Zviazda is a state-owned daily newspaper in Belarus. Zvyazda was founded in 1917 as an organ of the Minsk Committee of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Zviazda was twice closed down by the Russian Provisional Government but continued being published under different names. At some periods of World War I and the Polish-Soviet war Zviazda was printed in Smolensk, from 10 July 1944 Zviazda has been published in Minsk. Till 1991 it was a newspaper of the Communist Party of Belarus. During the Soviet era, the received the Order of the Great Patriotic War. Since August 1927 the newspaper is printed in Belarusian language only and it is the only daily newspaper published in Belarusian language in the country. During World War II remaining communists tried to publish the newspaper illegally on the territory of Nazi-occupied Belarus, Zviazda is owned by the Belarus government. In 2012 its print was reduced to 30,000 copies, eastern Bloc information dissemination Zviazda on-line
The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact. The terms Communist Bloc and Soviet Bloc were used to denote groupings of states aligned with the Soviet Union, although these terms might include states outside Central and Eastern Europe. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a socialist island, Eastern Poland, Estonia and Bessarabia in northern Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence. Lithuania was added in a secret protocol in September 1939. During the Occupation of East Poland by the Soviet Union, the Soviets liquidated the Polish state, Soviet authorities immediately started a campaign of sovietization of the newly Soviet-annexed areas. Soviet authorities collectivized agriculture, and nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property, the international community condemned this initial annexation of the Baltic states and deemed it illegal.
In June 1941, Germany broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by invading the Soviet Union, from the time of this invasion to 1944, the areas annexed by the Soviet Union were part of Germanys Ostland. Thereafter, the Soviet Union began to push German forces westward through a series of battles on the Eastern Front, from 1943 to 1945, several conferences regarding Post-War Europe occurred that, in part, addressed the potential Soviet annexation and control of countries in Central Europe. I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he wont try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace. While meeting with Stalin and Roosevelt in Tehran in 1943, Churchill stated that Britain was vitally interested in restoring Poland as an independent country, Britain did not press the matter for fear that it would become a source of inter-allied friction. In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of influence in Central Europe.
Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany, after resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current pro-Soviet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland. He stated that the new primary task would be to prepare elections. In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for war booty, which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. At first, the Soviets concealed their role in other Eastern Bloc politics, as a young communist was told in East Germany, its got to look democratic, but we must have everything in our control. Moscow-trained cadres were put into crucial power positions to fulfill orders regarding sociopolitical transformation, elimination of the bourgeoisies social and financial power by expropriation of landed and industrial property was accorded absolute priority.
These measures were publicly billed as reforms rather than socioeconomic transformations, the bloc system permitted the Soviet Union to exercise domestic control indirectly. Crucial departments such as responsible for personnel, general police, secret police
Radio drama is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance, broadcast on radio. Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was an international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, radio drama lost some of its popularity, recordings of OTR survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive. As of 2011, radio drama has a presence on terrestrial radio in the United States. Much of American radio drama is restricted to rebroadcasts or podcasts of programs from previous decades, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4. Like the USA, Australia ABC has abandoned broadcasting drama but New Zealand RNZ continues to promote, podcasting has offered the means of creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs.
Thanks to advances in recording and Internet distribution, radio drama was experiencing a revival in 2010. The terms audio drama or audio theatre are used synonymously with radio drama, however. Audio drama can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s, In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’. English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States, a Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch specifically written for radio, aired on Pittsburghs KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker. Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other experiments by Americas commercial radio stations. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original aired from WJZs Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed a play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922. Aware of this series, the director of Cincinnatis WLW began regularly broadcasting one-acts in November, the success of these projects led to imitators at other stations.
By the spring of 1923, original pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati, Philadelphia. That same year, WLW and WGY sponsored scripting contests, inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations dramatic troupes
Trud (Russian newspaper)
Truds first issue was on February 19,1921, in Moscow, in what was the Soviet Union. Under the Soviet state, the published the work of famous writers and poets, including Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Rubtsov, Yuri Nagibin. Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Trud was the organ of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. It emphasized labor and economic analyses and included official decrees and orders, in 1990 the papers circulation reached 21.5 million, the worlds largest according to the Guinness Book of Records. In the years following the end of the Soviet Union, about 21 million of these readers were lost, in 2007, the media asset management group PromSvyazCapital created the holding company Media3. Media3s holdings included Trud, other newspapers including Arguments and Facts, in February 2008, the daily newspaper was completely re-branded, the format changed from broadsheet to full-color tabloid, and the only nationwide job classifieds section included. In 2009 the papers website saw a major updating, on May 1,2011, after a number of editorial changes, Media3 terminated its contract with the publishing house JSC for JSC to produce content for Trud.
The announced reason was to cut costs and improve the profitability of all the businesses held by the media company Media3, content for Trud was to be purchased from editorial units of the holding company, particularly Arguments and Facts. Media3 contemplated the sale of some publishing projects operating under the Trud brand, in January 2012, Trud was purchased from Media3 by Newspaper Labor LLC and returned to its historic building at 9 Grand Dmitrovka Street. In February 2012 was announced that the new owners of Trud would be the Institute of Free Journalism, founded by Sergei Choi, as of 2013, Labor is published three times a week. Eastern Bloc information dissemination Official website
Radio broadcasting is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a radio format. Audio broadcasting can be done via radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio, the earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated, the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an oscillation valve, the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the direction because the plate was not heated. Later known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and this greatly improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cats whisker.
However, what was required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4,1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25,1906 and it wasnt put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was quickly becoming viable, however, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year, in The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6,1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station. In 1916, Frank Conrad, an engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg. Later, the station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2,1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America.
The commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license, the first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself, the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconis New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920 and she was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922, the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923
Trybuna Ludu was one of the largest newspapers in communist Poland. It was the media outlet of the Polish United Workers Party. On 16 December 1948, Polands primary two communist parties, the Polish Socialist Party and the Polish Workers Party, were combined to form Polish United Workers Party, the parties respective newspapers, Robotnik and Głos Ludu, were merged as well, and Trybuna Ludu was formed. Through the 20th century, the media in Poland was entirely controlled by the PZPR, the contents of Trybuna Ludu and its smaller competitors were marked by the idea of reliance on the party. Being the official party newspaper, Trybuna Luda dominated the market, by the end of 1981, circulation topped 1 million. Despite growing opposition to the party, the number of Trybuna Ludu subscribers continued to grow, the paper had a circulation of 1,900,000 copies in 1989. The break-up of the PZPR began on 28 January 1990, just hours after the issue of Trybuna Ludu was printed. Despite an attempted relaunch as Trybuna Kongresowa, the paper was unable to survive the fall of communism in Poland, after 1990, much of its tradition was unofficially taken over by Trybuna, a newly created Polish left-wing newspaper.
At its peak, the number of readers was a small 50,000, because of poor economic conditions, printing was halted in late 2009
Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording, prior to the development of analog recording, there were mechanical systems for reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and later, in the late 19th century, player pianos. Analog sound reproduction is the process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of digitization. This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a variety of media. Whereas successive copies of an analog recording tend to degrade in quality, as noise is added. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound, long before sound was first recorded on cylinders or records, music was recorded—first by written music notation, also by mechanical devices.
Fowler, this. cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century. The Banu Musa brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine, according to Fowler, the automata were a robot band that performed. more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection. In the 14th century, Flanders introduced a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder, similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, and musical boxes. A music box is a musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb. They were developed from musical snuff boxes of the 18th century, some of the more complex boxes have a tiny drum and/or bells, in addition to the metal comb. The fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books, the player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store an long piece of music.
The most sophisticated of the rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual. This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904, piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, the use of piano rolls began to decline in the 1920s although one type is still being made today. The first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, the earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857. They consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements