Lars Onsager was a Norwegian-born American physical chemist and theoretical physicist. He held the Gibbs Professorship of Theoretical Chemistry at Yale University, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1968. Lars Onsager was born in Norway, his father was a lawyer. After completing secondary school in Oslo, he attended the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim, graduating as a chemical engineer in 1925. In 1925 he arrived at a correction to the Debye-Hückel theory of electrolytic solutions, to specify Brownian movement of ions in solution, during 1926 published it, he traveled to Zürich, where Peter Debye was teaching, confronted Debye, telling him his theory was wrong. He impressed Debye so much that he was invited to become Debye's assistant at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, where he remained until 1928. In 1928 he went to the United States to take a faculty position at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. At JHU he had to teach freshman classes in chemistry, it became apparent that, while he was a genius at developing theories in physical chemistry, he had little talent for teaching.
He was dismissed by JHU after one semester. On leaving JHU, he accepted a position at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where it became clear that he was no better at teaching advanced students than freshmen, but he made significant contributions to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics; the only graduate student who could understand his lectures on electrolyte systems, Raymond Fuoss, worked under him and joined him on the Yale chemistry faculty. In 1933, when the Great Depression limited Brown's ability to support a faculty member, only useful as a researcher and not a teacher, he was let go by Brown, being hired after a trip to Europe by Yale University, where he remained for most of the rest of his life, retiring in 1972, his research at Brown was concerned with the effects on diffusion of temperature gradients, produced the Onsager reciprocal relations, a set of equations published in 1929 and, in an expanded form, in 1931, in statistical mechanics whose importance went unrecognized for many years.
However, their value became apparent during the decades following World War II, by 1968 they were considered important enough to gain Onsager that year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1933, just before taking up the position at Yale, Onsager traveled to Austria to visit electrochemist Hans Falkenhagen, he met Margrethe Arledter. They were married on September 7, 1933, had three sons and a daughter. At Yale, an embarrassing situation occurred: he had been hired as a postdoctoral fellow, but it was discovered that he had never received a Ph. D. While he had submitted an outline of his work in reciprocal relations to the Norwegian Institute of Technology, they had decided it was too incomplete to qualify as a doctoral dissertation, he was told that he could submit one of his published papers to the Yale faculty as a dissertation, but insisted on doing a new research project instead. His dissertation, entitled, "Solutions of the Mathieu equation of period 4 pi and certain related functions", was beyond the comprehension of the chemistry and physics faculty, only when some members of the mathematics department, including the chairman, insisted that the work was good enough that they would grant the doctorate if the chemistry department would not, was he granted a Ph.
D. in chemistry in 1935. Before the dissertation was finished, he was appointed assistant professor in 1934, promoted to associate professor in 1940, he showed at Yale the same traits he had at JHU and Brown: he produced brilliant theoretical research, but was incapable of giving a lecture at a level that a student could comprehend. He was unable to direct the research of graduate students, except for the occasional outstanding one. During the late 1930s, Onsager researched the dipole theory of dielectrics, making improvements for another topic, studied by Peter Debye. However, when he submitted his paper to a journal that Debye edited in 1936, it was rejected. Debye would not accept Onsager's ideas until after World War II. During the 1940s, Onsager studied the statistical-mechanical theory of phase transitions in solids, deriving a mathematically elegant theory, enthusiastically received. In what is considered a tour de force of mathematical physics, he obtained the exact solution for the two dimensional Ising model in zero field in 1944.
In 1960 he was awarded doctor techn. Honoris causa, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology part of Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 1945, Onsager was naturalized as an American citizen, the same year he was awarded the title of J. Willard Gibbs Professor of Theoretical Chemistry; this was appropriate because Onsager, like Willard Gibbs, had been involved in the application of mathematics to problems in physics and chemistry and, in a sense, could be considered to be continuing in the same areas Gibbs had pioneered. In 1947, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, in 1950 he joined the ranks of Alpha Chi Sigma. After World War II, Onsager researched new topics of interest, he proposed a theoretical explanation of the superfluid properties of liquid helium in 1949. He worked on the theories of liquid crystals and the electrical properties of ice. While on a Fulbright scholarship to the University of Cambridge, he worked on the magnetic propertie
Justin Caylen Castillo is an American YouTube personality from San Antonio, Texas. Over his eight years on YouTube, Caylen has amassed over 2.9 million subscribers on his personal YouTube channel and 3.6 million subscribers on his channel KianandJc with close friend Kian Lawley, as well as over 450 million views on his videos. Caylen was born in Texas, he and his family moved to San Antonio, where he grew up. He has three siblings, his parents divorced when he was young. Caylen attended high school at Sandra Day O'Connor High School in Texas, he attended The University of Texas at San Antonio before dropping out to focus on his YouTube career. Caylen began his career on YouTube, uploading his first public video to his channel, Life with Jc, in 2010. Caylen gained exposure due to the YouTube supergroup Our2ndLife where he, Connor Franta, Ricky Dillon, Kian Lawley, Trevor Moran and Sam Pottorff went on an international tour and amassed a total 2.7 million subscribers before the group broke up in December 2014.
In 2015, Caylen's compilation album Neptones hit number one on the Top Dance/rap Albums chart, according to Billboard Magazine, the album was from Heard Well, a record label started by YouTube user Connor Franta, CAA new Agent Andrew Graham and entrepreneur Jeremy Wineberg. In addition to his YouTube career, Caylen has appeared as an actor in several films and television series. In an interview with AOL, Caylen stated about his YouTube presence affecting his acting career, saying "I'd say that it's impacted my career so much because people see my personality on YouTube and they want to work with me more.. It's like a video resume because I have my own personality on YouTube and since I don't play a character, they can see who I am and what I'm about. I feel like they know me on a personal level and know what I will be like to work with." Caylen played Mikey in the 2016 Tyler Perry comedy Boo! A Madea Halloween, its 2017 sequel, Boo 2! A Madea Halloween. Internet celebrity List of YouTubers Social impact of YouTube JC Caylen on IMDb
Traidor, inconfeso y mártir is an 1849 Spanish three-act play by José Zorrilla, who wrote Don Juan Tenorio. It is a historical drama in the Spanish Romantic style and is loosely based on a historical incident in which a Spanish baker, Gabriel de Espinosa, was prosecuted as an imposter for the missing King Sebastian of Portugal; the play's setting is less elaborate than that of many other plays written during the Romantic period because the author was interested in the character development of the protagonist Gabriel Espinoza. The play is set in Medina del Campo, a town in the Spanish province of Valladolid, revolves around Gabriel Espinosa, an acclaimed pastry chef from the town of Madrigal; the play centers around the enigmatic personality of Gabriel Espinoza, who claims to be a pastry chef in Madrigal, but is suspected to be King Sebastian of Portugal. Espinoza is staying at an inn in Burgos with Aurora. César, captain of the Third of Flanders, declares his chaste love to Aurora, she offers her friendship.
César does not believe. Jealous of Espinoza, he tells the latter that he has been following him and Aurora from Madrigal by order of King Philip II of Spain. King Philip II accuses Espinoza of attempting to take the throne by impersonating the late Portuguese monarch, Sebastian of Portugal; the mayor of Madrigal, Don Rodrigo de Santillana, arrests Espinoza. The mayor's son, César, in love with Aurora, helps Espinoza escape. However, Aurora rejects César's advances; as a result of her refusal and rejection, César is enraged and orders the arrest of Espinoza and Aurora, imprisoning the two in Medina del Campo. Espinoza is tortured so that he confesses to impersonating the Portuguese monarch but continues to claim to be an innocent baker. Meanwhile, the Marquis of Tavira in Portugal claims; the Spanish monarch orders the mayor to hang Espinoza. The mayor sends Espinoza, who insists that he is innocent, to the gallows. After Espinoza's death, a note is found; the three adjectives that form the name of the play refer to King Sebastian of Portugal: Treacherous explains the situation of the Portuguese monarch, who resorts to a new identity to hide from justice, becomes a traitor to Portugal.
Unconfessed alludes to the interrogations suffered in Medina del Campo, where he denies, despite all the tortures, being the true king. Martyr because of his death defending his cause
Hoosier Schoolboy is a 1937 American film directed by William Nigh. Mary Evans moves to a small town in Indiana to take a teaching job in the local school, she checks in at the Noble Hotel when a young bellhop named Shockey Carter brings her suitcase upstairs to her room. When Shockey comes back downstairs, he encounters some classmates coming out of a dance. One of them, Roger Townsend, drops a quarter on the floor and tells Shockey to "Buy your old man another quart." Miss Evans, meanwhile, is shocked to find a drunk man in her hotel room, whom the hotel manager introduces as John'Jack' Matthews Jr. the dairy owner's son. The next morning, Shockey waits on the school grounds for Roger to arrive; when he does, he grabs Roger's shirt and confronts him about what he said Saturday night at the hotel. With Roger not wanting to fight, Shockey punches him anyway and heads inside the school, late for Miss Evans' first class, she recognizes Shockey from that night at the hotel. Roger sits beside Shockey.
In the middle of History class, Roger makes nasty remarks about Shockey's background. When Roger's remarks get worse, Shockey punches Roger again. Miss Evans takes both boys to Principal Miss Hodges' office to explain. Miss Hodges explains to Mary that while Roger comes from a fine family and could not be blamed for any coarse behavior, Shockey is a "bad boy" and such behavior is expected from him. After class, Miss Evans tries to find out from Shockey his side of the story, but the boy is reluctant to talk, accepting his lot in life, she gets him to take her across the train tracks into the woods. Shockey enters the house first to get him out of bed. Shockey invites Miss Evans in the house and shows her pictures of his father when he fought in the War to much acclaim for his bravery. Miss Evans and Captain Fred Carter talk about Shockey's fight. Mary offers to help his father clean their home. Though Shockey says the house will just get messy again, he accepts her help. Mis Evans and Shockey walk to school from his house on the day of a school board meeting about his behavior.
At the meeting, Mr. Townsend says they should expel Shockey and send him to the state school of corrections. Shocked, Mary counters that he needs understanding; as the meeting continues, Shockey is outside leaning against a tree when classmate Elvira comes over. She asks if the school board is going to expel him, he replies Miss Evans is speaking for him. Elvira teases Shockey, calling him Miss Evans' "pet". Offended, Shockey knocks Elvira's school books out of her hands; when she says that a gentleman would pick up the books and apologize, Shockey does, Elvira thanks him. "I think you're the strongest boy in the class," she says. "Think so?", Shockey asks, "how would you like me to take a whack at some guy for you?" Mary announces that Shockey won't be expelled. As Mary walks off, Shockey tries to ask Elvira out on a date, but had a hard time putting the words together because he is so in love with her. A big benefit party takes place with food sold in combination boxes. Again Roger teases Shockey about his father.
Just as Shockey is about to punch Roger again, Elvira restrains his fist. Shockey comes up with a less violent way to react to Roger, grabbing a handful of ice cubes by a punch bowl and stuffing it down the back of his shirt. In a dare by Elvira insinuating that he doesn't know how to dance, Shockey starts tap-dancing and turns to the applause of the crowd, clamoring for another round, one of whom is Miss Hodges who acknowledges that he might've been too hard on the boy. Shockey's dancing is interrupted by Captain Carter's barging in uninvited and drunk, shattering some cups and making everyone uncomfortable, he is escorted out followed by Miss Evans and Shockey. Back to the Cap's house, Jack, in an effort to help curtail the Captain's drinking habit, gives Shockey's father a job under his father's company as a driver; because of the rising tensions between townsfolk and Mr. Matthews Sr, the Captain crashes his delivery truck in a re-enactment of his shell-shocked memories of the war, resulting in his death.
The Captain's death solved the tension, Shockey observes that the Cap died a hero after all. Shockey is offered a room by Mr. Matthews Sr. and the final shot consists of him, Miss Evans, Jack riding off in a car. Mickey Rooney as Shockey Carter Anne Nagel as Mary Evans Frank Shields as John'Jack' Matthew, Jr. Edward Pawley as Captain Fred Carter William Gould as John Matthew, Sr. Dorothy Vaughan as Miss Hodges the School Principal Anita Deniston as Elvira Harry Hayden as Mr. Townsend Bradley Metcalfe as Roger Townsend Doris Rankin as School Girl Walter Long as Riley Helena Grant as School Girl Cecil Weston as Teacher Mary Field as School Board Secretary Zita Moulton as School Girl Fred Kelsey as Mr. Crowder Hoosier Schoolboy on IMDb Hoosier Schoolboy is available for free download at the Internet Archive
"Uncle Simon" is an episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. The episode explores people's willingness to wallow in misery and hate, through the example of a woman who submits herself to serving first her mean-spirited uncle, the robot he malevolently designed. Barbara Polk has lived with her elderly, abusive uncle Simon Polk for 25 years -- though she hates him -- as she is the only heir to his fortune. Simon harangues his niece, calling her various unflattering names and insulting her in creative ways, he uses a laboratory in the basement of his house to develop inventions, has forbidden her from going down there to see his latest project. When she sneaks into the basement to peek at it, Simon raises his cane to strike. Barbara blocks with her arm, causing him to break his back. Frustrated with his feebleness and constant demands of hot chocolate, Barbara declines to assist and watches him lose his life. Following Simon's death, his lawyer Mr. Schwimmer reads the will to Barbara: to inherit his estate, she must live in the house and look after his last invention, a robot named Simon.
Although its behavior and speech are mechanical at first, it acts and sounds just like him—right down to the old man's limp, which it develops as a result of damage from Barbara's attempt to destroy it by pushing it down the stairs. The robot repeats insults that Uncle Simon had programmed, berating Barbara as a "bovine crab" and "peanut-headed sample of nature's carelessness." Since Mr. Schwimmer makes regular visits to ensure that Barbara is taking proper care of the robot, as per the stipulations of the will, she has no choice but to submit to its continuing verbal abuse or risk being disinherited. DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 Zicree, Marc Scott: The Twilight Zone Companion. Sillman-James Press, 1982 "Uncle Simon" on IMDb "Uncle Simon" at TV.com
Carroll M. Bierman was an American Thoroughbred horse racing jockey born in Centralia, Illinois. In 1940, he won the Kentucky Derby on Gallahadion in an upset over favored Bimelech; that Derby ride is considered one of the best by a jockey in America's great race. Gallahadion paid $72.40 on a $2 bet for winning the "Run for the Roses" in the colors of Ethel V. Mars, heiress to the Mars Candy fortune, he rode in the Kentucky Derby four times and finished 3rd, 4th, 6th in the other three. He won the 1939 Santa Anita Derby aboard the filly Ciencia. On September 19 of 1942, in one of the great races of the American Turf, Bierman rode Preakness Stakes winner Alsab to victory over 1941 U. S. Triple Crown Champion Whirlaway in a famous match race at Narragansett Park. Bierman's burgeoning career was interrupted by service with the United States Navy during World War II. Discharged in May of 1945, he returned to racing after a fitness regimen designed to shed the weight he had gained, he was a founding member of the Jockeys' Guild.
He rests at Elmwood Cemetery in Centralia, Illinois