Jean is a small commercial town in Clark County, located 12 mi north of the Nevada-California state line along Interstate 15. Las Vegas is located about 30 mi to the north. There are no residents of Jean, but many people in nearby communities like Primm and Sandy Valley have Jean listed in their mailing address because it is the location of the main post office for the 89019 ZIP code. Las Vegas Boulevard South ends about 2 mi south of Jean, it contiguously runs northbound past Las Vegas, ending near the I-15-US 93 Junction; the area is commercial with the exception of the post office and the courthouse, with commercial outlets such as Terrible's Hotel & Casino, the Jean Sport Aviation Center, Jean Conservation Camp and a Nevada Highway Patrol substation. The Nevada Landing Hotel and Casino was located here but it was demolished in April 2008 and the sign was removed in 2011; the Jean Post Office is located on Las Vegas Boulevard in Jean. The Goodsprings Township Courthouse is located in Jean.
The town was named Goodsprings Junction. On June 28, 1905 postmaster George Arthur Fayle renamed it Jean in honor of his wife, he built the Pioneer Saloon in Goodsprings. Pop's Oasis Casino was the first casino in Jean; the Oasis closed in 1988. Chips and tokens from Pop's Oasis were poured into the foundation of the Nevada Landing; when the Nevada Landing was leveled in May 2008 these chips and tokens, some embedded in concrete, were found by collectors. The welcome center was moved to Primm in early 2000; the original welcome center was converted to a Nevada Highway Patrol substation in 2004. The median between the Nevada Landing Hotel and Casino and the Gold Strike Hotel and Gambling Hall was the scene of the worst single-vehicle accident in southern Nevada history at that time, when a van with 13 people flipped over and eight people were killed; the accident occurred in March 2000. The Nevada Landing Casino closed in March 2007; the Gold Strike remained open, was renamed as Terrible's in 2018.
The world’s largest Chevron gas station, with 96 pumps, opened on the former site of the Nevada Landing in 2018. In the early 1970s, the Southern Nevada Timing Association, a Las Vegas car club, operated a 1/4 mile National Hot Rod Association sanctioned dragstrip on the old L. A. highway just south of town. This strip was opened due to the fact that the Stardust raceway had closed and there was no place to race legally; the local Lions Club and the Clark County Sheriff's Department sanctioned drag racing here. The lengths of guard rail required by NHRA were installed on each side and a small observation tower was built. There were no timing or starting lights, all starts were by a flagger; the finish line was viewed by a club member who would go up on the track after the cars went by and stand in the winner's lane to show who won. His decision was final. Races were run every weekend. Races were run at night with the rental of a huge arc type spotlight, projected down the track from the starting line.
The track was closed. That track is now named The Strip at Las Vegas. Jean is located on Jean Pass, west of the Jean Dry Lake basin. Sheep Mountain borders Jean to southeast of Jean Dry Lake. Northwest of the pass lies the southeast foothills of the Bird Spring Range; the area around Jean has been the site of several installation art exhibits, including Study for An End of the World, No. 2 in 1962 when Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle blew up sculptures. In 1968, Michael Heizer created a zig-zag trench installation. In 2016 Ugo Rondinone built "Seven Magic Mountains." Jean Pass Media related to Jean, Nevada at Wikimedia Commons
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Strip clubs are venues where strippers provide adult entertainment, predominantly in the form of striptease or other erotic or exotic dances. Strip clubs adopt a nightclub or bar style, can adopt a theatre or cabaret-style. American-style strip clubs began to appear outside North America after World War II, arriving in Asia in the late 1980s and Europe in the 1978, where they competed against the local English and French styles of striptease and erotic performances; as of 2005, the size of the global strip club industry was estimated to be US$75 billion. In 2002, the size of the U. S. strip club industry was estimated to be US$3.1 billion, generating 19% of the total gross revenue in legal adult entertainment. SEC filings and state liquor control records available at that time indicated that there were at least 2,500 strip clubs in the United States, since that time, the number of clubs in the U. S. has grown. Profitability of strip clubs, as with other service-oriented businesses, is driven by location and customer spending habits.
The better appointed a club is, in terms of its quality of facilities, equipment and other elements, the more customers are to encounter cover charges and fees for premium features such as VIP rooms. The popularity of a given club is an indicator of its quality, as is the word-of-mouth among customers who have visited a cross section of clubs in different regions; the strip club as an outlet for salacious entertainment is a recurrent theme in popular culture. In some media, these clubs are portrayed as gathering places of vice and ill repute. Clubs themselves and various aspects of the business are highlighted in these references. "Top Strip Club" lists in some media have demonstrated that U. S.-style striptease is a global phenomenon and that it has become a culturally accepted form of entertainment, despite its scrutiny in legal circles and popular media. Popular Internet sites for strip club enthusiasts have lists calculated from the inputs of site visitors; the legal status of strip clubs has evolved over the course of time, with national and local laws becoming progressively more liberal on the issue around the world, although some countries have implemented strict limits and bans.
Strip clubs are frequent targets of litigation around the world, the sex industry, which includes strip clubs, is a hot button issue in popular culture and politics. Some clubs have been linked to organized crime; the term "striptease" was first recorded in 1938, though "stripping", in the sense of women removing clothing to sexually excite men, seems to go back at least 400 years. For example, in Thomas Otway's comedy The Soldier's Fortune a character says: "Be sure they be lewd, stripping whores", its combination with music seems to be as old. A conclusive description and visualization can be found in the 1720 German translation of the French La Guerre D'Espagne, where a galant party of high aristocrats and opera singers has resorted to a small château where they entertain themselves with hunting and music in a three-day turn: The third day, dedicated to ball and dance, was used for the finest entertainment to divert the men; the dancers, to please their lovers the more, dropped their clothes and danced naked, the nicest entrées and ballets.
Other possible influences on modern stripping were the dances of the Ghawazee "discovered" and seized upon by French colonists in 19th century North Africa and Egypt. The erotic dance of the bee, performed by a woman known as Kuchuk Hanem, was witnessed and described by the French novelist Gustave Flaubert. In this dance the performer disrobes as she searches for an imaginary bee trapped within her garments, it is that the women performing these dances did not do so in an indigenous context, but rather, responded to the commercial climate for this type of entertainment. Middle Eastern belly dance known as oriental dancing, was popularized in the United States after its introduction on the Midway at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago by a dancer known as Little Egypt. In France during the late 19th century, Parisian shows such as the Moulin Rouge and Folies Bergère were featuring attractive, scantily clad, dancing women and tableaux vivants. In this environment, an act featuring a woman removing her clothes in a vain search for a flea crawling on her body was seen in 1895 and filmed in 1897 by the first female director, Alice Guy.
This routine, Le coucher d'Yvette, inspired "French acts" in theaters and brothels in other parts of the world, seen in the U. S. city of New York as early as 1878. The first public act of striptease in modern times is credited to Parisian theater in 1894. In 1905, Dutch dancer Mata Hari shot as a spy by the French authorities during World War I, was an overnight success from the debut of her act at the Musée Guimet; the most celebrated segment of her act was her progressive shedding of clothing until she wore just a jeweled bra and some ornaments over her arms and head. Another landmark performance was the appearance at the Moulin Rouge in 1907 of an actress called Germaine Aymos who entered dressed only in three small shells. In the 1930s, the famous Josephine Baker danced semi-nude in the danse sauvage at the Folies and other such performances were provided at the Tabarin; these shows were notable for their sophisticated choreography and for dressing the girls in glitzy sequin
South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa
The South Point Hotel and Casino consists of a 24-story hotel tower, casino and 90,000 square feet convention center located on a 60 acres site along Las Vegas Boulevard in Enterprise and adjacent to Silverado Ranch. The casino is owned and operated by Michael Gaughan and it serves as the primary sponsor of Gaughan's son Brendan Gaughan's race car; this $500 million project started construction under the South Coast name. Based on advance booking, Coast Casinos announced expansion plans to add additional hotel rooms, with a second tower, for a total of 1,350 rooms; the foundation was poured for a possible third tower during the initial construction phase. The casino received approval to open from the Nevada Gaming Commission on November 17, 2005. At opening on December 22, 2005, the South Coast was the first megaresort located south of McCarran International Airport and the Las Vegas Strip; the hotel contained 662 rooms and 800,000 square feet of space, not finished and was available to be converted into restaurant or casino space.
In mid July 2006, it was announced that Michael Gaughan would sell all of his Boyd stock to Boyd Gaming in exchange for full ownership of the South Coast. The Nevada Gaming Commission approved the sale on October 19, 2006. After the deal closed, the South Coast was renamed South Point on October 24. On August 24, 2007, the South Point announced an 830-room expansion with construction of the third hotel tower, turning the hotel towers into a "T"-shaped facility as seen from above; the $95 million expansion, planned for completion in July 2008, would add 10,000 square feet of convention space and 5 food and beverage locations. The third tower opened on July 21, 2008, with the hotel now offering a total of 2,163 rooms and 160,000 square feet of meeting and convention space. An expansion opened in July 2010, included the new Grandview Lounge, named after the adjacent Grandview resort timeshare property. During 2006, the South Point was the venue of NBC's Poker After Dark, ESPN's Pro-Am Poker Equalizer and the third and fourth season of GSN's High Stakes Poker.
The South Point was the host site for the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon from 2006 through 2011. The 2011 show was the first MDA Telethon without Jerry Lewis; the South Point Bowling Center, adjacent to the casino, was the site for the 2014 PBA "World Series of Bowling," and was featured in six ESPN telecasts during the 2014-15 PBA season. In 2012, the Travel Channel featured a show titled Vegas Stripped that examined behind-the-scenes operations and management of South Point. Was featured in the Netflix series Real Rob 4,400 seat equestrian arena with a 125 by 250 feet arena with accommodations for 1,200 horses. At opening, it was the only equestrian arena connected to a hotel in the United States; the stalls are air conditioned. 400 seat showroom 300 seat race and sports book 160,000 square feet of meeting and exhibit hall space A 16 screen movie theatre complex A 64 lane bowling center with pro shop and snack bar. A second 60 lane bowling plaza was added to the back of the South Point property to the tune of $30 million to host events like the PBA World Series of Bowling and the United States Bowling Congress annual National Championships.
The first USBC event to be held at South Point will be the 2016 USBC Women's Championships The USBC Open Championships will be held at South Point the following season in 2017. 11 restaurants Bingo hall Poker room Michael's Las Vegas Sun Las Vegas Review-Journal South Point Hotel Official Website
Las Vegas Motor Speedway
Las Vegas Motor Speedway, located in Clark County, Nevada in Las Vegas, Nevada about 15 miles northeast of the Las Vegas Strip, is a 1,200-acre complex of multiple tracks for motorsports racing. The complex is owned by Speedway Motorsports, Inc., headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. Following the final closure of Stardust International Raceway in 1971, plans were developed for a new racing facility in Las Vegas: the Las Vegas Speedrome. Located in the far northeast corner of the Las Vegas Valley, the Speedrome consisted of a road course and drag strip, opening in 1972. Alex Rodriquez leased the facility from the City of Las Vegas, added the 3/8-mile short track in 1985. Ralph Engelstad of the Imperial Palace purchased the track in 1989, renaming the facility Las Vegas Speedway Park. Engelstad partnered with William Bennett of the Sahara Hotel and opened a new $72 million superspeedway on the site in September 1996; the first race at the speedway was on September 15 with an IndyCar event, won by Richie Hearn.
A NASCAR Truck Series race followed in November. In December 1998, Speedway Motorsports purchased Las Vegas Motor Speedway from Engelstad and Bennett for $215 million. Veteran motorsports publicist Chris Powell was named the speedway's president and general manager and still holds that position today; the Winston No Bull 5 Million Dollar Bonus was held at the track from 1999 to 2002. Jeff Burton won a million dollars in 2000 and Jeff Gordon won the bonus in 2001. Burton and Sterling Marlin were not eligible in 1999 or 2002; the drag strip was relocated into the current The Strip at Las Vegas Motor Speedway, while the old drag strip and road course was rebuilt to the current outer 2.4 mile road course in use today. The 3/8-mile oval was rebuilt with a new pit start-finish changed to the opposite side. During the 2004 and 2005 seasons, Champ Car held races at the speedway, which were both won by Sébastien Bourdais. In 2006, plans were announced to reconfigure the track after the Nextel Cup Series race held in March, increasing the banking from the original 12 degrees to 20 degrees.
This reconfiguration entailed "progressive banking" which increases the degree of banking on a gradient towards the outside of the track. This increased side-by-side racing; the speedway constructed a fan zone called the "Neon Garage". This area has live entertainment, unprecedented access to the drivers and teams, such as viewing areas for fans to watch their favorite driver's car get worked on and talk to the drivers, is home to the Winner's Circle; the speedway moved pit road 275 feet closer to the grandstands, built a new media center and added a quarter-mile oval for Legends Cars and Thunder Roadsters, in the tri-oval area. On August 8, 2006, the newly reconfigured track reopened to stock cars. Kurt Busch, the 2004 NASCAR Cup Series Champion and Las Vegas native, became the first NASCAR Cup Series driver to test a stock car on the newly reconfigured track in his No. 2 Penske Dodge. The Truck Series race in September 2006 was the first NASCAR race run on the surface, with Mike Skinner being victorious.
Jeff Burton won the first Nationwide Series race on the new surface in March 2007, taking a Monte Carlo SS to Victory Lane. The following day, Jimmie Johnson drove a Chevrolet to Victory Lane, capturing the first NASCAR Cup Series win on the new pavement, for him the third straight year he drove to victory lane at Vegas. In March 2011, Insomniac Events announced that their largest rave festival in North America, Electric Daisy Carnival, would take place at Las Vegas Motor Speedway for the first time on June 24–26. More than 235,000 people attended the three-day event; the 2012 event was held June 8–10 with an attendance of 315,000 people. The 2013 event was held June 21–23 with an attendance of 345,000 people; the 2014 event was held on June 20–22, the 2015 event took place June 19–21. The twentieth anniversary EDC Las Vegas 2016 took place June 17–19, 2016. Insomniac signed a ten-year contract with LVMS to host EDC through 2022. A third road course designed by Romain Thievin was added in 2012.
The course is 1.4 miles long with an 1,800-foot straight. In late 2017, the drag strip was expanded to four lanes. Since 2018, NHRA's April meeting is held with four cars racing simultaneously. Starting in 2018, A second race weekend will take place at the track, taking the New Hampshire Motor Speedway's Cup Series and Truck Series fall weekend races. Both weekends will now be triple headers, moving the October stand alone race for the Truck Series at LVMS to the spring weekend, moving the stand-alone Xfinity race from the Kentucky Speedway to the fall weekend; the Cup race would be the first race for the playoffs, The regular season finale for Xfinity Series, the second playoff race for the Truck Series. On October 16, 2011, the final race of the 2011 IndyCar season, the IZOD IndyCar World Championship, was held at Las Vegas. However, the race was halted by a horrific crash on lap 11 that involved 15 cars, some of which became airborne, some of which burst into flames; the crash began when Wade Cunningham made light contact with James Hinchcliffe, but the situation turned into a big pile-up of cars.
The crash forced the red flag to be waved instantly, due to the remains of the damaged cars and the amount of debris on the track. Four of the 15 drivers were injured and taken to the nearby University Medical Center for treatment, one of, two-time, reigning Indianapolis 500 winner and 2005 series champion Dan Wheldon, who suffered severe blunt force trauma to the head after his car flew into the catch fence. He
National Scenic Byway
A National Scenic Byway is a road recognized by the United States Department of Transportation for one or more of six "intrinsic qualities": archeological, historic, natural and scenic. The program was established by Congress in 1991 to preserve and protect the nation's scenic but less-traveled roads and promote tourism and economic development; the National Scenic Byways Program is administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The most-scenic byways are designated All-American Roads, which must meet two out of the six intrinsic qualities; the designation means they have features that do not exist elsewhere in the United States and are unique and important enough to be tourist destinations unto themselves. As of November 2010, there are 120 National Scenic Byways and 31 All-American Roads, located in 46 states; the NSBP was established under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, which provided $74.3 million in discretionary grants. On May 18, 1995, FHWA specified the intrinsic qualities that would serve as criteria for designating road as National Scenic Byways or All-American Roads.
In September U. S. Transportation Secretary Federico Peña announced the first 14 National Scenic Byways and six All-American Roads. On June 9, 1998, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century provided $148 million to states so they could develop state roads to take advantage of the program. On August 10, 2005, President George W. Bush signed the Safe, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users, which provided $175 million to states and Indian tribes. Most on October 16, 2009, U. S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood designated 37 new roads as National Scenic Byways and five new All-American Roads. National Scenic Byways go through a nomination procedure, they must be designated state scenic byways to be nominated. For designation as a National Scenic Byway a road must have one of six intrinsic qualities. To be designated an All-American Road, a road must have at least two of the six qualities. Scenic quality is the heightened visual experience derived from the view of natural and manmade elements of the visual environment of the scenic byway corridor.
The characteristics of the landscape are strikingly distinct and offer a pleasing and most memorable visual experience. Natural quality applies to those features in the visual environment that are in a undisturbed state; these features predate the arrival of human populations and may include geological formations, landform, water bodies and wildlife. There may be evidence of human activity. Historic quality encompasses legacies of the past that are distinctly associated with physical elements of the landscape, whether natural or manmade, that are of such historic significance that they educate the viewer and stir an appreciation for the past; the historic elements reflect the actions of people and may include buildings, settlement patterns, other examples of human activity. Cultural quality is evidence and expressions of the customs or traditions of a distinct group of people. Cultural features include, but are not limited to, music, rituals, speech, special events, or vernacular architecture.
Archeological quality involves those characteristics of the scenic byways corridor that are physical evidence of historic or prehistoric human life or activity. The scenic byway corridor's archeological interest, as identified through ruins, structural remains, other physical evidence have scientific significance that educate the viewer and stir an appreciation for the past. Recreational quality involves outdoor recreational activities directly associated with and dependent upon the natural and cultural elements of the corridor's landscape; the recreational activities provide opportunities for passive recreational experiences. They include, but are not limited to, downhill skiing, boating and hiking. Driving the road itself may qualify as a pleasurable recreational experience; the recreational activities may be seasonal, but the quality and importance of the recreational activities as seasonal operations must be well recognized. A corridor management plan must be developed, with community involvement, the plan "should provide for the conservation and enhancement of the byway's intrinsic qualities as well as the promotion of tourism and economic development".
The plan includes, but is not limited to: A map identifying the corridor boundaries and the location of intrinsic qualities and different land uses within the corridor. A strategy for maintaining and enhancing those intrinsic qualities. A strategy describing how existing development might be enhanced and new development might be accommodated while still preserving the intrinsic qualities of the corridor. A general review of the road's or highway's safety and accident record to identify any correctable faults in highway design, maintenance, or operations. A signage plan that demonstrates how the State will insure and make the number and placement of signs more supportive of the visitor experience. A narrative describing how the National Scenic Byway will be positioned for marketing. Corridor management plans for All-American Roads must include: A narrative on how the All-American Road would be promoted and marketed in order to attract travelers those from other countries. A plan to encourage the accommodation of increased tourism, if this is projected
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman