Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own)
The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The 1st Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Ottawa was formed on April 3, 1856. At that time, the bulk of Canada's militia existed as small, independent companies scattered throughout the provinces. In 1866, the 43rd Battalion of Infantry was formed in Bells Corners with companies in many of the surrounding communities and absorbed Ottawa's volunteer rifle company; this company is perpetuated to this day as "A" Company of The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. The 43rd Battalion's first call to service came in 1870 when they were deployed to the Prescott area to defend Canada against Fenian raids, they saw no action there and returned to Ottawa. Because they were so spread out, maintaining troop strength was difficult and in 1875, the regiment was disbanded. In 1881, the unit was stood up again but this time as the 43rd "Ottawa and Carleton" Battalion of Rifles with the Ottawa volunteer rifle company and a number of other companies located in communities on the Ontario and Quebec sides of the Ottawa River.
No 2 Company, 43rd "Ottawa and Carleton" Battalion of Rifles, garrisoned in Hull is perpetuated by Le Régiment de Hull. Over the next 20 years, the 43rd's soldiers would see action in the North-West Rebellion and in the Second Boer War. However, the battalion sent only volunteers to participate in these conflicts and never deployed formed units. During the Boer War, Private R. R. Thompson won a Queen's Scarf, a scarf crocheted by Queen Victoria, for bravery and his actions saving wounded soldiers. In 1902, the regiment so impressed the Duke of Cornwall that he became the Camerons' first honorary colonel and allowed the regiment to bear his name; the regiment was known 43rd Regiment, Duke of Cornwall's Own Rifles. In 1914, when the First World War began, the unit was mobilized for action. However, once again, the unit did not go overseas as a formed unit. Instead, the unit was used to recruit and train soldiers for the 2nd, 38th, 207th battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force; the Camerons perpetuate the 207th battalions.
The 38th received many battle honours. The members who served were well decorated; the 207th were used as a reserve force for many units. During the interwar years, the 43rd Regiment was renamed on several occasions. In March 1920 it was converted from line infantry to a highland regiment and renamed The Ottawa Regiment; the regiment was allocated two battalions, the 1st Battalion and the 2nd Battalion, as a means of retaining the history and honours of the wartime Canadian Expeditionary Force battalions. In 1922, the 43rd Regiment was renamed The Ottawa Highlanders and in 1933, it was renamed The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. "" was added to the regimental title in 1936. Since 1881 the unit has shared the City of Ottawa's motto "Advance". In July 1940, the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa's active service battalion left for garrison duty in Iceland, which ended in April 1941 when they sailed to England. On 6 June 1944, the Camerons were the only Ottawa unit to land on D-Day at Juno Beach; the 1st Battalion consisted of one mortar company.
Following the landing on D-Day, the battalion fought in every battle in the northwestern Europe campaign. However, the battalion's soldiers were attached as platoons and companies in support of other units, so the battalion never fought as an entire entity. During this time, the 2nd Battalion trained soldiers in Canada for overseas duty; the 3rd Battalion was formed in July 1945 as a part of the Canadian Army Occupation Force in Germany. Since the Second World War, the regiment has remained in Ottawa, it is now a light infantry regiment. Since 1985, the regiments' soldiers have served as deployed members on NATO and United Nations missions across the world and as members of Canadian Forces peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, The Congo, Israel and Syria, among other deployments. During the deployment of a Canadian troops to Afghanistan, a number of Camerons served as reserve augmentees to the regular force as part of the NATO ISAF force. Camerons served in nearly every element of the task force with an infantry presence.
They were involved in a full spectrum of operations, from the intense close combat of Operation Medusa in September 2006 and mentoring and training the Afghan National Army, to less conventional infantry tasks including civil-military cooperation, psychological operations, escort of logistical convoys, force-protection duties at ISAF installations. The regiment continues to encourage members to volunteer for operational deployments, resulting in more Camerons serving overseas in recent years than in any period since the Second World War. In 2005, the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa were authorized, as part of the Canadian Forces Land Force Reserve Restructuring, to stand up a second rifle company, composed of about 100 soldiers; the Canadian Forces further directed this new rifle company train in the western Ottawa to be more accessible to a growing population base in that area. The regiment is composed of A Company in the Cartier Square Drill Hall.
The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League playoff winner. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchise, the International Ice Hockey Federation considers it to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport"; the trophy was commissioned in 1892 as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup and is named after Lord Stanley of Preston, the Governor General of Canada who donated it as an award to Canada's top-ranking amateur ice hockey club. The entire Stanley family supported the sport, the sons and daughters all playing and promoting the game; the first Cup was awarded in 1893 to Montreal Hockey Club, winners from 1893 to 1914 were determined by challenge games and league play. Professional teams first became eligible to challenge for the Stanley Cup in 1906. In 1915, professional ice hockey organizations National Hockey Association and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association reached a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other annually for the Stanley Cup.
It was established as the de facto championship trophy of the NHL in 1926 and the de jure NHL championship prize in 1947. There are three Stanley Cups: the original bowl of the "Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup", the authenticated "Presentation Cup", the spelling-corrected "Permanent Cup" on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame; the NHL has maintained its associated trademarks. The NHL has registered trademarks associated with the name and likeness of the Stanley Cup, although there has been dispute as to whether the league has the right to own trademarks associated with a trophy that it does not own; the original bowl is 18.5 centimetres high and 29 centimetres wide. The current Stanley Cup is topped with a copy of the original bowl, made of a silver and nickel alloy, it weighs 15.5 kilograms. A new Stanley Cup is not made each year, unlike the trophies awarded by the other major professional sports leagues of North America; the winners kept it until a new champion was crowned, but winning teams get the Stanley Cup during the summer and a limited number of days during the season.
Every year since 1924, a select portion of the winning players, coaches and club staff names are engraved on its bands, unusual among trophies. However, there is not enough room to include all the players and non-players, so some names must be omitted. Between 1924 and 1940, a new band was added every year that the trophy was awarded, earning the nickname "Stovepipe Cup" due to the unnatural height of all the bands. In 1947, the cup size was reduced. In 1958, the modern one-piece Cup was designed with a five-band barrel which could contain 13 winning teams per band; the oldest band is removed when the bottom band is full and preserved in the Hockey Hall of Fame in order to prevent the Stanley Cup from growing, a new blank band added to the bottom. It has been referred to as The Cup, Lord Stanley's Cup, The Holy Grail, or facetiously as Lord Stanley's Mug; the Stanley Cup is surrounded by numerous legends and traditions, the oldest of, the winning team drinking champagne from it. Since the 1914–15 season, the Cup has been won a combined 101 times by 18 current NHL teams and 5 defunct teams.
It was not awarded in 1919 because of a Spanish flu epidemic or in 2005 because of the 2004–05 NHL lockout. It was held by nine different teams between 1893 and 1914; the Montreal Canadiens have won it a record 24 times and are the most recent Canadian-based team to win it, doing so in 1993. After the Lord Stanley of Preston was appointed by Queen Victoria as Governor General of Canada on June 11, 1888, he and his family became enthusiastic about ice hockey. Stanley was first exposed to the game at Montreal's 1889 Winter Carnival, where he saw the Montreal Victorias play the Montreal Hockey Club; the Montreal Gazette reported that he "expressed his great delight with the game of hockey and the expertise of the players". During that time, organized ice hockey in Canada was still in its infancy and only Montreal and Ottawa had anything resembling leagues. Stanley's entire family became active in ice hockey. Two of his sons and Algernon, formed a new team called the Ottawa Rideau Hall Rebels. Arthur played a key role in the formation of what became known as the Ontario Hockey Association, became the founder of ice hockey in Great Britain.
Arthur and Algernon persuaded their father to donate a trophy to be "an outward and visible sign of the hockey championship". Stanley sent the following message to the victory celebration held on March 18, 1892, at Ottawa's Russell House Hotel for the three-time champion Ottawa Hockey Club: I have for some time been thinking that it would be a good thing if there were a challenge cup which should be held from year to year by the champion hockey team in the Dominion. There does not appear to be any such outward sign of a championship at present, considering the general interest which matches now elicit, the importance of having the game played and under rules recognized, I am willing to give a cup which shall be held from year to year by the winning team. I am not quite certain that the present regulations governing the arrangement of matches give entire satisfaction, it would be worth consid
Province of Canada
The Province of Canada was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of 1837–1838; the Act of Union 1840, passed on 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged the Colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada by abolishing their separate parliaments and replacing them with a single one with two houses, a Legislative Council as the upper chamber and the Legislative Assembly as the lower chamber. In the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837–1838, unification of the two Canadas was driven by two factors. Firstly, Upper Canada was near bankruptcy because it lacked stable tax revenues, needed the resources of the more populous Lower Canada to fund its internal transportation improvements. Secondly, unification was an attempt to swamp the French vote by giving each of the former provinces the same number of parliamentary seats, despite the larger population of Lower Canada.
Although Durham's report had called for the Union of the Canadas and for responsible government, only the first of the two recommendations was implemented in 1841. For the first seven years, the government was led by an appointed governor general accountable only to the British Crown and the Queen's Ministers. Responsible government was not to be achieved until the second LaFontaine–Baldwin ministry in 1849, when Governor General James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin agreed to request a cabinet be formed on the basis of party making the elected premier the head of the government and reducing the Governor General to a more symbolic role; the Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, when it was divided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Ontario included the area occupied by the pre-1841 British colony of Upper Canada, while Quebec included the area occupied by the pre-1841 British colony of Lower Canada. Upper Canada was English-speaking, whereas Lower Canada was French-speaking.
The Province of Canada was divided into two parts: Canada West. Canada East was what became of the former colony of Lower Canada after being united into the Province of Canada, it became the province of Quebec after Confederation. Canada West was what became of the former colony of Upper Canada after being united into the Province of Canada, it became the province of Ontario after Confederation. The location of the capital city of the Province of Canada changed six times in its 26-year history; the first capital was in Kingston. The capital moved to Montreal until rioters, spurred by a series of incendiary articles published in The Gazette, protested against the Rebellion Losses Bill and burned down Montreal's parliament buildings, it moved to Toronto. It moved to Quebec City from 1852 to 1856 Toronto for one year before returning to Quebec City from 1859 to 1866. In 1857, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada, initiating construction of Canada's first parliament buildings, on Parliament Hill.
The first stage of this construction was completed in 1865, just in time to host the final session of the last parliament of the Province of Canada before Confederation. The Governor General remained the head of the civil administration of the colony, appointed by the British government, responsible to it, not to the local legislature, he was aided by the Legislative Council. The Executive Council aided in administration, the Legislative Council reviewed legislation produced by the elected Legislative Assembly. Sydenham came from a wealthy family of timber merchants, was an expert in finance, having served on the English Board of Trade which regulated banking, he was promised a barony if he could implement the union of the Canadas, introduce a new form of municipal government, the District Council. The aim of both exercises in state-building was to strengthen the power of the Governor General, to minimise the impact of the numerically superior French vote, to build a "middle party" that answered to him, rather than the Family Compact or the Reformers.
Sydenham was a Whig who believed in rational government, not "responsible government". To implement his plan, he used widespread electoral violence through the Orange Order, his efforts to prevent the election of Louis LaFontaine, the leader of the French reformers, were foiled by David Willson, the leader of the Children of Peace, who convinced the electors of the 4th Riding of York to transcend linguistic prejudice and elect LaFontaine in an English-speaking riding in Canada West. Bagot was appointed after the unexpected death of Thomson, with the explicit instructions to resist calls for responsible government, he arrived in the capital, Kingston, to find that Thomson's "middle party" had become polarised and he therefore could not form an executive. The Tories informed Bagot he could not form a cabinet without including LaFontaine and the French Party. LaFontaine demanded four cabinet seats, including one for Robert Baldwin. Bagot became ill thereafter, Baldwin and Lafontaine became the first real premiers of the Province of Canada.
However, to take office as ministers, the two had to run for re-election. While LaFontaine was re-elected in 4th York, Baldwin lost his seat in Hastings as a result of Orange Order violence, it was now that the pact between the two men was completel
The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing in the namesake championship of professional Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFL's East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian television's largest annual sporting events; the Toronto Argonauts have the most Grey Cup wins since its introduction in 1909, while the Edmonton Eskimos have the most Grey Cup wins since the creation of the professional CFL in 1958. The latest, the 106th Grey Cup, took place in Edmonton, Alberta, on November 25, 2018, when the Calgary Stampeders defeated the Ottawa Redblacks 27–16; the trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey Canada's governor general, who hoped to donate it for the country's senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the "Canadian Dominion Football Championship" of Canadian football.
The trophy has a silver chalice attached to a large base on which the names of all winning teams and executives are engraved. The Grey Cup has been stolen twice and held for ransom, it survived a 1947 fire. The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues. Play was suspended in 1919 due to a rules dispute; the game has been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s. The game was always since 1969 has always been on a Sunday. Held in late November, in outdoor stadiums, the Grey Cup has been played in inclement weather at times, including the 1950 "Mud Bowl", in which a player came close to drowning in a puddle the 1962 "Fog Bowl", when the final minutes of the game had to be postponed to the following day due to a heavy fog, the 1977 "Ice Bowl", contested on the frozen-over artificial turf at Montreal's Olympic Stadium. Most in the 2017 game snow fell, at times throughout the game; the Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cup's longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982.
Competition for the trophy has been between Canadian teams, except for a three-year period from 1993 to 1995, when an expansion of the CFL south into the United States resulted in the Baltimore Stallions winning the 1995 championship and taking the Grey Cup south of the border for the only time in its history. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, professional teams were competing for the trophy by 1907. Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada, planned to donate a new trophy to serve as the senior amateur championship. Grey instead offered an award for the Canadian amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909, he failed to follow through on his offer. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4, 1909, between two Toronto clubs: the University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the Parkdale Canoe Club 26–6 before 3,800 fans; the trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910.
They retained the trophy in the following two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911. The University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, won by the Hamilton Alerts over the Argonauts; the Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game. They kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, who made the trophy available to subsequent champions. Canada's participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as "one of the family heirlooms" of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage; the Grey Cup game was cancelled in 1919 due to a lack of interest from the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the intercollegiate unions, along with rules conflicts between the Canadian Rugby Union and the western union.
Competition resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game, won 16–3 by the Varsity Blues over the Argonauts. It was the University of Toronto's fourth, final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the champions of which petitioned the league body for the right to challenge for the national championship; the Western Canada Rugby Football Union was formed in 1911, but the CRU did not come to a participation agreement with it until 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos of the WCRFU to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team – and the first from outside Toronto or Hamilton – to compete for the trophy; the Argonauts entered the game with an undefeated record, having outscored their opposition 226 to 55 during the season. They dominated Edmonton. Multi-sport star Lionel Conacher was Toronto's top player, scoring 15 of his team's points before leaving the game after the third quarter to join his hockey team for their game.
The same Edmo
The Glebe is a neighbourhood in Ottawa, Canada. It is located just south of Ottawa's downtown area in the Capital Ward with its northern border being demarcated by Highway 417, the Queensway, it is bounded by the Rideau Canal to the south and east. Many maps show the western edge as Bronson Avenue, but some include the triangle farther west formed by Bronson, Carling Avenue, Dow's Lake; the Glebe Community Association uses the latter definition. As of 2011, the area's population was 11,184; the Glebe has a strong community association which, in addition to running a large community centre, lobbies the local government on issues such as traffic calming and neighbourhood development. The Glebe has a community newspaper, Glebe Report, published independently since 1973; the Glebe is populated by families. The Glebe lies in the federal riding of Ottawa Centre, the same provincial electoral district; the stretch of Bank Street that runs through the Glebe is one of Ottawa's premier shopping areas, with many small stores and restaurants offering a wide variety of services.
Much of the rest of the Glebe consists of detached homes, many of them constructed in the early decades of the 20th century. Some of these homes are owner-occupied family residences, while others have been subdivided into multiple rental apartments; the Glebe is home to Lansdowne Park which contains TD Place Stadium, where Ottawa's Canadian Football League football team and the University of Ottawa Gee-Gees play their home games. Lansdowne Park contains TD Place Arena, the permanent home of the Ottawa 67's and was the temporary home for the Ottawa Senators before the Canadian Tire Centre was completed; the area that became the park was purchased from local farmers in 1868 by the City of Ottawa Agricultural Society. From the canal two bodies of water jut into the Glebe: Brown's Inlet; these areas are surrounded by some of the city's most expensive homes. The last Saturday in May of each year brings the "Great Glebe Garage Sale" to the neighbourhood. Sellers are expected to donate a portion of the proceeds to a designated charity.
The area is called the Glebe because in the initial 1837 survey of Ottawa the area of 178 acres was deeded by the Crown to St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church as Clergy Reserve; the word "glebe" means church lands, the area was known as "the glebe lands of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church"; when the area was opened for development in 1870, real estate agents began to refer to it as "The Glebe". The initial area was bounded by Carling Avenue and Fifth Avenue on the north and south sides, Main Street and Bronson Avenue as the eastern and western limits; the original city limits on the south side had been set at Gladstone Avenue when the city was incorporated. Annexation in 1889 extended the new limits to the Rideau Canal. By Act of the Provincial Legislature, the Glebe became part of a small but growing city. By the late 1960s, the Glebe was bounded by the Queensway on the north side, by the Rideau Canal on the east and south, with Bronson Avenue as a western boundary; the Glebe was one of Ottawa's first suburbs.
In 1871 James Whyte, one of the leading merchants of the town, built a large residence on the Canal Road on the north side of the waterway at midpoint between what is now Bank Street and Bronson Avenue, which served the Basilian Fathers in the 1960s. In 1872, James Whyte moved into a new home on Bank Street near Holmwood Avenue, which served the community in the 1960s as a residence for older people. In 1882 the creation of Central Park and the construction of the new Canada Atlantic Railway terminal on the west side of the Rideau Canal at the end of the Glebe encouraged the development of the southern section of the city. In June 1891, the first electric street car set off down Bank Street for the Exhibition, which opened at Lansdowne Park in 1888. First Avenue Public School and St. Matthew's Anglican Church a small frame structure, opened their doors about the same time in 1898. Mutchmor Public School on Fifth Avenue was built in the 1890s with additions in 1911 and 1920 as housing density increased and new families moved into the district.
The separate school, Corpus Christi dates from this early era. Roman Catholic families attended Mass for some years to a temporary chapel on the south side of Fourth Avenue near Percy. In 1900, the Ottawa Electric Street Railway was established, with one of its first routes running south along Bank Street; the Drive way, from Elgin Street and Laurier Avenue over the route to the Experimental Farm, was built between 1900 and 1903, providing added impetus to city growth on the south side. Most Glebe houses date from this era, the area became home to many middle-class workers; as housing went up on the avenues, corner stores and other commercial properties began to appear on Bank Street. The electric street car allowed workers to take the street car to work; as part of this building program and Monkland Avenues were laid out and Clemow Avenue was paved west from Bank Street. From 1903-1904, a large low-lying area between Second and Third Avenues was filled in with sand taken from the land along Carling Avenue.
Growth was slower on the blocks west of Bank Street, housing did not extend much beyond Kent Street. Between Powell and Carling Avenues, a transformation took place since an address in this part of the Glebe showed that the owner had property or position, pro
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, although British reinforcements reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought them to terms; the war under-prepared. The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mahikeng in early 1900, winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Kitchener, they relieved the three besieged cities, invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland; the British seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile.
In conventional terms, the war was over. The British annexed the two countries in 1900. Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success and use it to maneuver an early general election, dubbed a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London. British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal and some native African allies, further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion was hostile to the British. Inside the UK and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War; the Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed; as guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places and horses.
The UK's response to guerilla warfare was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. In addition, civilian farms and live stock were destroyed in the scorched earth strategy. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. Large proportions of these civilians died of hunger and disease the children. British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the mobile Boer guerrilla units; the battles at this stage were small operations. Few died during combat, though many of disease; the war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, as part of the British Empire; the conflict is referred to as the Boer War, since the First Boer War was a much smaller conflict. "Boer" is the common term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Company's original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope.
It is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Engelse oorlog. In South Africa it is called the South African War; the complex origins of the war resulted from more than a century of conflict between the Boers and Britain, but of particular immediate importance was the question as to who would control and benefit most from the lucrative Witwatersrand gold mines. The first European settlement in South Africa was founded at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, thereafter administered as part of the Dutch Cape Colony; the Cape was governed by the Dutch East India Company until its bankruptcy in the late 1700s, thereafter directly by the Netherlands. The British occupied the Cape three times during the Napoleonic Wars as a result of political turmoil in the Netherlands, the occupation became permanent after British forces defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. At the time, the colony was home to about 26,000 colonists settled under Dutch rule.
A relative majority still represented old Dutch families brought to the Cape during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Cleavages were likelier to occur along socio-economic rather than ethnic lines and broadly speaking the colonists included a number of distinct subgroups, namely the Boers; the Boers were itinerant farmers who lived on the colony's frontiers, seeking better pastures for their livestock. Many Boers who were dissatisfied with aspects of British administration, in particular with Britain's abolition of slavery on 1 December 1834, elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek. Around 15,000 trekking Boers followed the eastern coast towards Natal. After Britain annexed Natal in 1843, they journeyed further northwards into South Africa's vast eastern interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Britain recognised the two Boer republics in 1852 and 1854, but attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer War in 1880–81