Although not explicitly stated in the constitution, Filipino is in practice completely composed of the Tagalog language as spoken in the capital, Manila. The present constitution is the first to give recognition to other regional languages; the constitution made mention of Spanish and Arabic, both of which are to be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Filipino is an official language of education and the major language of the broadcast media and cinema, but less important than English as a language of publication and less important for academic-scientific-technological discourse. Filipino is used as a lingua franca in all regions of the Philippines as well as within overseas Filipino communities, is the dominant language of the armed forces (except for the small part of the commissioned officer c

List of Tampa Bay Buccaneers broadcasters

The Buccaneers' current flagship radio station is WXTB, 97.9 FM Tampa. Prior to the 2017 season, 620 AM WDAE broadcast the games. A network of Florida radio stations simulcast the games; the play-by-play announcer since 1989 has been Gene Deckerhoff. Former Bucs tight end Dave Moore joined Deckerhoff as analyst for the 2007 season. T. J. Rives works as the sideline reporter; the current line up of Tampa Bay Buccaneers radio affiliates is: Tampa - 97.9 FM WXTB Tampa - 96.1 FM WTMP-FM and 1470 AM WMGG Fort Myers - 99.3 FM WWCN Hernando County - 1450 AM WWJB Miami - 940 AM WINZ Orlando - 740 AM and 96.9 FM WYGM Space Coast/Treasure Coast - 95.9 FM WROK West Palm Beach - 640 AM WMEN Broadcast legend and former Green Bay Packers' announcer Ray Scott was the play-by-play man for the Bucs' 1976 and 1978 seasons. In 1978, Dick Crippen called the games for the first half of the season while Jim Gallogly did so for the second half. Mark Champion held the position from 1979 to 1988. Former Buccaneer Hardy Nickerson served as color commentator for one season in 2006, until he signed with the Bears as a linebackers coach on February 23, 2007.

Nickerson had replaced Scot Brantley, the commentator from 1999 through 2005. Jesse Ventura, the famous professional wrestler and former governor of Minnesota, was Deckerhoff's partner on the Bucs radio broadcasts for one year, 1990, former Buc David Logan held that position after Ventura until his death after the 1998 season. Dave Kocourek and Fran Curci were color commentors for the Buccaneers during their earlier years. Ronnie Lane worked as a sideline reporter; the Bucs have broadcast on FM radio since signing with Top 40 station 104.7 WRBQ-FM in 1992. The team moved to 99.5 WQYK-FM, in 1994 to WFUS in 2004. While regular season and post-season games in the NFL are all broadcast by national television contracts on CBS, FOX, NBC, ESPN and NFL Network, the television broadcasts are for the most part handled by the individual teams. Preseason games not picked up for national broadcast are broadcast, beginning in 2011 on WTSP Channel 10, the Tampa CBS affiliate, after having been on WFLA Channel 8, from 2003 through 2010.

WFTV Channel 9 simulcasts the broadcast in the Orlando area. Chris Myers is the play-by-play announcer with Ronde Barber as color commentator. Both Myers and Barber work nationally with FOX Sports. CBS, FOX and NBC games are shown in Tampa Bay on WTSP, WTVT and WFLA, while they are shown in Orlando on WKMG, WOFL and WESH. Monday Night Football games are simulcast locally on WFTS, NFL Network games can be seen locally on WFLA-TV. WTOG Channel 44 was the previous home to Buccaneer preseason games for many years, ending in 2002. Former CBS play-by-play and ESPN golf broadcaster Jim Kelly was the play-by-play announcer for many of those games in the 1980s and early 1990s, Hank Stram and Joe Namath were commentators. In the early years of the franchise, WTVT-13 a CBS affiliate, broadcast some Buccaneer preseason games. Sports anchor Andy Hardy handled the play-by-play, for one game in 1978, his broadcast partner was his friend, Florida State alumni and movie actor Burt Reynolds. Ron Jaworski served as color commentator, until he signed with MNF for 2007.

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Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is a tandem mass spectrometer consisting of two quadrupole mass analyzers in series, with a radio frequency –only quadrupole between them to act as a cell for collision-induced dissociation. This configuration is abbreviated QqQ, here Q1q2Q3; the arrangement of three quadrupoles was first developed by J. D. Morrison of LaTrobe University, Australia for the purpose of studying the photodissociation of gas-phase ions. After coming into contact with Prof. Christie G. Enke and his graduate student Richard Yost, Morrison's linear arrangement of the three quadrupoles probed the construction of the first triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the years following, the first commercial triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed at Michigan State University by Enke and Yost in the late 1970s, it was found that the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer could be utilized to study organic ions and molecules, thus expanding its capabilities as a tandem MS/MS technique.

The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operates under the same principle as the single quadrupole mass analyzer. Each of the two mass filters contains four cylindrical metal rods. Both Q1 and Q3 are controlled by direct current and radio-frequency potentials, while the collision cell, q, is only subjected to RF potential; the RF potential associated with the collision cell allows all ions that were selected for to pass through it. In some instruments, the normal quadrupole collision cell has been replaced by hexapole or octopole collision cells which improve efficiency. Unlike traditional MS techniques, MS/MS techniques allow for mass analysis to occur in a sequential manner in different regions of the instruments; the TQMS follows the tandem-in-space arrangement, due to ionization, primary mass selection, collision induced dissociation, mass analysis of fragments produced during CID, detection occurring in separate segments of the instrument. Sector instruments tend to surpass the TQMS in mass mass range.

However, the triple quadrupole has the advantage of being cheaper, easy to operate and efficient. When operated in the selected reaction monitoring mode, the TQMS has superior detection sensitivity as well as quantification; the triple quadrupole allows the study of low-energy low-molecule reactions, useful when small molecules are being analyzed. The arrangement of the TQMS allows for four different scan types to be performed: a precursor ion scan, neutral loss scan, product ion scan, selected reaction monitoring. In the product scan, the first quadrupole Q1 is set to select an ion of a known mass, fragmented in q2; the third quadrupole Q3 is set to scan the entire m/z range, giving information on the sizes of the fragments made. The structure of the original ion can be deduced from the ion fragmentation information; this method is performed to identify transitions used for quantification by tandem MS. When utilizing a precursor scan, a certain product ion is selected in Q3, the precursor masses are scanned in Q1.

This method is selective for ions having a particular functional group released by the fragmentation in q2. In the neutral loss scan method both Q1 and Q3 are scanned together, but with a constant mass offset; this allows the selective recognition of all ions which, by fragmentation in q2, lead to the loss of a given neutral fragment. Similar to the precursor ion scan, this method is useful in the selective identification of related compounds in a mixture; when employing selected reaction monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring modes, both Q1 and Q3 are set at a specific mass, allowing only a distinct fragment ion from a certain precursor ion to be detected. This method results in increased sensitivity. If Q1 and/or Q3 is set to more than a single mass, this configuration is called multiple reaction monitoring. In the TQMS, several ionization methods can be employed; some of these include electrospray ionization, chemical ionization, electron ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, all of which produce a continuous supply of ions.

Both the first mass analyzer and the collision cell are continuously exposed to ions from the source, in a time independent manner. It is; the first quadrupole mass filter, Q1, is the primary m/z selector after the sample leaves the ionization source. Any ions with mass-to-charge ratios other than the one selected for will not be allowed to infiltrate Q1; the collision cell, denoted as "q", is located between Q1 and Q3, is where fragmentation of the sample occurs in the presence of an inert gas like Ar, He, or N2. A characteristic daughter ion is produced as a result of the collisions of the inert gas with the analyte. Upon exiting the collision cell, the fragmented ions travel onto the second quadrupole mass filter, Q3, where m/z selection can occur again; because the triple quadrupole is a scanning instrument, the type of detection system it employs must be capable of detecting ions one m/z at a time. One of the most common detectors, the electron multiplier, is paired with the triple quadrupole.

The electron multiplier allows for increased sensitivity and higher gain. However, they have a limited lifetime due to overloading. Employing the TQMS provides enhanced selectivity, better accuracy, greater reproducibility; the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allows for increased sensitivity and specificity yielding lower detection and quantitation limits. For these reasons, em