Latin literature

Latin literature includes the essays, poems and other writings written in the Latin language. The beginning of Latin literature dates to 240 BC. Latin literature would flourish for the next six centuries; the classical era of Latin literature can be divided into the following periods: Early Latin literature, The Golden Age, The Imperial Period and Late Antiquity. Latin was the language of the ancient Romans, but it was the lingua franca of Western Europe throughout the Middle Ages, so Latin literature includes not only Roman authors like Cicero, Vergil and Horace, but includes European writers after the fall of the Empire, from religious writers like Aquinas, to secular writers like Francis Bacon, Baruch Spinoza, Isaac Newton. Formal Latin literature began in 240 BC; the adaptor was Livius Andronicus, a Greek, brought to Rome as a prisoner of war in 272 BC. Andronicus translated Homer's Greek epic the Odyssey into an old type of Latin verse called Saturnian; the first Latin poet to write on a Roman theme was Gnaeus Naevius during the 3rd century BC.

He composed an epic poem about the first Punic War. Naevius's dramas were reworkings of Greek originals, but he created tragedies based on Roman myths and history. Other epic poets followed Naevius. Quintus Ennius wrote a historical epic, the Annals, describing Roman history from the founding of Rome to his own time, he adopted Greek dactylic hexameter. He became famous for his tragic dramas. In this field, his most distinguished successors were Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius; these three writers used episodes from Roman history. Instead, they wrote Latin versions of tragic themes that the Greeks had handled, but when they copied the Greeks, their translations were not straightforward replicas. Only fragments of their plays have survived. More is known about early Latin comedy, as 26 Early Latin comedies are extant – 20 of which Plautus wrote, the remaining six of which Terence wrote; these men modeled their comedies on Greek plays known as New Comedy. But they treated the plots and wording of the originals freely.

Plautus scattered songs through his plays and increased the humor with puns and wisecracks, plus comic actions by the actors. Terence's plays were more polite in tone, dealing with domestic situations, his works provided the chief inspiration for French and English comedies of the 17th century AD, for modern American comedy. The prose of the period is best known through On Agriculture by Cato the Elder. Cato wrote the first Latin history of Rome and of other Italian cities, he was the first Roman statesman to put his political speeches in writing as a means of influencing public opinion. Early Latin literature ended with Gaius Lucilius, who created a new kind of poetry in his 30 books of Satires, he wrote in an easy, conversational tone about books, food and current events. Traditionally, the height of Latin literature has been assigned to the period from 81 BC to AD 17, although recent scholarship has questioned the assumptions that privileged the works of this period over both earlier and works.

This period is said to have begun with the first known speech of Cicero and ended with the death of Ovid. Cicero has traditionally been considered the master of Latin prose; the writing he produced from about 80 BC until his death in 43 BC exceeds that of any Latin author whose work survives in terms of quantity and variety of genre and subject matter, as well as possessing unsurpassed stylistic excellence. Cicero's many works can be divided into four groups: letters, rhetorical treatises, philosophical works, orations, his letters provide detailed information about an important period in Roman history and offer a vivid picture of the public and private life among the Roman governing class. Cicero's works on oratory are our most valuable Latin sources for ancient theories on education and rhetoric, his philosophical works were the basis of moral philosophy during the Middle Ages. His speeches inspired the founders of the United States. Julius Caesar and Sallust were outstanding historical writers of Cicero's time.

Caesar wrote commentaries on the Gallic and civil wars in a straightforward style to justify his actions as a general. Sallust adopted an pointed style in his historical works, he wrote brilliant descriptions of their motives. The birth of lyric poetry in Latin occurred during the same period; the short love lyrics of Catullus are noted for their emotional intensity. Catullus wrote poems that attacked his enemies. In his longer poems, he suggested images in delicate language. Contemporary with Catullus, Lucretius expounded the Epicurean philosophy in a long poem, De rerum natura. One of the most learned. Called "the most learned of the Romans" by Quintillian, he wrote about a remarkable variety of subjects, from religion to poetry, but only his writings on agriculture and the Latin language are extant in their complete form. The emperor Augustus took a personal interest in the literary works produced during his years of power from 27 BC to AD 14; this period is sometimes called the Augustan Age of Latin Literature.

Virgil published his pastoral Eclogues, the Georgics, the Aeneid, an epic poem describing the events that led to the creation of Rome. Virgil told. Virgil provided divine justifi

Adam Rickitt

Adam Peter Rickitt is an English actor and model. He portrayed the role Nick Tilsley in the ITV soap opera Coronation Street from 1997 to 1999, again from 2002 to 2004, he joined the pop group 5th Story, set up for The Big Reunion, before joining the Channel 4 soap Hollyoaks in 2017. He married Good Morning Britain presenter Katy Fawcett in 2014. Rickitt was born in the youngest of four brothers, his father is co-owner of an estate agency. Rickitt was educated at a boarding school in Cumbria. Rickitt has spoken publicly about suffering from bulimia in his teenage years and about how male sufferers have been neglected. Prior to his acting career, Rickitt was a child model, he subsequently modelled for magazines including Cosmopolitan. Rickitt is rose to fame for his role on the ITV soap opera Coronation Street, where he took over the role of Nick Tilsley in 1997; the part had been played by Warren Jackson until 1996. Rickitt left the series in 1999, returning in 2002 and for a longer spell from 2003 to 2004.

His most famous and controversial storyline was in 2003, when his character was involved in the series' first gay kiss with Todd Grimshaw. In March 2006, Rickitt took part in the Channel 4 reality series The Games, he took part as a replacement, after the scheduled contestant, had to pull out, following an accident. Rickitt himself sustained two black eyes after over-rotating off the diving board, he finished last in the contest. Rickitt joined the cast of Shortland Street in early 2007, portraying the role of Kieran Mitchell, with his first appearance being shown on 16 March 2007; the character was written out of the series in 2010, with Rickitt's final episode airing on 2 August 2010. He had said; as of 2017, Rickitt appears in the Channel 4 soap opera Hollyoaks, playing regular character Kyle Kelly. Rickitt left Coronation Street in 1999 to start a music career, he signed a six-album deal with Polydor, although he only released one album - Good Times - in 1999. Rickitt's first single, "I Breathe Again", reached number five in the UK and was certified Silver by BPI.

The album peaked at number 41 on the UK Albums Chart. Rickitt was dropped by his record label. In 1999, at a performance at The Prince's Trust Party in the Park, a member of the audience sprayed gas onto the stage when Rickitt was performing. Rickitt was taken to hospital. In 2010 Rickitt made an appearance at London's G-A-Y club and announced that he was working on a new album; the first single from it, "Tonight", failed to chart and the album wasn't released. In 2014, he became part of the supergroup 5th Story, who took part in the second series of The Big Reunion along with Kenzie from Blazin' Squad, Dane Bowers from Another Level and Gareth Gates. Rickitt starred as Mark Cohen before moving to London's West End, he made a return to the London stage to star in Bill Kenwright's production of Office Games, followed by a new play, Final Judgement, appeared in Nick Moran's play Telstar on UK tour in 2005. In December 2006, Rickitt appeared in his first pantomime, Cinderella, in the role of Prince Charming at the Norwich Theatre Royal.

In October 2005, Rickitt was approved as a prospective parliamentary candidate for the Conservative Party. In February 2006 he appeared as the non-partisan guest. In May 2006, he was one of 100 would-be MPs chosen for the Conservative party A-list; the following month, he appeared on Sunday AM with Andrew Marr. He attended national and local Conservative party functions in the hope of being selected as a candidate, however, a newspaper article alleged that he was not a member of the Conservative Party and had only decided to support them because of his dislike of Prime Minister Tony Blair. Rickitt refuted these claims and confirmed that he was a member, while the newspaper retracted its claims the following week. Along with David Cameron, he provoked the anger of Sir Nicholas Winterton when it was revealed that Rickitt was being tipped to stand for the safe Conservative seat of Macclesfield, which the outraged Winterton had represented for nearly thirty years. Winterton responded that he had no intention of standing down from this seat: "I wish Adam luck, but there are no vacancies here."Rickitt has been unsuccessful in progressing his political career.

According to his website, in July 2007 he decided to continue his acting career in New Zealand, rather than seek selection as a candidate, although politics remains a long-term goal. He returned to the political scene in October 2010 as a guest reporter for the ITV breakfast television programme Daybreak covering the Conservative Party Conference from Birmingham, hosted a conference gay party. Rickitt works for the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals as a capital appeals manager, he left in 2013 to begin working with the cancer charity Help Harry Help Others, Chief Executive of the mental health foundation, the Caerus Partnership. On 21 September 2007, Rickitt was arrested and charged with shoplifting a block of cheese, a bottle of HP sauce and a jar of coffee beans from an Auckland supermarket. During an interview with Herald on Sunday he claimed that it was an honest mistake though claimed that he was drunk at the time of the incident. Adam Rickitt on IMDb Official website

Environmental impact of cocoa production

The environmental effects of cocoa production Cocoa Beans are a high demand consumer item all over the world. They are used in products such as chocolate, candy bars and cocoa powder. However, cocoa farming and the production of cocoa beans are fragile and labour-intensive processes; the cocoa trees are called Cacao trees. The process begins with a Cacao plant, or Theobroma cacao, in which the beans are extracted from pods that grow directly on the cocoa trees branches; each pod contains 30 to 50 beans. After the beans are extracted they must go through a time-consuming process of natural fermenting and drying; the farming process of cocoa can damage the environment depending on the practices of the farmer, as well as be limited by the environment itself. Global Climate Change, for example, causes longer drought seasons making it more difficult for farmers to plant and sustain new Cacao trees. Most of the environmental impact comes from CO2. Cocoa farming can only occur 15 degrees south of the Equator.

It can take three years after planting for the trees to be fruitful enough to harvest the pods. Cocoa pods are pollinated by tiny flies called midges. Ripe cocoa pods, which are yellow in colour, are cut down from the trees using a machete. Use of a machete in this fashion, termed machete technology, prevents disease from spreading among cocoa pods, thereby decreases the need for pesticides; the pods can be low on branches and accessible or higher up on thick branches. Once they are gathered, they are sliced open and the cocoa beans are extracted from the pods; the beans are spread out between banana leaves, for a number of days to ferment. Next, the seeds are placed in the sun to dry for several more days. After drying, they are placed into bags and taken to collection offices. From there, they are shipped around the world to be processed into end products. Cocoa farms are small, family owned and operated businesses. There are 4.5 million cocoa farms around the world. The majority of cocoa farms are located in Côte Ghana.

In Ghina, Cocoa contributes 64% of all exports. Traditional cocoa farms are planted in the shade among other trees, they are found in the Tropical rainforest areas. Farming cocoa beans is a long process and many factors can affect the farm's yield. Farms' cocoa crop outputs struggle to match the increasing demand for chocolate, it is estimated that the demand for chocolate will increase twofold by the year 2050. Farmers have shifted towards unsustainable, less environmentally conscious practices to meet these demands; some farmers have shifted their crops out into direct sunlight. This practice yields a greater quantity at lower quality. Cacao trees with no shade tend to accumulate more weeds as well as be more susceptible to diseases such as Witches Broom and Frosty Pod Rot. If the crops begin to accumulate pests, farmers use large amounts of herbicides to rid the crops of these pests; the herbicides used the health of the sprayers applying the herbicide. Excessive spraying of pesticides can cause the weeds and insects to build up a resistance which will create more harm to the crops.

Cocoa farming contributes to rainforest and old growth forest deforestation. By clearing land in these forests, farmers decrease the biodiversity and interactions between the many different organisms that live in the area. Many wildlife habitats are destroyed and the plant species diversity is drastically reduced. Nutrients begin to leach out of the soil due to poor irrigation and inadequate soil protection, which can increase the erosion of the soil; the more intense the farming practices are, the more damaging they are to the ecosystem. Cocoa farming becomes a destructive circle as farmers wear out the soils and cut further into the forest to obtain fresh land. All of these processes stress the Cacao trees and result in lower yields, giving the opposite effect to what the farmers expect from these practices; some of the forests in Ghana and other Cocoa producing countries have been declared protected by the government after observing the Tropical Rainforest destruction. However, with a shortage of fresh land to plant Cacao trees, some farmers are beginning to illegally cut down parts of these protected forests.

It has been estimated that 50% of these protected forests have been cut down. On September 13, 2017 NGO Mighty Earth released a report documenting findings that Cargill, Olam International and Barry Callebaut purchase cocoa grown illegally in national parks and other protected forests in the Ivory Coast to feed demand from large chocolate companies like Mars, Hershey’s, Nestlé, Mondelez and Ferrero; the report accused the companies of endangering the forest habitats of chimpanzees and the many other wildlife populations by purchasing cocoa linked to deforestation. As a result of cocoa production, 7 of the 23 Ivorian protected areas have been entirely converted to cocoa. Cargill, Olam International and Barry Callebaut were notified of the findings of Mighty Earth’s investigation and did not deny that the company sourced its cocoa from protected areas in the Ivory Coast. Through groups and programs such as the World Cocoa Foundation, Rainforest Alliance, Roundtable for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy, activities of regional NGOs like Conservation Alliance, IITA and Solidaridad cocoa farming can return to its sustainable roots through education programs and help in finding ecologically and economically sound resources to further their farming.

As a last resort, some programs will help farmers to access pest control products such as biocides as an alternative to the harmful pestic