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Latveria is a fictional nation appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. It is depicted within the storylines of Marvel's comic titles as an isolated European country ruled by the fictional Supreme Lord Doctor Doom located in the Banat region, it is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, borders Symkaria to the south. Its capital is Doomstadt. Latveria first appeared in Fantastic Four Annual #2, published in 1964. Victor von Doom is the ruler of Latveria. Though he has been dethroned a number of times, Victor has invariably managed to return to the throne of his country within a matter of months. Victor has a council who obey him entirely. In Fantastic Four #536 in 2006, he killed his own Prime Minister for claiming control of Latveria in his absence and threatened to kill two other ministers if they failed to find the landing spot of Thor's hammer. Doctor Doom's style of rule can best be described as an absolute monarchy, as it was revealed that there is no legislature, one minister boasted "Doctor Doom decides everything.

His slightest whim is Latverian law!" It is shown Doom has devices throughout the Kingdom to watch his people and has hidden weapons to prevent them leaving without his consent. In one story he is able to activate a force field around Latveria which prevents anybody leaving, though it can be a defense against nuclear attack. Latveria was formed out of land annexed from southern Hungary centuries before, land from Serbia as well as Romania. At some point, Doctor Doom had his army of Servo Guards invade Rotruvia where he was successful at annexing it. Due to Doom's undertakings that drive him away from Latveria, the monarch is absent. After Doom's descent into Hell, the nation became a target for conquest by the neighboring countries; this forces Reed Richards to seize control of the country, attempting to pry the populace out from under the thumb of Doom, while at the same time disarming all of Doom's weaponry and technology, so if he returned, he would come back to nothing. In the process, Richards relocated Doom from Hell into a pocket dimension of his own design, although Doom used his consciousness-switching abilities to escape, the death of his host body caused him to die as well, the Fantastic Four pulled out of the country.

However Doom survives this and rules Latveria for a time with a'puppet' Prime Minister and robotic enforcers. After the Fantastic Four left, the United States attempted to fill the void left by Doom by establishing a democracy for the nation; the Countess Lucia von Bardas was elected as Prime Minister. However, when it was revealed that von Bardas was employing the Tinkerer to use Doom's technology to arm various tech-based villains in the United States, S. H. I. E. L. D. Commander Nick Fury took action. During Secret War, Fury and a number of superheroes invaded Latveria without permission of the US Government and attempted to assassinate von Bardas. While von Bardas survived, she was horribly disfigured and sought to destroy Fury and the heroes responsible, she was killed by S. H. I. E. L. D. Agent Daisy Johnson while trying to blow up New York with the armor of the various villains she employed. Much of Latveria was destroyed and the population reduced by an attack executed by the Marquis of Death. S. H.

I. E. L. D. Under the leadership of Iron Man and his team of U. S. sanctioned Avengers invaded Latveria after discovering Doom's involvement in the release of a symbiote virus on New York. The country was yet again devastated and Doom was taken into custody for crimes against humanity. Doom is released from prison due to the influence of H. A. M. M. E. R director Norman Osborn, he restores his nation with the use of his time travel technology. During the Avengers vs. X-Men storyline, Spider-Man fights against a Juggernaut-empowered Colossus here; the common geographic description of Latveria places it as a small nation, around the area where Hungary and Serbia meet in real life. To its south in the Marvel universe is the nation of Symkaria, depicted as a benevolent constitutional monarchy in contrast to the dictatorship to its north; the capital city of Latveria is Doomstadt Hassenstadt, renamed when Doom seized power, located just north of the Kline River. The administrative center is Castle Doom. Population: 500,000 Type of Government: Dictatorship Languages: German, English, Romanian.

Ethnic Groups: Mixed European stock, Roma, Greek Bulgarians who migrated in Banat during the Ottoman rule in Bulgaria Major Business Centers: None Currency: Latverian Franc Public Holidays: Doom's Day, New Year Airports: The only airport for the country, lies on the southern outskirts of Doomstadt. It maintains two runways and a modern terminal, but flights into and out of Doomsport are quite limited. There have been no scheduled flights from Latveria to western European nations or the United States, due to a combination of Latveria's poor economy, international embargoes, that no major airline has seen profit in establishing a route to Latveria. Doomsburg - Doomsdale - Doomstadt - The capital of Latveria, replacing on the map the real-life Romanian city of Timișoara; the "City of Doom" Doomsvale - Doomton - Doomwood - Boar's Vale - Castle Doom - An ancient castle with modern-day technology, home to Victor Von Doom. Citadel

Canny Leung

Canny Leung Chi-Shan is a Hong Kong songwriter and author. Graduated at Belilios Public School and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, she was active at modelling and starred at television commercials, print advertisements and music videos in her youth. Leung moved on to be an emcee at television and radio programs, she performed at The Justice of Life a Hong Kong classic television drama, starring alongside Stephen Chow Sing-chi and Anthony Wong Chau-sang Since 1990, Leung has been writing lyrics and was a lyricist of many music artists, such as Andy Hui, Sammi Cheng, Kelly Chen. While releasing her literary works, in newspapers and magazines, like Apple Daily, Oriental Daily, The Sun, Ming Pao, Hong Kong Economic Times, Hong Kong Economic Journal and Elle, she has over 60 fiction works published, amongst them, "Bakery Amour" and the "Four-leaf Clover" Series have been adapted into film and a collection of television dramas respectively. Her works broadened to consist of radio drama scripts and movie screenplays.

Leung founded the Hong Kong Pegasus named Tin Shui Wai Pegasus Football Club in 2008, for community building and improving the new town's reputation at Tin Shui Wai. At its initial season, Pegasus won the champions at the Hong Kong Senior Shield. Given her continual efforts, brands including Sony PlayStation, Energy Watt, started to offer support to Pegasus. In 2015, Leung has picked up the role of chairman, she wanted a youthful and lively image for the team, therefore Pegasus recruited local footballers under the age of 28 to act as key players. Former players who have been signed under Leung's stewardship including Lee Ka Yiu, Tan Chun Lok, Lo Kong Wai, Leung Kwun Chung, Leung Nok Hang have been capped by the Hong Kong national football team

Association of Business Trial Lawyers (ABTL)

The Association of Business Trial Lawyers, founded in 1973, is a voluntary bar association with members in five chapters throughout California, including Los Angeles, Northern California, Orange County, San Diego, the San Joaquin Valley. ABTL's membership includes business litigators from both plaintiff and defense practices and judges and justices; the ABTL provides a forum in which litigators and jurists meet to address issues important to both commercial trial lawyers and the judicial bench. ABTL's goal is to provide a forum for exchanging ideas and information regarding business litigation. From its start in 1973, it has been committed to promoting and enhancing communications between all sides of the business bar and the federal and state benches. ABTL provides a forum for presentations on relevant legal issues, demonstrations of trial and litigation strategies, discussion of issues faced by business litigators advocating and jurists deciding business cases. ABTL has been certified by the State Bar of California to provide continuing legal education programs and credits.

ABTL has five chapters serving legal communities throughout California: Los Angeles Northern California Orange County San Diego San Joaquin Valley Each chapter of the ABTL produces a publication called the ABTL Report, which addresses issues of interest to business trial lawyers. Articles cover shifts in the law and analyze controlling precedent, notify lawyers of important updates to statutes, as well as court and local rules. Other articles address litigation tips, such as writing tools. Copies of the ABTL Reports are publicly available on ABTL's website. ABTL has adopted guidelines for civility for lawyers engaged in litigation; the goal of the guidelines is to eliminate unnecessary conflict and to reduce the level of contentiousness and stress in the resolution of legal disputes. ABTL members are encouraged to adopt these guidelines in their everyday practice. ABTL's home page

Mandolin Concerto (Vivaldi)

The Mandolin Concerto in C major, RV 425, was written by the Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi in 1725 and is accompanied by The Four Seasons. The music consists of virtuosic treatment of the solo instrument, the mandolin, the interplay between the soloist and accompaniment of the orchestra; the demands are considered higher than other concerti by Vivaldi, the work is one of the most famous mandolin pieces. Music from the concerto was featured in the 1979 movie Kramer vs. Kramer and in the 2015 commercial The Gentleman's Wager II by Johnnie Walker. There are three movements: Allegro Largo AllegroThe first movement is a rapid, cheerful tune lasting more than three minutes. Throughout the piece, Vivaldi creates sharp and low contrasts between the mandolin and the rest of the orchestra, attracting much attention to several crescendos within the music; the second movement, is less than three minutes long, in contrast to the rapid and enthusiastic tune of the first movement, is slower and thoughtful in its composition.

List of compositions by Antonio Vivaldi Mandolin Concerto in C major, RV 425: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Mandolin Concerto in C major on YouTube, played by Avi Avital in 2012

Andrew Russell Barbee Jr.

Andrew Russell Barbee Jr. was a surgeon in the Confederate service during the American Civil War. He was president of the U. S. Board of Pension Examiners, secretary of the State Board of Health. While a member of the West Virginia Senate, he was the author of the bill regulating the practice of medicine and surgery, that creating the State Board of Health; the family descends from the French-Huguenot John Barbee. Barbee was born in Rappahannock County, Virginia, he was one of eleven children of Andrew Russell Barbee Sr. of French and Welsh descent, Nancy Barbee, of Irish and German descent. Andrew Sr. operated a toll road through Thornton Gap. His siblings included brothers George, Col. Gabriel Thomas, the sculptor William Randolph, Lewis Conner, Joseph. Barbee was the nephew of 10th Secretary of State of Alabama. Barbee had been a tanner by trade, he was educated at Petersburg, Virginia before studying medicine under Dr. J. J. Thompson of Luray, Virginia at the University of Pennsylvania, at Richmond Medical College, before graduating M. D. in April, 1851 from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

He began his early medical practice at Flint Hill, Rappahannock County, before moving to Criglersville Madison County, Virginia in 1852. Afterwards, he went to planting and farming at Poca, West Virginia, where he remained till the breaking out of the Civil war, his practice is general, but he has devoted himself to surgery and chronic diseases. Although opposed to the principle or practice of secession, duty as a Virginian impelled Barbee to enter the Confederate army, referring to himself as a "protectionist," and by no means a "civil service reformer." In 1859, during the excitement of the John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, he organized a volunteer company of militia under the laws of the state of Virginia, when the state seceded in 1861, the company enlisted in the Confederate service as Company A of the Twenty-second Virginia Regiment, he commanded it as captain. He fought in the Kanawha valley campaign. On May 2, 1862, Barbee was promoted to lieutenant-colonel of the same regiment and served in that capacity until retired for disability, he having been wounded in the battle of Dry Creek, August 26, 1863.

When recovered of his wounds in January 1864, he retired from active service. He was subsequently assigned to duty in the medical department of the Confederate army, on the staff of Gen. John C. Breckinridge in a medico-military capacity, serving with him in the valley in 1864; when Breckinridge was called to another department, Barbee was left colonel commanding, chief medical officer. At a still date, Barbee was assigned to the medical charge of the Virginia reserve forces of Southwest Virginia, was in all the battles of that department, he retained this position at the Appomattox Court House. At the close of the war, Barbee located at Buffalo, West Virginia removing to Point Pleasant, West Virginia, continuing the practice of the physician and surgeon, he was a member of the State Senate in 1880-1884, serving one term of four years, at the end of which he was a candidate for Congress on the Republican ticket. Though twice a nominee for Congress, he was defeated both times. Barbee was a member of the Mason County Medical Association, Gallia County Medical Association, of the Ohio Valley Medical Association.

A member of the West Virginia State Medical Association, he was elected its president in 1875. He held office as trustee of boards of education and other public bodies, he married, on Margaret Ann Gillespie, daughter of Dr. John J. and Ann Thompson. The Barbee's children included John, Mary Blanche, Kate Louise, Ann Rebecca, Hugh Arthur

Sebastian Kappen

Sebastian Kappen was an Indian Jesuit priest and liberation theologian. Born into a traditional Nasrani family in Kodikulam, during the British Raj, Kappen entered the Society of Jesus at the age of 20, was ordained a priest on 24 March 1957, he pursued studies at the Gregorian University, obtaining a doctorate in Theology with a thesis on Religious Alienation and Praxis according to Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. This was a time, in India. Away from scholasticism and its essentialism, he found in Marxian tools of social analysis effective instruments to understand the people's alienation from freedom and loss of ability to contribute to the wellbeing of society. Henceforth, Freud and the gospel of Mark became the dialectical poles of Kappen's thought and life, in view of liberating the human person from hidden oppressive psychological and social forces. Healing and wholeness are found in the person of the Son of God, his theological stances evoked strong criticism in traditional circles of the Church.

In 1972 Kappen moved out of Jesuit large institutions and started living among the poor wherever he was posted: in Cochin, in Trivandrum and Bangalore as well. Despite regular attempts to bring him back into regular Jesuit community life, his superiors consented to let him adopt a lifestyle more conducive to his creative writing, his locus theologicus was the people, the poor. His studies were geared towards transformative social action in India; this led him to a study of the liberating and humanizing potential of the original teachings of Jesus, with a strong preference for the Gospel of Mark. He drew on Indian traditions that of religious dissent represented by the Buddha and the medieval Bhakti Movement, he lectured extensively on the cultural restructuring of Indian society. Critical of systems and institutions, Kappen felt his search was leading him beyond denominational and religious affiliations as well as political ideology. In Kappen's view, No political, religious or economic system was absolute, but were all to be valued only insofar as they serve the people.

Thus, he felt that party and their ideologies of religious ones, could act as spiritual prisons, which he did not want to be confined in, while Jesus offered freedom. This stance in particular brought him into conflict with Rome. In 1977, he published Jesus and Freedom, with an introduction by the Belgian priest and professor at the Louvain University François Houtart; the book came under official Church scrutiny. Kappen responded with the Future of Asian Theology, he wrote: “I write with responsibility. There can be errors in my work. I am not infallible. Responsible thinkers and scholars the world over could sift my work. In public discussions we can learn from one another; that is how truth grows in history: through a social process, not through secret censorship”. Kappen was censured for the publication. Kappen had been visiting professor to the Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Vidyajyoti College of Theology, The Catholic University of Louvain and Maryknoll Seminary. Kappen began experiencing heart problems in the 1980s.

He first quit smoking began slowing his intellectual pursuits. Nonetheless, he was incensed by the bombing of Iraq in the gulf war of 1990-1991, it is possible that this heightened emotional state contributed to a fatal heart attack on 30 November 1993. Kappen died in Bangalore. Jesus and Freedom, Orbis Books, New York, 1977. Marxian Atheism, 1983. Jesus and Cultural Revolution. Liberation Theology and Marxism, 1986; the Future of Socialism and Socialism of the Future, Bangalore, 1992. Vswäsathilninnu Viplavathilèkku,1972. Marxian Darsśnathinu Orämukham, 1989 Pravachanam Prathisamskruthi,1992. Akraistavanäya Yèśuviné Thèdi, 1999. Tradition Modernity Counterculture, 1994. Hindutva and Indian Religious Traditions, 2000. Divine Challenge and Human Response, 2001. Jesus and Society, ISPCK, Delhi, 2002. Jesus and Culture, ISPCK, Delhi, 2002. Towards a Holistic Cultural Paradigm, 2003. Philip Mathew and Ajit Murickan, Religion and counterculture. Kappen, Bangalore, 1987. Prathi-samskruthiyilekku, Manusham Publications, Ettumanoor, 2008.

Sebastian Kappen