An encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories. Encyclopedia entries are more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, pronunciation and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years and have evolved during that time as regards language, intent, cultural perceptions, authorship and the technologies available for their production and distribution; as a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias.
The word encyclopedia comes from the Koine Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, transliterated enkyklios paideia, meaning "general education" from enkyklios, meaning "circular, required general" and paideia, meaning "education, rearing of a child". However, the two separate words were reduced to a single word due to a scribal error by copyists of a Latin manuscript edition of Quintillian in 1470; the copyists took this phrase to be a single Greek word, with the same meaning, this spurious Greek word became the New Latin word "encyclopaedia", which in turn came into English. Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to; as several titles illustrate, there was not a settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. For example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens, it is only with Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon that the term became first recognized as a noun.
There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word. In 1490, Franciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea, calling it an encyclopedia. More François Rabelais is cited for his use of the term in Pantagruel. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -pedia, to mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. For example, Banglapedia. Today in English, the word is most spelled encyclopedia, though encyclopaedia is used in Britain; the modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are different in structure. A dictionary is a linguistic work which focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary provides limited information, analysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a term, how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge. An encyclopedia is, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity. To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is not limited to simple definitions, is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, its method of production: Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field
Joël Robuchon was a French chef and restaurateur. He was named "Chef of the Century" by the guide Gault Millau in 1989, awarded the Meilleur Ouvrier de France in cuisine in 1976, he published several cookbooks, two of which have been translated into English, chaired the committee for the Larousse Gastronomique, hosted culinary television shows in France. He operated more than a dozen restaurants in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, Macau, Montreal, Shanghai, Taipei and New York City, with the highest record of a total of 32 Michelin Guide stars among them, the most of any chef in the world. Robuchon was born in 1945 in Poitiers, one of four children of a bricklayer, he attended the Châtillon-sur-Sèvre seminary in the Deux-Sèvres considering a clerical career. In 1960, at the age of 15, he became an apprentice chef at the Relais of Poitiers hotel, starting as a pastry chef. After he turned 21, he joined the apprenticeship "Compagnon du Tour de France", enabling him to travel throughout the country, learning a variety of regional techniques.
At the age of 29, Robuchon was appointed as head chef at the Hôtel Concorde La Fayette, where he managed 90 cooks. In 1976 he won the Meilleur Ouvrier de France for his craftsmanship in culinary arts. While working as an Executive Chef and Food and Beverage manager of the Nikko hotel in Paris he gained two Michelin stars. In 1981 he opened his own restaurant, which holds the rare distinction of receiving three Michelin stars in the first three years of existence. In 1984, Jamin is named “Best Restaurant in the World” by International Herald Tribune. Between 1987 and 1990, he became a regular of cooking shows on French television. In 1989, prestigious restaurant guide Gault Millau named Robuchon the ”Chef of the Century”, he mentored many famous chefs, including Gordon Ramsay, Eric Ripert, Michael Caines. In 1995, seeing many of his peers die of stress and heart attacks, Robuchon retired at the age of 50, he subsequently staged a comeback. He hosted Cuisinez comme un grand chef on TF1 from 1996 to 1999.
Through his various restaurants, including the newly awarded 3-star rating for his restaurant in Singapore, he accumulated a total of 32 Michelin Guide stars – the most of any chef in the world. In June 2018, Resort World Singapore stated that both the three-Michelin-starred Joel Robuchon Restaurant and the two-starred L'Atelier de Joel Robuchon would close at the end of the month. Robuchon was a Freemason of the Grande Loge Nationale Française, but claimed it did not affect his career. Robuchon died from cancer on 6 August 2018, a year after receiving treatment for a pancreatic tumour, he was 73. Robuchon and his wife Jeanine, whom he married in 1966, had two children, son Eric Robuchon, a pedicurist and podiatrist based in Paris, daughter Sophie Kartheiser, who manages a restaurant named La Cour d'Eymet in Dordogne with her husband, chef François Kartheiser, he has a son Louis Robuchon-Abe with a Japanese woman. Louis is a wine bar owner in Japan, he was survived by his three children and four grandchildren.
Robuchon has been the most influential French chef of the post-nouvelle cuisine era. Since the mid-1980s, he has been called the primus inter pares of Paris' three star chefs for his work both at Jamin and at his eponymous restaurant. Robuchon has been known for the relentless perfectionism of his cuisine, he was instrumental in leading French cuisine forward from the excessive reductionism of nouvelle cuisine toward a post-modern amalgam of the nouvelle, international influences - Japanese cuisine - and select traditions of haute cuisine. In particular, his style of cooking was seen as of celebrating the intrinsic qualities of the best, seasonal ingredients. Drawing his inspiration firstly from the simplicity of Japanese cuisine, he led the way in creating a more delicate style respectful of natural food ingredients. Asia Bangkok - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon Hong Kong - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Salon de Thé de Joël Robuchon Macau - Robuchon au Dôme Shanghai - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Salon de Thé de Joël Robuchon Singapore - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Restaurant de Joël Robuchon - both permanently closed in 2018.
Taipei - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Salon de Thé de Joël Robuchon Tokyo - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, La Table de Joël Robuchon, Le Chateau de Joël Robuchon Europe Bordeaux - La Grande Maison de Joël Robuchon London - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, La Cuisine de Joël Robuchon Monaco - Restaurant de Joël Robuchon, Yoshi Paris - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, La Table de Joël Robuchon North America Las Vegas - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Joël Robuchon Montreal - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon New York City - L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon, Le Grill de Joël Robuchon Best French Restaurant, Best Chef in Las Vegas, Las Vegas Life International Epicurean Awards Rated "3 Stars", Las Vegas Michelin Guide "Hot Tables", CondeNast Traveller Five-Star Award, 2006-2011 Forbes Travel Guide Best French Restaurant in Las Vegas, 2006–2010, Hotel Concierge Association. The Laurent Perrier 2009 Lifetime
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period. The newspaper is owned by Congress Rajya Sabha M. P. Shobhana Bhartia, it is the flagship publication of an entity controlled by the KK Birla family. Hindustan Times is one of the largest newspapers in India, by circulation. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 993,645 copies as of November 2017; the Indian Readership Survey 2014 revealed that HT is the second most read English newspaper in India after The Times of India. It is popular in North India, with simultaneous editions from New Delhi, Kolkata, Patna and Chandigarh; the print location of Jaipur was discontinued from June 2006 and that of Nagpur edition was discontinued from September 1997. HT launched a youth daily, HT Next, in 2004; the Mumbai edition was launched on 14 July 2005 and the Kolkata edition was launched in early 2000. In The Brand Trust Report 2012, Hindustan Times was ranked 291st among India's most trusted brands and subsequently, according to the Brand Trust Report 2013, Hindustan Times was ranked 434th among India's most trusted brands.
In 2014 however, Hindustan Times was ranked 360th among India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, a brand analytics company. Other sister publications of Hindustan Times are Mint, Hindustan and Kadambani; the media group owns a radio channel, Fever 104.0 FM and have education related company called Studymate and organises an annual Luxury Conference which has featured speakers like designer Diane von Fürstenberg, shoemaker Christian Louboutin, Gucci CEO Robert Polet and Cartier MD Patrick Normand. Hindustan Times is owned by the KK Birla branch of the Birla family. Hindustan Times was founded in 1924 by Sunder Singh Lyallpuri, founder-father of the Akali movement and the Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab Province. S Mangal Singh Gill and S. Chanchal Singh were made in charge of the newspaper. Madan Mohan Malaviya and Tara Singh were among the members of the Managing Committee; the Managing Chairman and Chief Patron was Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri.
K. M. Panikkar was the person of behaviour; the opening ceremony was performed by Mahatma Gandhi on 26 September 1924. The first issue was published from Delhi, it contained writings and articles among others. K. M. Panikkar known as Sardar Panikkar launched the Hindustan Times as a serious nationalist newspaper; as an Oxonian and litterateur, Panikkar must have hoped to make his paper more than an Akali sheet. He became the editor and funds flowed from activist Akali patrons, he exerted himself strenuously, but the paper made little headway. In two years Panikkar could not take the print order any higher than 3,000. By the Akali movement appeared to lose steam and funds dried up; the paper was saved from an untimely demise when Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya stepped in to realise his vision of a newspaper in Delhi. Malaviya raised ₹50,000 rupees to acquire the Hindustan Times along with the help of nationalist leaders Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrialist G. D. Birla, who paid most of the cash.
Birla took full control of the paper in 1933. The paper continues to be owned by the Birla family, it has its roots in the Indian independence movement of the first half of the twentieth century and faced the noted "Hindustan Times Contempt Case" at Allahabad High Court. It was edited at times by many important people in India, including Devdas Gandhi, Sri Mulgaonkar, B. G. Verghese and Khushwant Singh. Sanjoy Narayan was editor in chief of the paper from August 2008 till July 2016; the Delhi-based English daily Hindustan Times is part of the KK Birla group and managed by Shobhana Bhartia, Rajya Sabha member of Congress party and daughter of the industrialist Krishna Kumar Birla and granddaughter of Ghanshyam Das Birla. HT Media Limited is a subsidiary of The Hindustan Times Limited, a subsidiary of Earthstone Holding Limited; the KK Birla group owns a 69 percent stake in HT Media valued at ₹834 crore. When Shobhana Bhartia joined Hindustan Times in 1986, she was the first woman chief executive of a national newspaper.
Shobhana has been nominated as a Rajya Sabha MP from Congress Party. Along with Hindustan Times, HT Media owns Desimartini, Fever 104 FM, the Mint newspaper. Former Executive Editor Shishir Gupta left the newspaper after Frontline reported about his emails to Amit Shah and Mr Shah's Officer on Special Duty; the Frontline story detailed how the Prime Minister's Office was taking extraordinary interest in the Delhi Government led by Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal. Appointed editor Bobby Ghosh left the newspaper abruptly and The Wire reports that he was asked to leave the newspaper after Shobhana Bhartia met Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently. B'rishu HT Education HT Estates Shine Jobs HT Livebhopal ht48hours HT Cafe D. K. Issar: former Chief Reporter, wrote on crime and terrorism Barkha Dutt: Journalist and NDTV Group editor. Writes a fortnightly column. Karan Thapar: President of Infotainment Television, television commentator and interviewer, weekly columnist Manas Chakravarty: Capital market analyst for Mint.
Writes weekly column "Loose Canon" on Sundays'. Poonam Saxena: She is the editor of Brunch, the Hindustan Times Sunday maga
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, the science of good eating. One, well versed in gastronomy is called a gastronome, while a gastronomist is one who unites theory and practice in the study of gastronomy. Practical gastronomy is associated with the practice and study of the preparation and service of the various foods and beverages, from countries around the world. Theoretical gastronomy supports practical gastronomy, it is related with a system and process approach, focused on recipes and cookery books. Food gastronomy is connected with their genesis. Technical gastronomy underpins practical gastronomy, introducing a rigorous approach to evaluation of gastronomic topics. Etymologically, the word "gastronomy" is derived from Ancient Greek γαστήρ, gastḗr, "stomach", νόμος, nómos, "laws that govern", therefore means "the art or law of regulating the stomach".
The term is purposely all-encompassing: it subsumes all of cooking technique, nutritional facts, food science, everything that has to do with palatability plus applications of taste and smell as human ingestion of foodstuffs goes. Gastronomy involves discovering, experiencing, researching and writing about food preparation and the sensory qualities of human nutrition as a whole, it studies how nutrition interfaces with the broader culture. On, the application of biological and chemical knowledge to cooking has become known as molecular gastronomy, yet gastronomy covers a much broader, interdisciplinary ground; the culinary term appears for the first time in a title in a poem by Joseph Berchoux in 1801 entitled "Gastronomie."Pascal Ory, a French historian, defines gastronomy as the establishment of rules of eating and drinking, an "art of the table," and distinguishes it from good cooking or fine cooking. Ory traces the origins of gastronomy back to the French reign of Louis XIV when people took interest in developing rules to discriminate between good and bad style and extended their thinking to define good culinary taste.
The lavish and sophisticated cuisine and practices of the French court became the culinary model for the French. Alexandre Grimod de La Reyniere wrote the first gastronomic work Almanach des gourmands elevating the status of food discourse to a disciplined level based on his views of French tradition and morals. Grimod aimed to reestablish order lost after the revolution and institute gastronomy as a serious subject in France. Grimod expanded gastronomic literature to the three forms of the genre: the guidebook, the gastronomic treatise, the gourmet periodical; the invention of gastronomic literature coincided with important cultural transformations in France that increased the relevance of the subject. The end of nobility in France changed; the emergence of the restaurant satisfied these social needs and provided good food available for popular consumption. The center of culinary excellence in France shifted from Versailles to Paris, a city with a competitive and innovative culinary culture.
The culinary commentary of Grimod and other gastronomes influenced the tastes and expectations of consumers in an unprecedented manner as a third party to the consumer-chef interaction. The French origins of gastronomy explain the widespread use of French terminology in gastronomic literature. Gastronomic literature, Pascal Ory criticizes, is conceptually vague relying on anecdotal evidence and using confusing, poorly defined terminology. Despite Ory’s criticism, gastronomy has grown from a marginalized subject in France to a serious and popular interest worldwide; the derivative gourmet has come into use since the publication of the book by Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste. According to Brillat-Savarin, "Gastronomy is the knowledge and understanding of all that relates to man as he eats, its purpose is to ensure the conservation of men, using the best food possible." There have been many writings on gastronomy throughout the world that capture the thoughts and esthetics of a culture's cuisine during a period in their history.
Some works continue to define or influence the contemporary gastronomic thought and cuisine of their respective cultures as listed below: Apicius: A 5th century collection of Roman recipes by the gourmet Marcus Gavius Apicius. Contains instructions for preparing dishes enjoyed by the elite of the time. Suiyuan shidan: An 18th century manual on Qing dynasty Chinese Cuisine by the poet Yuan Mei, which contains recipes from different social classes at the time along with two chapters on Chinese gastronomic and culinary theory; the Physiology of Taste: A 19th century book by lawyer and politician Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin that defined classic French cuisine. The work contains a large collection of flamboyant recipes from the time, but goes into the theory on preparation of French dishes and hospitality. Cuisine portal Culture portal Food portal Addison, Lilholt. "Entomological Gastronomy." Google Books. Lulu.com, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2016. Avi, Schlosburg. "What Is Gastronomy?" Gastronomy at BU. Gastronomy at BU, 6 June 2011.
Web. 07 Mar. 2016. Brillat, Savarin. "The Physiology of Taste, by Brillat-Savarin.": Part8. The University of Adelaid, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2016. Crystal, Cun. "What the Hell Is Gastronomy, Anyway?" Crystal Cun. Wordpress, 13 May 2011. Web.07Mar.2016. Kilien, Stengel. Traité de la Gastronomie: Patrimoine et Culture, Sang de la Terre publishing, 2012 Montagné, Prosper. Larousse gastronomique: The New American Edit
Georges Auguste Escoffier was a French chef and culinary writer who popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. Much of Escoffier's technique was based on that of Marie-Antoine Carême, one of the codifiers of French haute cuisine, but Escoffier's achievement was to simplify and modernize Carême's elaborate and ornate style. In particular, he codified the recipes for the five mother sauces. Referred to by the French press as roi des cuisiniers et cuisinier des rois, Escoffier was France's preeminent chef in the early part of the 20th century. Alongside the recipes he recorded and invented, another of Escoffier's contributions to cooking was to elevate it to the status of a respected profession by introducing organized discipline to his guests. Escoffier published Le Guide Culinaire, still used as a major reference work, both in the form of a cookbook and a textbook on cooking. Escoffier's recipes and approaches to kitchen management remain influential today, have been adopted by chefs and restaurants not only in France, but throughout the world.
Escoffier was born in today in Alpes-Maritimes, near Nice. The house where he was born is now the Musée de l'Art Culinaire, run by the Foundation Auguste Escoffier. At the age of thirteen, despite showing early promise as an artist, his father took him out of school to start an apprenticeship in the kitchen of his uncle's restaurant, Le Restaurant Français, in Nice; as an apprentice, August was bullied and swatted by his uncle and his small stature made him more of a target–he was too short to safely open oven doors. He wore boots with built up heels. Escoffier showed such an aptitude for cooking and kitchen management that he was soon hired by the nearby Hôtel Bellevue, where the owner of a fashionable Paris restaurant, Le Petit Moulin Rouge, offered him the position of commis-rôtisseur in 1865 at the age of 19. However, only months after arriving in Paris, Escoffier was called to active military duty, where he was given the position of army chef. Escoffier spent nearly seven years in the army—at first stationed in various barracks throughout France, at Metz as chef de cuisine of the Rhine Army after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
His army experiences led him to study the technique of canning food. Some time before 1878, he opened Le Faisan d'Or, in Cannes. On 28 August 1878, he married Delphine Daffis, she has been described as "a French poetess of some distinction and a member of the Academy". Escoffier won her hand in a gamble with her father, publisher Paul Daffis, over a game of billiards, they had three children, Paul and Germaine. She died on 6 February 1935. In 1884, the couple moved to Monte Carlo, where Escoffier was employed by César Ritz, manager of the new Grand Hotel, to take control of the kitchens. At that time, the French Riviera was a winter resort: during the summers, Escoffier ran the kitchens of the Grand Hôtel National in Lucerne managed by Ritz. In 1890, Ritz and Escoffier accepted an invitation from Richard D'Oyly Carte to transfer to his new Savoy Hotel in London, together with the third member of their team, the maître d'hôtel, Louis Echenard. Ritz put together what he described as "a little army of hotel men for the conquest of London", Escoffier recruited French cooks and reorganised the kitchens.
The Savoy under Ritz and his partners was an immediate success, attracting a distinguished and moneyed clientele, headed by the Prince of Wales. Gregor von Görög, chef to the royal family, was an enthusiast of Escoffier's zealous organization. Aristocratic women, hitherto unaccustomed to dining in public, were now "seen in full regalia in the Savoy dining and supper rooms". Escoffier created many famous dishes at the Savoy. In 1893, he invented the pêche Melba in honour of the Australian singer Nellie Melba, in 1897, Melba toast. Other Escoffier creations, famous in their time, were the bombe Néro, fraises à la Sarah Bernhardt, baisers de Vierge and suprêmes de volailles Jeannette, he created salad Réjane, after Gabrielle Réjane, tournedos Rossini. On 8 March 1898, Ritz and Escoffier were dismissed from the Savoy "for... gross negligence and breaches of duty and mismanagement". Disturbances in the Savoy kitchens on that day reached the newspapers, with headlines such as "A Kitchen Revolt at The Savoy".
The Star reported: "Three managers have been dismissed and 16 fiery French and Swiss cooks have been bundled out by the aid of a strong force of Metropolitan police." The real details of the dispute did not emerge at first. Ritz and his colleagues prepared to sue for wrongful dismissal, they settled the case privately: on 3 January 1900, Ritz and Escoffier "made signed confessions, admitting to actual criminal acts including fraud" but their confessions "were never used or made public". For example and spirits to the value of £6,400 had been diverted in the first six months of 1897. Escoffier additionally confessed to taking gifts or bribes from the Savoy's suppliers worth up to 5% of the resulting purchases. Escoffier accepted an obligation to repay £8,000, b
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published