A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Tipton County, Tennessee
Tipton County is a county located on the western end of the U. S. state of Tennessee, in the Mississippi Delta region. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,081, its county seat is Covington. Tipton County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. From about 10,000 BCE, Paleo-Indians and Archaic-Indians lived as communities of hunter-gatherers in the area that covers the modern day southern United States. From 800 CE to 1600 CE, the Mississippi Delta was populated by tribes of the Mississippian culture, a mound-building Native American people who had developed in the late Woodland Indian period. While there were chiefdoms and centers along the Mississippi and its tributaries, their major center was at Cahokia, in present-day Illinois east of St. Louis, Missouri; the Tipton Phase people were a local expression of the Mississippian culture. They still inhabited the region of modern-day Tipton County during the time of first contact with Europeans, at the arrival of the Spanish Hernando de Soto Expedition.
By the end of the Mississippian period, the land was populated by the Chickasaw tribe. The exact origins of the Chickasaw are uncertain. Around 1800, Europeans began settling the Chickasaw-inhabited lands east of the Mississippi River. Chickasaw land in what became known as West Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky was ceded in the Jackson Purchase. Both states grew as a result of this purchase. In 1818, both sides agreed to the transfer by signing the Treaty of Tuscaloosa; the Chickasaw were to be paid annuities for 15 years, but the United States was late with payment, or forced the people to take the value in goods. These were delayed or were of poor quality. Due to topographic changes caused by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes, part of what is now Tipton County was cut off from the state of Tennessee by a change in the course of the Mississippi River; the earthquake changed the course of the river near the settlement of Tennessee. The old riverbed is west of Reverie; the river now runs east of Reverie, putting Reverie on the Arkansas side, while most of the area of Tipton County is located east of the river, on the Tennessee side.
Tipton County attracted European-American settlers who established cotton plantations on its fertile soils and either brought or purchased enslaved African Americans as field labor and house servants. This area was part of the cotton culture associated with the Mississippi Delta, that extended down to the Yazoo River in Mississippi. With the increase in population, the county was established on October 29, 1823 from parts of Shelby County, which borders Tipton County in the south; the land was former Chickasaw Indian territory. The county was named for Jacob Tipton, whose direct ancestor was Sir Anthony de Tipton, who in 1282, is said to have slaid the Prince of Wales at the Battle of Snowdon. Jacob's father, from Armistead Blevins, supervised the organization of Shelby County. Tipton was killed by Native Americans in 1791 in a conflict over the Northwest Territory. Jacob Tipton was the son of John Tipton, a rival of John Sevier during Tennessee's State of Franklin period. Early Mississippi River steamboat commerce flourished in Tipton County.
In 1830, the community of Randolph, one of the earliest settlements in Tipton County, was the most important shipping point in Tennessee and an early rival of Memphis for commercial supremacy. But its fortunes declined in years. Riverboat traffic yielded to freight being shipped by railroad; the first rail service in Tipton County was established in December 1855, when the Memphis and Ohio Railroad completed the route from Memphis to Nashville, running through what is now Mason. Two Civil War forts, Fort Randolph and Fort Wright, were built near the settlement because of its strategic location on the second Chickasaw Bluff of the Mississippi River. Following the Civil War, investment in infrastructure was renewed, the Memphis and Paducah Railroad completed the tracks to Covington in July 1873. A telegraph line between Memphis and Covington was opened in 1882. In 1894, Covington was connected to electricity. Forced water mains have provided residents of Covington with water since 1898. In 1922, street paving began in the county seat.
Since 1929, residents of Covington have had access to natural gas. In the South Main Historic District in Covington, about 50 residences from the late 19th century and the early 20th century are still intact; the district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 473 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water; the major north-south route, U. S. Highway bisects Tipton County and passes through Covington; the western boundary of Tipton County is the Mississippi River, separating Arkansas. As the river's course was altered in several places by the 1812 New Madrid earthquake, the official boundary still follows the old alignment of the river; as a result, a few of Tipton County's communities — including Reverie and Corona — became stranded on the Arkansas mainland side of the river, rather than the Tennessee side. Tipton County is situated on the southeastern edge of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, an area with a high earthquake risk.
Lauderdale County Haywood County Fayette County Shelby County Crittenden County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas As of the census of 2000, there were 51,271 people, 18,106 households, 14,176 families residing in the county. The population density was 112 people per square mile. There were 19,064 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Tennessee's 8th congressional district
The 8th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in West Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican David Kustoff since January 2017; the district is located in West Tennessee. It borders Kentucky to the north and Missouri to the west, Mississippi to the south, it is composed of the following counties: Carroll, Dyer, Gibson, Henry, Lauderdale, Obion and Weakley. It contains a large piece of Shelby County and a small piece of Benton; the map is deceptively rural, but the bulk of the district's vote is cast in the suburban areas around Memphis, such as Germantown and Collierville, as well Fayette and Tipton counties. This area boasts some of the highest median incomes in the state; the rest of the district is composed of small towns and farming communities. The district had a strong social conservative tint which grew more pronounced when eastern Memphis was added to the district. According to the 2010 census, the five largest cities located with the district are: Jackson, Collierville and Dyersburg.
Districts similar to today's 8th have been in place since Reconstruction. During the early 20th century, most of northwest Tennessee was represented by Democrats Finis J. Garrett, Jere Cooper, Clifford Davis Cooper again from 1953 to 1957. Cooper was succeeded by Fats Everett, who served until his death in early 1969; the district's current form of including Memphis suburbs began in 1967 due to a re-districting caused by the Baker v. Carr ruling. Following Everett's death in 1969, the district chose former Tennessee Commissioner of Agriculture Ed Jones in a special election. Jones served the area in Congress for just under twenty years until his retirement in 1988. Upon Jones' retirement, the district selected Democrat John S. Tanner as its representative. Following eleven terms in Congress, Tanner retired. In 2011, the district chose Republican businessman Stephen Fincher over Democrat state senator Roy Herron, it marked the first time since Reconstruction. Following the 2010 census, the district lost its remaining territory in Middle Tennessee, meaning it was within West Tennessee for the first time since 1968.
In the same census, the 7th lost its remaining claims in Shelby County, meaning that since 2012, any area of Shelby County, not in the 9th is in the 8th. In 2016, Fincher retired and was succeeded by Republican David Kustoff, a former United States Attorney. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Forked Deer River
The Forked Deer River system is the main drainage of the central portion of West Tennessee. Locals pronounce the first word of the river's name with two syllables, as in “Forkéd”; the Forked Deer consists of their tributaries. Much of the Forked Deer drainage basin was wetlands. In the mid-20th century much of this was done under the auspices of the Obion-Forked Deer Basin Authority, a Tennessee state agency. Environmental concerns have led to the cessation of channelization on a widespread basis. Much of the channelized flow is routed into the Obion River just above the mouth of that river into the Mississippi, other streams related to the system have their own mouths into the Mississippi. In some areas where the historic channels are left in place after the bulk of the flow has been routed into new ones, the historic channels at times still demonstrate considerable flow after heavy rains. Local historians record that barges and small riverboats plied the Forked Deer in the early 19th century as far up river as the present location of the city of Jackson.
Siltation from agricultural run-off choked the river, channelization became a major focus of West Tennessee politicians until the 1970s. River cutoffs have left numerous small finger lakes that are popular with local crappie and bass fishers. Otherwise, the river is a slow-moving canal with little scenic appeal. North Fork of the Forked Deer River Middle Fork of the Forked Deer River South Fork of the Forked Deer River List of rivers of Tennessee Forked Deer River in Madison County Forked Deer River in Chester County
Dyer County, Tennessee
Dyer County is a county located in the westernmost part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,335, its county seat is Dyersburg. Dyer County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Dyer County was founded by a Private Act of Tennessee, passed on October 16, 1823; the area was part of the territory in Tennessee, legally occupied by Chickasaw Native American people. The county was named for Robert Henry Dyer. Dyer had been an army officer in the Creek War and War of 1812, a cavalry colonel in the First Seminole War of 1818 before becoming a state senator, he was instrumental in the formation of Madison County, Tennessee. On April 2, 2006 a severe weather system passed through Dyer County, producing tornadoes that killed 16 in the county and 24 in Tennessee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 527 square miles, of which 512 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water; the county is drained by the Mississippi River. It is in the part of Tennessee called the "Mississippi bottomland".
Dyer County is bisected by U. S. Route 51, the older major highway connecting Memphis with Chicago from south to north; when upgraded to interstate standards, this road will become Interstate 69. To the west, Dyer County is connected to Missouri by Interstate 155 over the Mississippi River, providing the only highway connection, other than those at Memphis, between Tennessee and the states to the west of the river. Lake County Obion County Gibson County Crockett County Lauderdale County Mississippi County, Arkansas Pemiscot County, Missouri Bogota Wildlife Management Area Moss Island Wildlife Management Area Ernest Rice Wildlife Management Area Thorny Cypress Wildlife Management Area Tigrett Wildlife Management Area Tumbleweed Wildlife Management Area White Lake Refuge I-69 I-155 US 51 US 412 SR 77 SR 78 SR 89 SR 103 SR 104 SR 105 SR 181 SR 182 SR 210 SR 211 As of the census of 2000, there were 37,279 people, 14,751 households, 10,458 families residing in the county; the population density was 73 people per square mile.
There were 16,123 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.40% White, 12.86% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,751 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 25.70% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.00 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,788, the median income for a family was $39,848. Males had a median income of $31,182 versus $21,605 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,451. About 13.00% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.00% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over. Burks Broadcasting WASL-FM SL100: "Everything That Rocks" 50,000 watts covering 30 counties in Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas since 1969 City of License: Dyersburg, Tennessee 500-foot Tower Site: Lenox WTNV-FM / Eagle 97.3: "Today's Country & Your All-Time Favorites" 6,000 watts covering 40-45 mile radius of 10 counties in Tennessee, Missouri, & Kentucky since June 2007 City of License: Tiptonville, Tennessee 500-foot Tower Site: Elbridge AM1450 & 101.7FM / WTRO: "The Greatest Hits of All Time" 1,000 watts covering Dyer County & Northwest Tennessee since 1959 City of License: Dyersburg, Tennessee AM Tower Site: St John Avenue, Tennessee 100-foot Transmitter Site: Burks Place, Tennessee 300-foot Translator Site: Radio Road, Tennessee State Gazette – 5 days/week.
The paper has served Dyersburg and Northwest Tennessee since 1865. Bel Air Bruce Camelot Edinburgh Gardner Heights Lakewood Lattawoods Milltown Pill Hill Pioneer Southtown The Farms Twin Oaks Crowne Point Flower Valley Oakview National Register of Historic Places listings in Dyer County, Tennessee Dyersburg-Dyer County Chamber of Commerce Dyer County Schools Dyer County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Dyer County at Curlie
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol