Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Prog is based on fusions of styles and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
The genre coincided with the mid 1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Prog faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Music critics, who labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to ignore it. After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms; some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog"; the Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog.
In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s; the term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" and "symphonic rock". "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. The first is progressive rock as it is understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more to have experimental or avant-garde influences. "Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but became a transferable adjective suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.
Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music and the moving image. Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes; when the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic. Critics of the genre limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While progressive rock is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s on Internet forums dedicated to prog. According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics.... They each do so unconsciously." Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Author Kevin Holm-Hudson ag
Rock en español
Rock en español is a term used in the English-speaking world to refer any kind of rock music featuring Spanish vocals. Unlike English-speaking bands few acts reached worldwide success and not between different Spanish-speaking countries due to a lack of promotion. Despite rock en español's origins in the late 1950s, many rock acts achieved at best nationwide fame until the Internet consolidated the listeners. However, some rock en español artists did become internationally popular with the help of a promotional campaign from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s called "Rock en tu idioma"; some specific rock-based styles influenced by folkloric rhythms have developed in these regions. Some of the more prominent styles are Latin rock, a fusion of rock music with Latin American and Caribbean folkloric sounds developed in Latino communities. Spanish-speaking rock music began in the late-1950s, through listening to performers like Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly and Bill Haley, who popularized rockabilly in the United States.
The song "El relojito" by Gloria Ríos released in 1956 is considered the blueprint of rock en español. In 1958, Ritchie Valens covered the Mexican folk song "La Bamba", popularizing Spanish-language rock music throughout Latin America; that year, Daniel Flores performed his hit song "Tequila". The new sound caught the attention of the middle and upper class; the first rock bands in Latin America were created in the late 1950s with Los Llopis and Los Teen Tops achieving some success covering American rock classics during the early 1960s. The Spanish scene received some influences of non-English-speaking countries with the Yé-yé style as could be seen with Raphael. In the early 1960s, those styles of commercial rock music were nicknamed Nueva ola in some South American countries to refer the bands that adopted the American and European styles. After the popularization of The Beatles and the world success of the British Invasion, the Hispanophone world adapted new styles like Beat music and blues, soul, folk-rock and pop music.
The influences of beat music and psychedelic pop were noticeable in some acts such as Los Brincos, El Kinto, Los Gatos or The Speakers, while other successful bands featured English and few Spanish vocals like Los Bravos or Los Shakers. Success outside of the native and Spanish-speaking scene proved difficult to attain though, the few hits these bands achieved worldwide were sung in English, as Miguel Ríos and Los Bravos did for example. Los Saicos were one of the oldest proto-punk bands in the world. By mid-decade the Mexican Carlos Santana moved north to California and soon joined the burgeoning San Francisco rock scene. Forming the band Santana towards the end of the sixties, he would gather a shifting group of musicians from mixed Anglo-Saxon and Hispanic backgrounds. S. Mexico, Europe and brought together elements of rock'n' roll and jazz with Latin percussion and harmonics; the band would alternate lyrics in Spanish and English. Although he is not a rock en español musician, Carlos Santana's background is that of a traditional Latin musician who has fused rock guitar with classic Latin American songs and a sizeable body of compositions by himself and his band.
Their hit song "Oye Como Va" is an example of Santana's fusion, being composed by famous Latin jazz and mambo musician Tito Puente. From the late 1960s on, concurrently with the success of Santana, there was a growing interest in Latin-American folk music and dancing as well as a worldwide cultural boom for Latin-American literature and its colourful, sometimes surrealist and magic realist storytelling, which sustained an interest in Latin music in general, though not always in Latin rock music as such. There was a noticeable Latin influence in 1970s jazz and some acts like Malo were performing Latin Rock during the same decade. However, styles like blues, acid rock, hard rock, prog rock would be influential around the next decade. Almendra, led by Luis Alberto Spinetta, was one of the most important prog bands of the late 1960s and Spinetta would become one of the most important artists of the 1970s rock en español scene, Influenced by the new trends of the 60's, psychedelic acts like Los Dug Dug's, Pescado Rabioso — or La Revolución de Emiliano Zapata.
Triana were pioneers of the Andalusian rock scene, a new style emeged in Spain that melt prog rock with flamenco. As the hard rock merged in the UK in the late 1960s, the first hard rock acts appeared in the early 1970s with bands like Pappo's Blues. A new hard rock movement influenced by prog and punk called Spanish Rock urbano lead the harder scene of the late 1970s with bands like Leño, but in these days appeared some repression of rock music in Mexico. The government forced artists, labels and r
Blues is a music genre and musical form, originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs and the folk music of white Americans of European heritage. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the blues form, ubiquitous in jazz and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars.
Early blues took the form of a loose narrative relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa; the origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is dated to after the ending of slavery and the development of juke joints, it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century; the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience white listeners.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning sadness; the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is used to describe a depressed mood, it is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862.
She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania, working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs; the lyrics of early traditional blues verses often consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars. Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" and "Saint Louis Blues", were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure.
W. C. Handy wrote; the lines are sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Early blues took the form of a loose narrative. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, hard times"; this melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. The lyrics relate troubles experienced within African American society. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could be humorous and raunchy: "Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, get your big legs off of m
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Gal Costa is a Brazilian singer of popular music. Gal Costa was born on September 26, 1945, in the city of Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia, Brazil, her mother, Mariah Costa Penna spent hours listening to classical music during her pregnancy in hopes that Gal would be interested in music. Gal's father, Arnaldo Burgos, died when the two would never meet. At the age of 10, Gal befriended sisters and Andréia Gadelha, the future spouses of singer-songwriters Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, respectively. At 14, she first listened to João Gilberto's "Chega de Saudade" on the radio and became interested in Bossa Nova, she went on to work as a clerk on Salvador's main record store to get closer to music. At 18, she was introduced to Caetano Veloso by Andréa Gadelha, engaging with him in a deep friendship that still lasts. Costa debuted her professional career on the night of August 22, 1964 at the concert Nós, por exemplo, where she performed alongside Veloso, Maria Bethânia and Tom Zé, among others.
The concert inaugurated the Vila Velha Theatre in her hometown. During the same year, she performed in Nova Bossa Velha, Velha Bossa Nova, at the same place and with the same singing partners, she left Salvador to live in the house of her cousin Nívea in Rio de Janeiro, following in the footsteps of Bethânia, whose concert Opinião had become a huge hit there. Costa's first professional recording happened on Bethânia's debut album, released in 1965, it was the duet "Sol Negro" written by Caetano Veloso. She released her first singles through RCA Records, "Eu vim da Bahia", written by Gil, "Sim, foi você", written by Veloso; the following year Costa met Gilberto and participated in TV Rio's 1st International Music Festival performing "Minha Senhora", written by Gil and Torquato Neto. It failed to captivate the Festival's audience. Costa's first album Domingo was released in 1967 through Philips Records, it was Veloso's debut. Costa stayed on the label, which became PolyGram, until 1983. One song released from this album, "Coração Vagabundo", became a huge hit.
The same year, Costa performed two songs on the 2nd International Music Festival, hosted by Rede Globo. They were "Bom Dia", written by Gil and Nana Caymmi, "Dadá Maria", written by Renato Teixeira; the latter was performed with Teixeira on the recording. In 1968, Costa became a part of the tropicália movement, she recorded four songs on Tropicália: ou Panis et Circenses. They were "Mamãe coragem", written by Veloso and Torquato Neto, "Parque industrial", by Tom Zé, "Enquanto seu lobo não vem", by Veloso, "Baby" by Veloso; the latter became. The same year, she participated in the 3rd International Music Festival, performing "Gabriela Mais Bela", written by Roberto and Erasmo Carlos. In November, she participated on Rede Record's 4th Music Festival, performing the song "Divino Maravilhoso", by Gil and Veloso; the song became a nationwide hit and a classic song of popular music. In 1969, Costa released her eponymous solo debut album, which included "Baby" and "Divino Maravilhoso"; the album is considered a Tropicalismo classic, balanced between Brazilian stylizations and North American psychedelic influences.
It featured Costa's third and fourth solo hits, Jorge Ben Jor's "Que pena" and Veloso's "Não identificado", respectively. In the same year, she recorded her second solo album, titled Gal, featuring the hits "Meu nome é Gal", by Roberto and Erasmo Carlos, "Cinema Olympia", by Veloso; the album served as the basis for the repertoire of the concert Gal! Her next album, was not as far from the mainstream as its predecessor, a live album the following year again balanced smooth Brazilian sounds with heavy rock. In 1973, the cover of Costa's album Índia was censored — it focuses on her red bikini bottom. Costa has recorded songs composed by a number of Brazil's most popular songwriters such as Tom Jobim and Erasmo Carlos. In 1982 the single "Festa Do Interior" from the double album Fantasia became her biggest hit, going multi-platinum by the end of the year. Costa appeared in the 1995 film The Mandarin as the singer Carmen Miranda, she has recorded songs in Portuguese and English. 1971: -Fa-Tal- Gal a Todo Vapor 1976: Doces Bárbaros 1986: Jazzvisions: Rio Revisited 1997: Acústico MTV 1999: Gal Costa Canta Tom Jobim Ao Vivo 2006: Gal Costa Live at the Blue Note 2006: Gal Costa Ao Vivo 2013: Recanto Ao Vivo De Stefano, Gildo, Il popolo del samba, La vicenda e i protagonisti della storia della musica popolare brasiliana, Preface by Chico Buarque de Hollanda, Introduction by Gianni Minà, RAI-ERI, Rome 2005, ISBN 8839713484 De Stefano, Saudade Bossa Nova: musiche, contaminazioni e ritmi del Brasile, Preface by Chico Buarque, Introduction by Gianni Minà, Logisma Editore, Firenze 2017, ISBN 978-88-97530-88-6 Official website Official Argentinian website Gal Costa at AllMusic Gal Costa discography at Discogs Gal Costa on IMDb Gal Costa at Slipcue.com – English-language discography with reviews
Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture as found in Southern California. It was popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms; the first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys. Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristics, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach. The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. Dale is quoted on such groups: "They were surfing sounds surfing lyrics. In other words, the music wasn't surfing music; the words made them surfing songs....
That was the difference... the real surfing music is instrumental."At the height of its popularity, surf music rivaled girl groups and Motown for top American popular music trends. It is sometimes referred to interchangeably with the California Sound. During the stages of the surf music craze, many of its groups started to write songs about cars and girls. Surf music emerged in the late 1950s as instrumental rock and roll music always in straight 4/4 time, with a medium to fast tempo; the sound was dominated by electric guitars which were characterized by the extensive use of the "wet" spring reverb, incorporated into Fender amplifiers from 1961, thought to emulate the sound of the waves. The outboard separate Fender Reverb Unit, developed by Fender in 1961 was the actual first "wet" surf reverb tone; this unit is the reverb effect heard on Dick Dale records, others such as "Pipeline" by the Chantays and "Point Panic" by the Surfaris. It had more of a wet "plucky" tone than the "built in" amp reverb, due to a different circuitry.
Guitarists made use of the vibrato arm on their guitar to bend the pitch of notes downward, electronic tremolo effects and rapid tremolo picking. Guitar models favored included those made by Fender, Teisco, or Danelectro with single coil pickups. Surf music was one of the first genres to universally adopt the electric bass the Fender Precision Bass. Classic surf drum kits tended to be Rogers, Gretsch or Slingerland; some popular songs incorporated a tenor or baritone saxophone, as on The Lively Ones' "Surf Rider" and The Revels' "Comanche". An electric organ or an electric piano featured as backing harmony. By the early 1960s, instrumental rock and roll had been pioneered by performers such as Link Wray, The Ventures and Duane Eddy; this trend was developed by Dick Dale, who added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, the distinctive reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristic of the genre. His performances at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa, California during the summer of 1961, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" that year, launched the surf music craze, which he followed up with hits like "Misirlou".
Like Dale and his Del-Tones, most early surf bands were formed in Southern California, with Orange County in particular having a strong surf culture, the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa hosted many surf-styled acts. Groups such as The Bel-Airs, The Challengers and Eddie & the Showmen followed Dale to regional success; the Chantays scored a top ten national hit with "Pipeline", reaching number 4 in May 1963. The single-most famous surf tune hit was "Wipe Out" by the Surfaris, with its intro of a wicked laugh; the group had two other global hits, "Surfer Joe" and "Point Panic". The growing popularity of the genre led groups from other areas to try their hand; these included The Astronauts, from Boulder, Colorado. The Atlantics, from Sydney, were not surf musicians, but made a significant contribution to the genre, the most famous example being their hit "Bombora". From Sydney were The Denvermen, whose lyrical instrumental "Surfside" reached number 1 in the Australian charts. Another Australian surf band who were known outside their own country's surf scene was The Joy Boys, backing band for singer Col Joye.
European bands around this time focused more on the style played by British instrumental rock group The Shadows. A notable example of European surf instrumental is Spanish band Los Relámpagos' rendition of "Misirlou"; the Dakotas, who were the British backing band for Merseybeat singer Billy J. Kramer, gained some attention as surf musicians with "Cruel Sea", covered by The Ventures, other instrumenta
Psychedelia is the subculture, originating in the 1960s, of people who use psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. The term is used to describe a style of psychedelic artwork and psychedelic music. Psychedelic art and music try to recreate or reflect the experience of altered consciousness. Psychedelic art uses distorted and surreal visuals, bright colors and full spectrums and animation to evoke and convey to a viewer or listener the artist's experience while using such drugs, or to enhance the experience of a user of these drugs. Psychedelic music uses distorted electric guitar, Indian music elements such as the sitar, electronic effects, sound effects and reverberation, elaborate studio effects, such as playing tapes backwards or panning the music from one side to another; the term "psychedelic" is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, translating to "soul-revealing". A psychedelic experience is characterized by the striking perception of aspects of one's mind unknown, or by the creative exuberance of the mind liberated from its ostensibly ordinary fetters.
Psychedelic states are an array of experiences including changes of perception such as hallucinations, altered states of awareness or focused consciousness, variation in thought patterns, trance or hypnotic states, mystical states, other mind alterations. These processes can lead some people to experience changes in mental operation defining their self-identity different enough from their previous normal state that it can excite feelings of newly formed understanding such as revelation, enlightenment and psychosis. Psychedelic states may be elicited by various techniques, such as meditation, sensory stimulation or deprivation, most by the use of psychedelic substances; when these psychoactive substances are used for religious, shamanic, or spiritual purposes, they are termed entheogens. The term was first coined as a noun in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. Seeking a name for the experience induced by LSD, Osmond contacted Aldous Huxley, a personal acquaintance and advocate for the therapeutic use of the substance.
Huxley coined the term "phanerothyme," from the Greek terms for "manifest" and "spirit". In a letter to Osmond, he wrote: To make this mundane world sublime, Take half a gram of phanerothyme To which Osmond responded: To fathom Hell or soar angelic, Just take a pinch of psychedelic It was on this term that Osmond settled, because it was "clear and uncontaminated by other associations." This mongrel spelling of the word'psychedelic' was loathed by American ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes, but championed by Timothy Leary, who thought it sounded better. Due to the expanded use of the term "psychedelic" in pop culture and a perceived incorrect verbal formulation, Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Jonathan Ott, R. Gordon Wasson proposed the term "entheogen" to describe the religious or spiritual experience produced by such substances. From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use.
In the same period Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, or "acid", began to be used in the US and UK as an experimental treatment promoted as a potential cure for mental illness. In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other hallucinogens was advocated by proponents of the new "consciousness expansion", such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, their writings profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. There had long been a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, use of drugs had begun to grow among folk and rock musicians, who began to include drug references in their songs. By the mid-1960s, the psychedelic life-style had developed in California, an entire subculture developed; this was true in San Francisco, due in part to the first major underground LSD factory, established there by Owsley Stanley. There was an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations catering to a population of students at nearby Berkeley, to free thinkers that had gravitated to the city.
From 1964, the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events based around the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony. The Pranksters helped popularize LSD use through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Leary was a well-known proponent of the use of psychedelics. However, both advanced different opinions on the broad use of psychedelics by state and civil society. Leary promulgated the idea of such substances as a panacea, while Huxley suggested that only the cultural and intellectual elite should partake of entheogens systematically. In the 1960s the use of psychedelic drugs became widespread in modern Western culture in the United States and Britain.
The movement is cre