An introduced species is a species living outside its native distributional range, but which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species; the impact of introduced species is variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact; some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown; the effects of introduced species on natural environments have gained much scrutiny from scientists, governments and others. The formal definition of an introduced species, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is A species, intentionally or inadvertently brought into a region or area.
Called an exotic or non-native species. There are many terms associated with introduced species that represent subsets of introduced species, the terminology associated with introduced species is now in flux for various reasons. Examples of these terms are acclimatized, adventive and immigrant species but those terms refer to a subset of introduced species; the term "invasive" is used to describe introduced species when the introduced species causes substantial damage to the area in which it was introduced. Subset descriptions: Acclimatized species: Introduced species that have changed physically and/or behaviorally in order to adjust to their new environment. Acclimatized species are not optimally adjusted to their new environment and may just be physically/behaviorally sufficient for the new environment. Adventive speciesNaturalized species: A naturalized plant species refers to a non-native plant that does not need human help to reproduce and maintain its population in an area that it is not native to.
General description of introduced species: In the broadest and most used sense, an introduced species is synonymous with non-native and therefore applies as well to most garden and farm organisms. However, some sources add to that basic definition "and are now reproducing in the wild", which removes from consideration as introduced species that were raised or grown in gardens or farms that do not survive without tending by people. With respect to plants, these latter are in this case defined as either ornamental or cultivated plants. Introduction of a species outside its native range is all, required to be qualified as an "introduced species" such that one can distinguish between introduced species that may not occur except in cultivation, under domestication or captivity whereas others become established outside their native range and reproduce without human assistance; such species might be termed "naturalized", "established", "wild non-native species". If they further spread beyond the place of introduction and cause damage to nearby species, they are called "invasive".
The transition from introduction, to establishment and to invasion has been described in the context of plants. Introduced species are "non-native" species. Invasive species are those introduced species that spreadwidely or and cause harm, be that to the environment, human health, other valued resources or the economy. There have been calls from scientists to consider a species "invasive" only in terms of their spread and reproduction rather than the harm they may cause. According to a practical definition, an invasive species is one, introduced and become a pest in its new location, spreading by natural means; the term is used to imply both a sense of actual or potential harm. For example, U. S. Executive Order 13112 defines "invasive species" as "an alien species whose introduction does or is to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health"; the biological definition of invasive species, on the other hand, makes no reference to the harm they may cause, only to the fact that they spread beyond the area of original introduction.
Although some argue that "invasive" is a loaded word and harm is difficult to define, the fact of the matter is that organisms have and continue to be introduced to areas in which they are not native, sometimes with but without much regard to the harm that could result. From a regulatory perspective, it is neither desirable nor practical to list as undesirable or outright ban all non-native species. Regulations require a definitional distinction between non-natives that are deemed onerous and all others. Introduced pest species that are listed as invasive, best fit the definition of an invasive species. Early detection and rapid response is the most effective strategy for regulating a pest species and reducing economic and environmental impacts of an introduction In Great Britain, the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 prevents the introduction of any animal not occurring in the wild or any of a list of both animals or plants introduced and proved to be invasive. By definition, a species is considered "introduced" when its transport into an area outside of its native range is human mediated.
Introductions by humans can be described as either accidental. Intentional introductions have been motivated by individuals or groups who either believe that the
Efate is an island in the Pacific Ocean, part of the Shefa Province in Vanuatu. It is known as Île Vate, it is the most populous island in Vanuatu. Efate's land area of 899.5 square kilometres makes it Vanuatu's third largest island. Most inhabitants of Efate live in the national capital, its highest mountain is Mount McDonald with a height of 647 metres. Captain James Cook named it Sandwich Island "in honour of my noble patron, the Earl of Sandwich" on his 1774 voyage on HMS Resolution. During World War II, Efate served an important role as a United States military base. On March 13, 2015, Port Vila, the island's largest human settlement and the capital of Vanuatu, bore extensive damage from Cyclone Pam. Efate became an independent commune in 1889. However, by 1890 the commune was broken up. Efate is governed by both the Port Vila Municipality and the Shefa Provincial Council, whose governance is the town limits of Port Vila only, rural Efate and the outer Efate Islands, respectively. Around Efate lie many small islands, among them are Eretoka Island, Nguna, Ekapum Lep, Erueti Lep, Ekapum Rik, Iriwiti Lep, Hideaway Island, Ifira Island, Emao.
Eretoka Island is a small island. This is where the famous Chief Roi Mata, along with his 20 wives and many other servants, were buried. Nguna and Emao are stratovolcanoes, which may form the rim of a volcanic caldera to their north. Efate was used as the location for 3 seasons the reality game show, Survivor; the island was used for season 9 of the American edition of Survivor, season 2 of Australian Survivor and season 6 of the French edition. Much of the Survivor: Vanuatu and Australian Celebrity Survivor was filmed 30 minutes from Port Vila near Mangililu and Gideon’s Landing, the latter of, now a visited tourist attraction; the capital of Port Vila is the hub of tourism in Vanuatu receiving 60 000 tourists annually by air transport, cruise ships and the yachting community. Due to the British and French influence both cuisines are available in the capital. Budget dining include the scattered Chinese eateries across the Mummas Market downtown. Outside of Port Vila a more rustic destination awaits, with most people living a traditional lifestyle: cooking island food or'aelan kakae', tending their gardens daily as subsistence agriculture is the dominant economy in Vanuatu, swimming at the beach.
Port Vila services the domestic carrier Air Vanuatu. Popular destinations such as Tanna and Santo can be reached daily from Port Vila, while more remote locations can be reached on a less regular basis; the island is served by Bauerfield International Airport. Efate offers a range of tourism attractions and activities including Mele Cascades, Eton Beach, Tanalilui Road Markets, Round Island Tour, Buggy Fun Rental and Sunset Cruises. Languages of Efate - Bibliography of the island's indigenous languages South Efate language Wikipedia entry. Work on Efate is available through Paradisec's open access collections, including collections from Arther Capell and Nick Thieburger
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Polynesians are an ethnolinguistic group of related peoples who are native to Polynesia, an expansive region of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. They are part of the larger Austronesian ethnolinguistic group who trace their urheimat to Southeast Asia, they speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family. There are an estimated 2 million ethnic Polynesians worldwide, the vast majority of whom inhabit independent Polynesian nation states and form minorities in Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the United States. Polynesians, including Samoans, Niueans, Cook Islands Māori, Tahitian Mā'ohi, Hawaiian Māoli and New Zealand Māori, are a subset of the Austronesian peoples, they share the same origins as the indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia and Taiwan. This is supported by genetic and archaeological evidence; the origins of the Polynesian people are addressed in the theories regarding human migration into the Pacific, which began about 3,000 years ago.
These are outlined well by Kayser et al.. The most accepted theory is that modern Austronesians originated from migrations out of Taiwan between 3000 and 1000 BC. However, Soares et al. have argued for an older pre-Holocene Sundaland origin within Island Southeast Asia based on mitochondrial DNA. Analysis by Kayser et al. discovered that only 21% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of Melanesian origin, with the rest being of East Asian origin. Another study by Friedlaender et al. confirmed that Polynesians are closer genetically to Micronesians, Taiwanese Aborigines, East Asians, than to Melanesians. The study concluded that Polynesians moved through Melanesia rapidly, allowing only limited admixture between Austronesians and Melanesians, thus the high frequencies of mtDNA B4a1a1 in the Polynesians are the result of drift and represent the descendants of a few East Asian females who mixed with Papuan males. The Polynesian population experienced genetic drift. A popular theory among scholars and native Royal Polynesian Monarchy is that the genesis point from which Polynesia was populated was through the Polynesian Island archipelagos of Samoa.
The Islands of Samoa are theorized to have been the gestation point from where which the initial roots of Polynesia patiently formulated over time, philosophy, language, Arts and spread forth through eastern Polynesia through the spreading of Samoa's Religion. Through their Polynesian Aitu religion, the worship of animal, human deities and a pantheon of Gods and Demi-Gods which would grow exponentially in Eastern Polynesia, with the construction of monolithic Tiki Deities in Tahiti and the spread of the spiritual belief of Mana; the last place to be settled by Polynesians was Aotearoa estimated at around 1300AD. The results of research at the Teouma Lapita site and the Talasiu Lapita site published in 2016 supports the'out of Taiwan' theory although with the qualification that the migration bypassed New Guinea and Island Melanesia; the conclusion from the research published in 2016 is that the initial population of those two sites appears to come directly from Taiwan or the northern Philippines and did not mix with the ‘AustraloPapuans’ of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
DNA analysis of modern Polynesians indicates that there has been intermarriage that results in a mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry of some Polynesians. The research at the Teouma and Talasiu Lapita sites implies that the migration and intermarriage, which resulted in mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry of some Polynesians, occurred after the first initial migration to Vanuatu and Tonga; the preliminary analysis of skulls found at the Teouma and Talasiu Lapita sites is that the skulls lack Australian or Papuan affinities and instead have affinities to mainland Asian populations. There are an estimated 2 million ethnic Polynesians and people of Polynesian descent worldwide, the majority of whom live in Polynesia, the United States and New Zealand; the Polynesian peoples are shown below in their distinctive ethnic and cultural groupings: Polynesia: Māori: New Zealand – c. 590,000 Samoan: Samoa, American Samoa – c. 249,000 Tahitians: Tahiti – c. 178,000 Native Hawaiians: Hawaii – c. 140,000 Tongan: Tonga – c. 104,000 Cook Islands Māori: Cook Islands – 98,000+ Niuean: Niue – c.
20,000–25,000 Tuvaluan: Tuvalu – c. 10,000 Tokelauan: Tokelau – c. 1,500 Tuamotu: Tuamotu Archipelago – c. 16,000 Marquesas Islanders: Marquesas Islands – c. 11,000 Rapanui: Easter Island – c. 5,000 Austral Islanders: Austral Islands – ~7,000 Mangareva
Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions: Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south; the region is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands. Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, called "Micronesia" for short and is not to be confused with the overall region; the Micronesia region encompasses five sovereign, independent nations—the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and Nauru—as well as three U. S. territories in the northern part: Northern Mariana Islands and Wake Island. Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers; the earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in 1521. The coinage of the term "Micronesia" is attributed to Jules Dumont d'Urville's usage in 1832.
Micronesia is a region that includes 2100 islands, with a total land area of 2,700 km2, the largest of, Guam, which covers 582 km2. The total ocean area within the perimeter of the islands is 7,400,000 km2. There are four main island groups in Micronesia: the Caroline Islands the Gilbert Islands the Mariana Islands the Marshall IslandsPlus the island country of Nauru; the Caroline Islands are a scattered archipelago consisting of about 500 small coral islands, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. The Carolines consist of two states: the Federated States of Micronesia, consisting of 600 islands on the eastern side of the chain with Kosrae being the most eastern and Palau consisting of 250 islands on the western side; the Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands, arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands; the Republic of Kiribati contains all of the Gilberts, as well as the island of Tarawa, the site of the country's capital.
The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region, the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth; the Marianas were politically divided in 1898, when the United States acquired title to Guam under the Treaty of Paris, 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. Spain sold the remaining northerly islands to Germany in 1899. Germany lost all of her colonies at the end of World War I and the Northern Mariana Islands became a League of Nations Mandate, with Japan as the mandatory. After World War II, the islands were transferred into the United Nations Trust Territory System, with the United States as Trustee. In 1976, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States entered into a covenant of political union under which commonwealth status was granted the Northern Mariana Islands and its residents received United States citizenship.
The Marshall Islands are located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U. S. territory of Wake Island. The islands consist of 29 low-lying atolls and 5 isolated islands, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets; the atolls and islands form two groups: the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain. All the islands in the chain are part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a presidential republic in free association with the United States. Having few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture. Of the 29 atolls, 24 of them are inhabited. Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands. There are 23 islands in the Bikini Atoll; the islands of Bokonijien and Nam were vaporized during nuclear tests that occurred there. The islands are composed of sand; the average elevation is only about 2.1 metres above low tide level. Nauru is an oval-shaped island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km south of the Equator, listed as the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km2.
With 11,347 residents, it is the second least-populated country, after Vatican City. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles; the presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island. A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 m wide lies inland from the beach. Wake Island is a coral atoll with a coastline of 19 km just north of the Marshall Islands, it is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Access to the island is restricted and all activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force; the majority of the islands in the area are part of a coral atoll. Coral atolls begin as coral reefs; when the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level. One exception is Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia, which still has the central volcano and coral reefs around it
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere; the name Melanesia was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia. The name Melanesia, from Greek μέλας, νῆσος, etymologically means "islands of black ", in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the concept among Europeans of Melanesia as a distinct region evolved over time as their expeditions mapped and explored the Pacific. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders.
In 1756 Charles de Brosses theorized that there was an "old black race" in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin. In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville identified Melanesians as a distinct racial group. Over time, Europeans viewed Melanesia as a distinct cultural, rather than racial, area. Scholars and other commentators disagreed on its boundaries. In the nineteenth century Robert Codrington, a British missionary, produced a series of monographs on "the Melanesians" based on his long-time residence in the region. In works including The Melanesian Languages and The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folk-lore, Codrington defined Melanesia as including Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, he did not include the islands of New Guinea. Like Bory de Saint-Vincent, he excluded Australia from Melanesia, it was in these works.
Uncertainty about the delineation and definition of the region continues. The scholarly consensus now includes New Guinea within Melanesia. Ann Chowning wrote in her 1977 textbook on Melanesia that there is no general agreement among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia. Many apply the term only to the smaller islands, excluding New Guinea. In 1998 Paul Sillitoe wrote of Melanesia: "it is not easy to define on geographical, biological, or any other grounds, where Melanesia ends and the neighbouring regions... begins". He concludes that the region is a historical category which evolved in the nineteenth century from the discoveries made in the Pacific and has been legitimated by use and further research in the region, it covers populations that have a certain linguistic and cultural affinity – a certain ill-defined sameness, which shades off at its margins into difference. Both Sillitoe and Chowning include the island of New Guinea in the definition of Melanesia, both exclude Australia.
Most of the peoples in Melanesia have established independent countries, are administered by France or have active independence movements. Many have taken up the term'Melanesia' as a source of identity and "empowerment". Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation". For instance, the author Bernard Narokobi wrote about the "Melanesian Way" as a distinct form of culture that could empower the people of this region; the concept is used in geopolitics. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Fiji; the people of Melanesia have a distinctive ancestry. Along with the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, the Southern Dispersal theory indicates they emigrated from Africa between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago and dispersed along the southern edge of Asia.
The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels. The first migration into Sahul came over 40,000 years ago. A further expansion into the eastern islands of Melanesia came much probably between 4000 B. C. and 3000 B. C. Along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics and culture among the peoples; this Polynesian theory, however, is somewhat contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University in 2008. It found that neither Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians, it appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area on their way, kept going to eastern areas, where they settled.
They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia and "only intermixed to
Taumako is the largest of the Duff Islands. This 5.7-kilometre-long island has steep rises to a height of 400 metres above sea level. It is composed of basaltic pyroclastics like the other islands in the Duffs; the inhabitants of the Duff Islands are Polynesians, their language, Vaeakau-Taumako, is a member of the Samoic branch of Polynesian languages. On the Duff Islands live about 439 people; the islands were settled at least as early by people who made pottery known as Lapita. Archaeological research has shown that this pottery was made using local clay and sand from the island; these Lapita people spread far as wide from the coastal area of Papua New Guinea to the islands of Tonga and Samoa. The people of Taumako experienced wide-ranging influences, could be said to have been both Melanesian and Polynesian throughout their long history; the way of life is traditional by subsistence fishing. Taumako has no roads, telephones, or electricity. Contact with outsiders comes by battery-powered marine radio and the regular monthly inter-island ship from Honiara.
Studies of David Lewis and Marianne George uncovered that full traditional Polynesian navigational technique is still preserved in these islands. The people of Taumako are the builders of one of the oldest documented proa sailing canoe, called Te Puke and known to westerners as Tepukei. People have been living in the Duff Islands for 3,000 years; the first people on these islands made pottery using clay and sand temper, available locally. A small amount of this pottery was decorated in the distinctive Lapita style with dentate stamping; these first inhabitants made stone tools using high quality chert, local. This same chert has been found in archaeological sites in the nearby Reef Islands, dating at least two centuries before the first known evidence in the Duff Islands. Archaeological sites dating from AD 1,000 through to the 19th century contain a diverse range of personal ornaments, many of which are similar to those present in ethnographic collections from Santa Cruz displayed in numerous museums around the world.
Several of these ornaments can now be shown to be present throughout the 3,000 years of their prehistory. Amongst these are the famous Tridacna shell breast pendants. Several specimens have imprints of fine loom woven cloth, representing the first unequivocal evidence for the presence of the loom in prehistoric Oceania; the backstrap loom has an unusual distribution in the Pacific region, including amongst the Atayal people of Taiwan, the islands of Yap in Micronesia, the Polynesian atholl of Kapingamarangi, the Santa Cruz area in the Solomons. Throughout the Duff Islands' prehistory there is clear archaeological evidence of contact with other Pacific Island peoples from as far afield as the Fiji-Samoa area; this is evident from stone adzes in these islands made from a form of basalt only found in the stone quarries of Tutuila in American Samoa. Most evidence of contact, however, is predictably from closer to Taumako the nearby Santa Cruz region; these wide-ranging external contacts have resulted in a population of people which shows a profound mixture of Melanesian and Polynesian physical features.
Life in the Duff Islands during the prehistoric period was far from idyllic with a high incidence of the infectious disease yaws. This affected children as well as adults and in life was debilitating. There is archaeological evidence of inter-personal hostility with deaths being caused by spear wounds; some of this may have resulted from warfare between different groups, either locally or with arrivals from further afield. The first known European visit to the Duff Islands was the expedition led by the Spanish explorer Quiros in AD 1606. One of the late archaeological sites contained objects made from European materials. Amongst these, a piece of pottery has a mineralogy consistent with Spanish pottery of Quiros' period. In addition a small piece of brass has a chemical composition suggesting the same derivation. Starting in 1996 the Vaka Taumako project has been working to perpetuate the ancient Polynesian seafaring techniques of the people of Taumako. Article on Duff islands Ben Finney and Sam Low, "Navigation", in K.
R. Howe, "Vaka Moana:Voyages of the Ancestors", Bateman, 2007. Leach, B. F. and Davidson, J. M. 2008. The archaeology of Taumako: A Polynesian outlier in the Eastern Solomon Islands. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology Special Publication