Formula Three called Formula 3 or F3, is a class of open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held in Europe, South America and Asia form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers. Formula Three has traditionally been regarded as the first major stepping stone for F1 hopefuls – it is the first point in a driver's career at which most drivers in the series are aiming at professional careers in racing rather than being amateurs and enthusiasts. F3 is regarded as a key investment in a young driver's future career. Success in F3 can lead directly to a Formula 2 seat or a Formula One test or race seat. Formula Three evolved from postwar auto racing, with lightweight tube-frame chassis powered by 500 cc motorcycle engines; the 500 cc formula evolved in 1946 from low-cost "special" racing organised by enthusiasts in Bristol, just before the Second World War. The second post-war motor race in Britain was organised by the VSCC in July 1947 at RAF Gransden Lodge, 500cc cars being the only post-war class to run that day.
The race was a complete flop, as three of the seven entrants were non-starters, and, of the four runners, all but one were out of it in the first lap, leaving Eric Brandon in his Cooper Prototype trailing round to a virtual walk-over at the unimpressive speed of 55.79 mph, though his best lap was 65.38 mph. Cooper came to dominate the formula with mass-produced cars, the income this generated enabled the company to develop into the senior categories. Other notable marques included Kieft, JBS and Emeryson in England, Effyh and Scampolo in Europe. John Cooper, along with most other 500 builders, decided to place the engine in the middle of the car, driving the rear wheels; this was due to the practical limitations imposed by chain drive but it gave these cars exceptionally good handling characteristics which led to the mid-engined revolution in single-seater racing. The 500cc formula was the usual route into motor racing through the mid-1950s. Other notable 500 cc Formula 3 drivers include Stuart Lewis-Evans, Ivor Bueb, Jim Russell, Peter Collins, Don Parker, Ken Tyrrell, Bernie Ecclestone.
From a statistical point of view, Don Parker was the most successful F3 driver. Although coming to motor racing late in life, he won a total of 126 F3 races altogether, was described by Motor Sport magazine as "the most successful Formula 3 driver in history." Although Stirling Moss was a star by 1953, Parker beat him more than any other driver, was Formula 3 Champion in 1952, again in 1953, in 1954 he only lost the title by a half-point. He took the title for a third time in 1959. In 1954, Parker took on a young man named Norman Graham Hill as his mechanic and general assistant, gave him his first taste of competitive motorsport in a 500cc car at Brands Hatch; some years now using his middle name of Graham, this young man twice became Formula 1 World Champion. Parker retired from Formula Three after the 1959 season, chose not to move to Formula 2 or Formula 1 because of his age. However, he did race for one final season, representing Jaguar in the British Saloon Car Championships, winning at Oulton Park on June 6 in his XK150.
As a retirement gift in 1961, Jaguar's Lofty England presented him with a specially-designed 3.8 litre Jaguar Mark 2. It was claimed to be the fastest Mark 2 Jaguar had built, being tested at 140 mph on the newly opened M4 motorway in 1963. 500cc Formula Three declined at an international level during the late 1950s, although it continued at a national level into the early 60s, being eclipsed by Formula Junior for 1000 or 1100 cc cars. A one-litre Formula Three category for four-cylinder carburetted cars, with tuned production engines, was reintroduced in 1964 based on the Formula Junior rules and ran to 1970; these engines tended to rev highly and were popularly known as "screamers". The "screamer" years were dominated by Brabham and Tecno, with March beginning in 1970. Early one-litre F3 chassis tended to descend from Formula Junior designs but evolved. For 1971 new regulations allowing 1600 cc engines with a restricted air intake were introduced; the 1971–73 seasons were contested with these cars, as aerodynamics started to become important.
Two-litre engine rules were introduced for 1974, still with restricted air intakes. Today engine regulations remain unchanged in F3, a remarkable case of stability in racing regulations; as the likes of Lotus and Brabham faded from F3 to concentrate on Formula One, F3 constructors of the 1970s included Alpine, March, Modus, GRD, Ensign. By the start of the 1980s however, Formula Three had evolved well beyond its humble beginnings to something resembling the modern formula, it was seen as the main training ground for future Formula One drivers, many of them bypassing Formula Two to go straight into Grand Prix racing. The chassis became sophisticated, mirroring the more senior formulae – ground effects
Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
Formula Car Challenge
The Formula Car Challenge presented by Goodyear is a National Auto Sport Association-affiliated car racing series, operating in four different regions across the United States: West Coast, South West, East Coast and Mid West. There is an annual championship involving all four regions. While each region varies in terms of events, the series itself has three classes of competition, all powered by Mazda, with Goodyear Racing tires: Formula Mazda, Pro Formula Mazda, the FormulaSPEED2.0. The Formula Car Challenge was started in 2005 to allow for a high level of competition in a quality environment without "pro racing budgets." By 2009 there were four regions in place in key markets of the United States. Goodyear presenting sponsorship was secured in 2010, as was a National Auto Sport Association sanctioned national championship. Mazdaspeed Contingency Awards associated with the Formula Car Challenge National title have included close to $30,000 in cash, eligibility for the MAZDASPEED Career Advancement Award.
Formula Mazda cars are built to spec by Moses Smith Racing except for the motor provided by Daryl Drummond Enterprises. A steel space frame with a 95-inch wheelbase is used. Power is provided by a sealed 1.3 litres Mazda 13B rotary engine producing 180 horsepower connected to a five-speed racing transmission. All parts must be as provided by the official manufacturer, though certain aspects may be adjusted within regulations so as to accommodate the various tracks used. Shock absorbers Sway bars Brake bias Wing angles Gear ratios Tire pressure The FormulaSPEED car is built on a chassis manufactured by Fast Forward Racing Components and constructed out of 4130 Chrome Moly Alloy steel tubing; the firewall and side panels are bonded and riveted aluminum. Fiberglass is used for the bodywork, with 4-layer Kevlar for side protection and composite structure for front crash protection. Suspension is double-wishbone with dampers and springs provided by Öhlins and uprights of billet aluminum alloy 7075.
Power is produced by a 2 litres liter Mazdaspeed MZR with VVT which produces 200 horsepower horsepower. Engine mapping is by Hasselgren Engineering, controlled by an SQ6 ECU by Cosworth/Pectel, fueled by an FIA certified fuel cell. Power is transmitted to the wheels through a Hewland FTR six-speed sequential transaxle, tires are Goodyear Formula Eagle G19 with 13" diameter; the brakes are floating rotors and aluminum calipers provided by Wilwood, with brake bias adjustable from the cockpit. Jackson, Kim. "Andretti Enters the Formula Car Challenge". Andretti Autosport News. Retrieved November 11, 2011. Cardinale, John. "Infineon Raceway Announces Return of Formula Car Challenge". Infineon Raceway News. Retrieved April 4, 2011. Telford, Todd. "Formula Car Challenge President Telo Stewart helps to design an affordable way to get into racing". Marin Independent Journal. Retrieved March 5, 2011. Abhyanker, Raj. "United States Trademark Office Accepts the Formula Car Challenge mark". Infineon Raceway News. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
Fremont, Maaco. "Lloyd Read Racing Announces New Sponsor for Formula Car Challenge Effort". PR Web / SF Gate. Retrieved June 18, 2011. Stringfield, Ryan. "Dane Cameron wins Formula Car Challenge race at Infineon Raceway". Junior Open Wheel Talent. Retrieved August 21, 2010. Craighead, Al. "Formula Car Challenge: Alumni Showing Up on Podiums Across the Globe". EFormulaCarNews. Retrieved March 31, 2011. Formula Car Challenge presented by Goodyear Formula Car Challenge Alumni Report National Auto Sport Association Formula Car Challenge Forums Information on the FormulaSPEED2.0 racing car Information on the Formula Mazda racing car Information on the Pro Formula Mazda racing car Info on the 2011 MAZDASPEED Career Advancement Award
FIA Formula 4 called FIA F4, is an open-wheel racing car category intended for junior drivers. There is no global championship, but rather individual nations or regions can host their own championships in compliance with a universal set of rules and specifications; the category was created by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile —the International sanctioning and administrative body for motorsport—as an entry-level category for young drivers, bridging the gap between karting and Formula 3. The series is a part of the FIA Global Pathway. Former Formula One driver Gerhard Berger was appointed as the FIA Single-Seater Commission president to oversee the creation of the category as a response to declining interest in national Formula 3 championships due to rising costs and alternate pathways to Formula One such as the Formula Renault and GP2 and GP3 Series, which had seen several national Formula 3 championships discontinued. In the place of the expensive categories, a number of separate categories running under the Formula 4 name had been created, for example the British based the former BRDC Formula 4.
There was no commonality between the cars from country to country. The FIA-endorsed category was formally created in March 2013, when it was approved by the World Motor Sport Council; these Formula 4 championships started in 2014 as a single-make category before the regulations were opened up to multiple chassis and engine manufacturers. Each championship uses a single make of engine, with the regulations mandating a 1,600 cc capacity and capping the maximum power output at 160 bhp, higher than Formula Ford and lower than Formula Renault; the engines are equalised so that no one Formula 4 championship is faster than the others, with the long-term intention being to bring the cost down to under €100,000 per year to compete. To become eligible for FIA Formula 4, the chassis must meet the FIA homologation requirements respecting technical and commercial regulations. Four chassis manufacturers have been approved by the FIA: Tatuus, Mygale and Crawford. To become an eligible FIA Formula 4 engine, the engine must meet the homologation requirements.
According to the homologation requirements a FIA Formula 4 engine must last at least 10,000 km and have a maximum purchasing price of €9,500. According to the FIA Formula 4 technical regulations only four cylinder engines are allowed. Both aspirated and turbocharged engines are permitted; the power output has been capped at 160 bhp. The engine displacement is unlimited. Four engines are homologated for use in the FIA Formula 4; these championships are held to Formula 4 regulations and approved by the FIA as the national Formula 4 series. Drivers participating in these series can receive FIA Super Licence points, which are required to drive in Formula One. For a series to be eligible for Super Licence points, a season must be held over at least 5 events at a minimum of 3 different circuits, according to FIA Appendix L. Formula Academy Finland is a racing series based in Finland, its first season was 2018. Formula Academy Finland uses same Tatuus-Abarth FIA Formula 4 car as ADAC Formula 4, Italian Formula 4 Championship and several other series.
The series, how is not approved by the FIA. There are plans to apply for Finnish Championship status for 2019 season; the series is organized by Koiranen GP. The FPU Western Championships take place at west coast tracks in the United States, it is a feeder series to the FIA recognized United States F4 Championship, utilizes the identical chassis and tire package. The Formula 4 Sudamericana is a Formula 4 racing class that debuted in 2014; the class uses the same Signatech chassis and Fiat engines used in the Brazilian-based Formula Future Fiat. Japan Formula 4 is a formula racing series in Japan; the series was founded in 1993 by the Japan Automobile Federation as a class between the FJ1600 series and the All-Japan Formula Three Championship. Japanese Formula 4 is an open formula, where competitors can choose the chassis and engine manufacturers; this is based on a non-FIA formulae. Chassis are locally produced such as Xpit and Gamma and cars are fueled by methanol. Popular in the CASC Ontario region at a club level only since 1974.
The BRDC Formula 4 Championship was an entry level motorsport series based in the United Kingdom which began in 2013. Run by the British Racing Drivers' Club and MotorSport Vision, the series used identical cars built by Ralph Firman Racing and engines from Ford, before switching to FIA Formula 4 regulations in 2015, using the Tatuus F4–T014 chassis. Although run to the FIA's regulations, it was not recognised by the FIA as an official Formula 4 championship. In 2016, the series was renamed the BRDC British Formula 3 Championship. Up to 2017, the French F4 Championship was a Formula Renault series, aimed at graduates young drivers graduating from karting; the championship used Formula Renault 1.6 Signatech cars, an entry level category, was open to drivers between 14 and 21 years. From 2018 on, the series is run to FIA F4's regulations. FIA Technical Regulations for Formula 4
Juan Pablo Montoya
Juan Pablo Montoya Roldán is a Colombian racing driver. He competes in the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship driving for Acura Team Penske; the highlights of his career include winning the International F3000 championship in 1998, the CART FedEx Championship Series in 1999, as well as victories in some of the most prestigious races in the world, including the Indianapolis 500, Grand Prix of Monaco, 24 Hours of Daytona, British Grand Prix, Italian Grand Prix, Grand Prix of Long Beach, the Race of Champions. In auto racing he has been notable by winning in his first attempt the CART Championship title, Indianapolis 500, 24 Hours of Daytona, Grand Prix of Long Beach, Italian Grand Prix, NASCAR Rookie of the Year, the crossover Race of Champions. Montoya is one of two drivers to have won the CART title in his rookie year, the first being Formula One World Champion Nigel Mansell in 1993, he is, alongside Fernando Alonso, one of only two active drivers who have won two legs of the Triple Crown of Motorsport in its original definition.
Montoya equals Mario Andretti and Dan Gurney by winning races in Indy cars, Formula One cars and NASCAR Cup cars. In October 2009, Montoya was ranked 30th on Times Online's list of the Top 50 Formula One drivers of all time. Montoya was born in Bogotá, where he was taught the techniques of karting from an early age by his father Pablo, an architect and motorsport enthusiast. Montoya moved to the Colombian Formula Renault Series in 1992, while racing there he won four of eight races and had five poles; the same year he participated in the U. S. Skip Barber driving school, was hailed by driving instructors as being one of the best pupils to come through their school. 1993 saw Montoya switch to the Swift GTI Championship, a series he dominated by winning seven of eight races and earning eight poles. In 1994, Montoya raced in three separate series: The Sudam 125 Karting, Barber Saab Pro Series, Formula N in Mexico, he graduated from the Colegio San Tarsicio in Bogotá in the same year. Montoya developed in some cases taking 80 % of a season's pole positions.
For the next three years Montoya raced in various divisions. He raced in the 1995 British Formula Vauxhall Championship, winning three races and finishing third in the championship. In 1996, he raced in the British Formula 3 with Fortec Motorsport, winning two races, finishing 5th in the championship points standings, as well as taking part in events in Zandvoort and Silverstone. Montoya got the opportunity to advance in his motor racing career when he was hired by the RSM Marko team to compete alongside Craig Lowndes in the 1997 International Formula 3000 season. In the ten races during the season, Montoya had three pole positions, he finished his rookie season second in the championship points standings, just 1.5 points shy of taking the overall season title. During this time, Williams noticed his potential and invited him to test with the team at Jerez, Spain along with three other drivers. Montoya was the fastest of them all and he and Max Wilson were signed by WilliamsF1 to be test drivers for the following season.
Alongside his Formula One testing duties for Williams, he competed again in F3000 and took the title in a close contest with Nick Heidfeld, driving for McLaren's F3000 team. During the 1998 F3000 season, Montoya opened the season up with a record four straight pole positions, he achieved another record that year by being the first driver to lap the entire grid, at the Pau Grand Prix. Montoya won the 1998 F3000 season with four wins, seven pole positions, nine podium finishes in twelve races. Renault, Williams's engine supplier for most of the 1990s, left Formula One at the end of the 1997 season. With no major engine suppliers available, Williams were forced to sign a contract to run customer engines for the 1998 and 1999 seasons. In 1998 the team failed to win a race for the first time in a decade. For the 1999 season, in the hope of attracting more investors to the underperforming team, Frank Williams agreed to a driver swap with CART team owner Chip Ganassi, in which Ganassi's 1997 and 1998 CART champion driver, Alessandro Zanardi, would return to Formula One and Montoya would take his place in the competitive American series.
While Zanardi had a miserable year in Formula One, with Honda power and a great Reynard chassis at his disposal, took the American motorsport scene by storm. He took the 1999 title in his rookie year, something accomplished six years earlier by former Formula One Champion Nigel Mansell; the season that saw Montoya crowned as the youngest CART FedEx Championship Series Champion at the age of 24 was fought with Dario Franchitti who led the championship going into the final race in California. Both drivers finished the season with equal number of points but Montoya took the title by virtue of having won seven races to the Scotsman's three, his victory in the last race that year, the Marlboro 500, was overshadowed by the death of Greg Moore during the race. The CART rookie attracted criticism—notably from Michael Andretti and his team for his aggressive style of driving. Montoya still had a contractual relationship with Williams and after his impressive rookie season the Grove-based team were keen for him to drive for them in Formula One.
However, he decided to race in the US for one more year. In 2000, the Ganassi team switched to Lola chassis; the package w
Formula Atlantic is a specification of open wheel racing car developed in the 1970s. It was used in professional racing through the IMSA Atlantic Championship until 2009 and is primarily used in amateur racing through Sports Car Club of America Formula Atlantic; the history of Formula Atlantic begins with the SCCA Formula B class, created in 1965 for single-seat formula cars with engines not exceeding 1600cc in capacity. Prior to Formula Atlantic, professional Formula B races were held in the United States from 1965 to 1972, firstly with the SCCA's poorly supported Formula A as part of the SCCA Grand Prix Championship in 1967 and 1968 and in their own independent series from 1969 to 1972. Formula Atlantic as a class evolved in the United Kingdom in 1971 from the US Formula B rules, with 1600cc production-based twin-cam engines. Conceived by John Webb of Brands Hatch as a category for national competitors with the performance near a Formula Two car but running costs at or below that of a contemporary Formula Three car.
A single Yellow Pages championship ran in 1971-2, with a rival BP backed series appearing in 1973. 1974 saw the BP series changing sponsor to John Player, the Yellow Pages series becoming backed by John Webb's MCD organisation and Southern Organs. Only one series ran in 1975-6, in the final year taking the title'Indylantic and adopting Indianapolis-style single-car qualifying, but the formula was under threat from Formula 3 and no series ran in 1977-78. A BRSCC-organized club racing series returned in 1979 with initial backing from Hitachi and continued to 1983, with diminishing grids and few new cars appearing; as a result of its similarity to Formula 2 and Formula 3 in terms of chassis regulations, Formula Atlantic used chassis related to these cars—with performance somewhere in between the two—so most of the manufacturers were familiar from those classes the likes of Brabham, March, Chevron early on, with Ralt and Reynard later. US manufacturer Swift came to dominate in North America. Several smaller marques appeared.
The first professional races run under Formula Atlantic rules in North America were conducted in 1974 by the CASC in Canada, drawing much attention and large fields due to its national CTV television coverage. IMSA in the United States took advantage of the large number of teams and organized their own series in 1976. During these years, the series attracted guest drivers from Europe, including Formula One at the Trois-Rivières street race in Quebec, Canada. Guest drivers included James Hunt, Jean-Pierre Jarier, Riccardo Patrese, Patrick Depailler, Jacques Laffite, Didier Pironi and Vittorio Brambilla. In 1977, the SCCA sanctioned the US events and in 1978 the CASC and SCCA series merged, conducted the series jointly until 1983, when it ran as the Formula Mondial North American Cup and was won by Michael Andretti; the series could not sustain the success of earlier seasons and was cancelled for 1984. Formula Mondial was an international category introduced by the FIA in 1983 with the intention of replacing both Formula Atlantic and Formula Pacific, the latter being a variant of Formula Atlantic, introduced in a number of Pacific Basin countries in the late 1970s.
SCCA Formula Atlantic cars are allowed wings and ground effects. They use either the Toyota 4AGE engine or the Cosworth BDD. Cars meeting Super Vee specifications were allowed but are now seen. Prior to 2006 these rules were largely used in the professional series except that all cars had to run a Fuel Injected 4AGE; this meant that competitive amateur teams could participate in professional races and that old pro series equipment could be raced at the amateur level. However, in 2006 the pro series introduced a spec chassis, the Swift Engineering 016.a and a new spec engine, the Mazda-Cosworth MZR. The result was that the cars used in the pro series were drastically different than the amateur cars. In 2009, to shore up small race fields, the pro series introduced a "C2 class" for amateur level cars the Swift 014.a, the dominant chassis in amateur competition at the time. However the C2 class was abandoned in the middle of the season. Since 2011 SCCA Club Racing has allowed the Swift 016.a and Mazda-Cosworth MZR, albeit with an inlet restrictor to maintain parity with the older Toyota-powered cars.
As of 2017 most nationals competitors were running the 016.a-Mazda combination. Eligible for the class are Mazda rotary powered cars made for the Pro Mazda Championship. In 2018 the professional series will switch to a new car and all of the rotary cars will be available for club racing use, although they appear to not be competitive with cars built to the FA specification older ones. Additionally, in 2019 the SCCA will allowed sealed Mazda MZR engines to be used in older chassis, such as the Swift 014.a, as parts availability for the Toyota engines has become an issue. The minimum weight of a Toyota or BDD powered Atlantic car is 1230 lbs. with driver. The SCCA considers it its fastest club racing class. Prior to gaining its own class, the Formula SCCA car raced in Formula Atlantic, where it was uncompetitive. With the end of the IMSA and Champ Car sanctioned professional Atlantic Championship after the 2009 season, the promoters of the F2000 Championship Series, Formula Race Productions, promoted a new pro series in 2012 using SCCA rules and sanctioned by the SCCA.
The series saw few entrants and folded af
Formula 500 is a Sports Car Club of America and Midwestern Council of Sports Car Clubs open wheel road racing class. Formula 500 was introduced in the early 1980s as Formula 440, is a regulated class. Several chassis manufacturers produce different designs to a tight dimensional ruleset. Engines are specified by the ruleset, builders are not allowed to modify engine internals. Instead of traditional dampers and springs, F500 cars utilize a simple elastomeric spring medium contained in a cylindrical canister; the rules state the elastomer must be 2" in diameter by 1" in thickness, but the design and implementation of the elastomeric springs is wide open. Additionally, each chassis manufacturer produces bodywork of their own design, which adheres to dimensional constraints; these regulations allow for competitive racing at a low cost, which rewards driver and car set-up skills. Formula 500 cars are powered by a water-cooled two-stroke engine. Modern cars use either the Rotax 494, or Rotax 493 produced for Ski-Doo snowmobiles.
Older cars used for Solo events these days use the Kawasaki 440/A engine. The AMW 500L-85/250-2 R2c engine, while legal for use in Formula 500 racing, is used these days; the Kawasaki 440/A engine, produced by Kawasaki, is a 436 cc piston port engine utilizing 38 mm Mikuni VM series carburetors and a tuned dual exhaust. While this engine is no longer competitive in road racing, it is still used in Solo II and Autocross events. Like all F500 engines, except for the AMW, the Kawasaki was produced as a snowmobile engine, it has been out of production since the early 1980s. Parts for these engines are becoming more difficult to find; the AMW 500L-85 engine, built by Two Stroke International was introduced to F500 in 1994. It is a 497 cc reed valve engine using twin 38 mm Mikuni SuperBN carburetors. To keep the performance of these larger, more powerful engines in line with prior engines, SCCA mandates the use of a spec Y exhaust manifold and single tuned pipe on the AMW engine. Unlike the other engines used in F500, the AMW engine is a derivative of a light aircraft engine.
This engine is no longer in production, is not supported by the manufacturer. Introduced for the 1997 season was the Rotax 494 engine. Rotax builds racing and industrial engines for a wide variety of applications, including aircraft, motorcycles, go-karts and watercraft, The Rotax 494 engine is a 499cc rotary-valve engine. Like the AMW, the Rotax utilizes a 2 into 1 "Y" exhaust manifold and a single tuned expansion chamber exhaust; the Rotax engine utilizes the same 38 mm Mikuni VM carburetors as the Kawasaki. The Rotax engine has become, by far, the most popular engine in F500 road racing; the Rotax 494 went out of production for Ski-Doo following the 2000 model year. Ski-Doo/Rotax ended support for it shortly thereafter; some parts however, are still available through online outlets. In 2004 SCCA added the Rotax 493 to the list of approved engines; the 493 has the same bore and stroke as the 494. However, unlike the 494, is a reed valve engine, it runs Mikuni VM series carbs and the "Y" exhaust manifold like its cousin the 494.
Cars running the 493 engine are required to run at a higher minimum weight to maintain parity with the older 494 and AMW engines. Like the 494, the 493 went out of production for Ski-Doo following the 2003 model year. Support for it ended in 2007; as with the 494, some parts are still available through online outlets. In 2011 SCCA added the Rotax 593 to the list of approved engines; the 593, is a 600cc version of the reed valve 493 engine. It runs Mikuni VM series carbs and the "Y" exhaust manifold like the other Rotax engines, but are required to run a specified intake restrictor to keep power output on par with the 500cc 493 engine. Cars running the 593 engine are required to run at a higher minimum weight to maintain parity with the older 494 and AMW engines; the 593 remains in production for Ski-Doo to date, rebadged from "500ss" to "600" in 2010. Engine specifications are regulated by the SCCA. No engine modifications are permitted in formula 500. Engines must be run in stock form "as delivered" from the factory.
No aftermarket parts, port modifications, or other variations from stock configuration are allowed. This means close competition on the track. F500 uses an advanced Continuously Variable Transmission, similar to that used in snowmobiles; these simple belt driven automatic transmissions are tuned to optimize the power curve of a two-stroke engine keeping the engine at its peak power. One of the key benefits of the CVT is; this allows all of the engine's power to be transmitted to the drive wheels at all times. The SCCA National Championship Runoffs has crowned Formula 500 National Champions since 1997; the original Formula 440 class competed at the SCCA Runoffs from 1984 - 1996. F500.us Non-commercial and most active online forum dedicated to the current SCCA Formula 500 class. Includes category specific technical forums dedicated to engines, CVT tuning; as well as general, event specific, classifieds forums. Formula500.org Formula 500 community run by eformulacarnews.com. Contains information pertaining to current happenings, technical info, how-to's, event news and a classifieds section The Formula 500 Racing Web Now inactive former unofficial home page of SCCA F500 racing.
The archived mailing list is a good historical resource of information. The Sports Car Club of America is the major sanctioning organization that runs F500 races in the United States. Formula 500 on