click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Law of Japan

The Law of Japan refers to the entirety of the achieved norms in Japan. The early laws of Japan are believed to have been influenced by Chinese law. Little is known about Japanese law prior to the seventh century, when the Ritsuryō was developed and codified. Before Chinese characters were adopted and adapted by the Japanese, the Japanese had no known writing system with which to record their history. Chinese characters were known to the Japanese in earlier centuries, but the process of assimilation of these characters into their indigenous language system took place in the third century; this was due to the willingness of the Japanese to borrow aspects of the culture of continental civilisations, achieved via adjacent countries such as the Korean kingdoms rather than directly from the Chinese mainland empires. Two of the most significant systems of human philosophy and religion and Buddhism, were transplanted in 284–285 and 522 AD and became acculturated into indigenous Japanese thought and ethics.

David and Zweigert and Kotz argue that the old Chinese doctrines of Confucius, which emphasize social/group/community harmony rather than individual interests, have been influential in the Japanese society, with the consequence that individuals tend to avoid litigation in favour of compromise and conciliation. In addition, it is presently believed that various arts and techniques in many fields of production, such as agriculture, pottery, building construction and tanning, were brought to Japan by immigrants by way of the Korean peninsula; these immigrants, wherever they came from, had significant influence on the development of Japan. It is theorized by some that the flow of immigrants was accelerated by both internal and external circumstances; the external factors were the continuing political instability and turmoil in Korea, as well as the struggle for central hegemony amongst the Chinese dynasties, warlords and other quarrels. These disturbances produced a large number of refugees who were exiled or forced to escape from their homelands.

Immigrants to Japan may have included privileged classes, such as experienced officials and excellent technicians who were hired in the Japanese court, were included in the official rank system, introduced by the immigrants themselves. It is conceivable – but unknown – that other legal institutions were introduced, although rather than systematically, this was the first transplantation of foreign law to Japan. During these periods, Japanese law was unwritten and immature, thus was far from comprising any official legal system. Nonetheless, Japanese society could not have functioned without some sort of law, however unofficial. Glimpses of the law regulating people's social lives may be guessed at by considering the few contemporary general descriptions in Chinese historical books; the most noted of these is The Record on the Men of Wa, found in the Wei History, describing the Japanese state called Yamatai ruled by the Queen Himiko in the second and third centuries. According to this account, Japanese indigenous law was based on the clan system, with each clan forming a collective unit of Japanese society.

A clan comprised extended families and was controlled by its chief, who protected the rights of the members and enforced their duties with occasional punishments for crimes. The law of the court organised the clan chiefs into an effective power structure, in order to control the whole of society through the clan system; the form of these laws is not known, but they may be characterised as indigenous and unofficial, as official power can be identified. In this period, a more powerful polity and a more developed legal system than the unofficial clan law of the struggling clan chiefs was required to govern the society as a whole. Yamatai must have been the first central government which succeeded in securing the required power through the leadership of Queen Himiko, reputed to be a shaman; this leads to the assertion that Yamatai had its own primitive system of law court law, which enabled it to maintain government over competing clan laws. As a result, the whole legal system formed a primitive legal pluralism of clan law.

It can be asserted that this whole legal system was ideologically founded on the indigenous postulate which adhered to the shamanistic religio-political belief in polytheistic gods and, called kami and developed into Shintoism. Two qualifications can be added to these assertions. First, some Korean law must have been transplanted. Second, official law was not distinguished from unofficial law. For these reasons, it cannot be denied that a primitive legal pluralism had developed based on court and clan law with Korean law and overwhelmingly with indigenous law; these traits of legal pluralism, however primitive, were the prototype of the Japanese legal system which developed in periods into more organised legal pluralisms. The early modernization of Japanese law was based on European civil law systems and, to a lesser extent, American common law elements. At the beginning of the Meiji Era, European legal systems — German and French civil law — were the primary models for the Japanese legal system.

After the Second World War, the Japanese law underwent major reform under the guidance and direction of Occupation authorities. American la

Marstonia scalariformis

Marstonia scalariformis known as Pyrgulopsis scalariformis, common name the moss pyrg, is a species of freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Hydrobiidae. The shell is turreted, slender; the shell has 6 whorls. The shell is chalky white in color; the suture is impressed. The shell is carinate in its entire length on the lower edge of the whorls; the aperture is small, but connected with the last whorl. The height of the shell is 12.7 mm. The body of the animal is white. Distribution of Marstonia scalariformis include Illinois, Alabama and Missouri; this species was abundant on its type locality on the Tazewell shore of the Illinois River in 1880s. This species is critically imperiled; this article incorporates public domain text from reference

Anna Benson

Anna Benson is an American model, former stripper, ex-wife of former Major League Baseball pitcher Kris Benson. Anna Benson was born in Mableton, outside of Atlanta, Georgia on February 12, 1976. Benson dropped out of school following her sophomore year of high school and left home when she was sixteen. About that time, she says, "I was a dancer in the Atlanta strip clubs. I had a baby and a husband when I was seventeen". In 1996, Anna Benson was charged with murder when 18-year-old Michael Evans was executed in her Tennessee apartment. Police found Benson's apartment covered in satanic anti-police graffiti, but Benson and her boyfriend had fled in a stolen vehicle; the national manhunt for the suspects was featured on America's Most Wanted. Witnesses said that Warren told her boyfriend to "get rid of" Evans; the murder charges were dropped, prompting the victim's father to state that "she got away with murder... I don't know how she can live with herself knowing that she conspired to kill my son."In 1998, she met her future husband, Kris Benson, while she was dancing at the Mardi Gras, a strip club in Atlanta.

They had attended rival high schools in Georgia, but had never gotten to know one another prior to this meeting. She and Kris were married in October 1999 -- his first; as she described it, "when I came to Kris, I had nothing -- two pairs of one bra. The Bensons were soon labeled "baseball's most incongruous couple," with Anna having "diverted attention" from a star pitcher who "often fades into the periphery." Anna filed for divorce on March 2006, citing an "irretrievably broken" marriage. She withdrew the petition, subsequently had another child with Kris. Altogether, they had four children: her daughter Alyssa from a previous marriage, their daughter Haylee, sons P. J. and Devin. Benson's daughter claims that Benson threatened her with a gun in 2009. Sometime around July 19, 2012, Kris served Anna with divorce papers, she was arrested on July 8, 2013 after threatening Kris at his home with a gun and metal baton while wearing a bulletproof vest. She was charged with criminal trespassing, she pleaded guilty to aggravated assault and weapons charges on November 5, 2013 in Marietta and was sentenced to 15 years' probation.

In August 2016, Benson was arrested again after she trespassed at a home in Mableton and stole mail in April of that year. While in jail, she was scheduled to appear at a probation revocation hearing in Cobb Superior Court in Marietta but did not show up. A representative for the district attorney said the judge signed a consent decree, allowing Benson to apply to mental health court. On July 30, 2004, the Pirates traded Kris Benson to the New York Mets. In November 2004, Benson posed for the cover and a spread in FHM magazine and was named "baseball's hottest wife." In an interview with Howard Stern that year, she vowed that if her husband cheated on her she would take revenge by sleeping with the entire Mets organization. Benson explained the comment as "stupid humor to be understood by these idiots who take everything so literally." In July 2005, she began playing at the 2005 World Series of Poker in Las Vegas. She was ejected for excessive cursing; the New York Times, having noted Anna Benson's "calculated outrageousness," wrote that "in her one year in New York, Anna Benson drove the Mets to distraction."

Sports reporter Murray Chass wrote of the Mets–Orioles trade, "Kris Benson doesn't have a good enough arm for the Mets to overlook his wife's mouth.... And by trading Anna Benson, the Mets may have achieved what Casey Stengel called addition by subtraction." Kris Benson himself said that he felt New York traded him to Baltimore because of his wife, but Omar Minaya, general manager of the Mets discounted speculation that her behavior had played a role, saying, "We just made a baseball trade." Mirroring Chass's linkage of the Bensons, Sports Illustrated opined that Anna Benson's "outlandish antics" had come to overshadow her husband's "few good years" in the major leagues. Benson has worked with charitable organizations over the years such as the Pittsburgh Children's Hospital, Salvation Army and American Red Cross; the couple has a non-profit charity called Benson's Battalion that helped area police forces in the cities where her husband played. Benson was interviewed on The Howard Stern Show, November 30, 2004.

Benson has been featured in several publications, including FHM, Sports Illustrated, The New Yorker and on the cover of The Sporting News. In New York, she was featured in Daily News. Benson appeared on the radio during the Dan Patrick Show. Ranked #29 on FHM-U. S.'s 100 Sexiest Women 2006 Ranked #48 on FHM-U. S.'s 100 Sexiest Women 2005

Jodorowsky's Dune

Jodorowsky's Dune is a 2013 American-French documentary film directed by Frank Pavich. The film explores cult film director Alejandro Jodorowsky's unsuccessful attempt to adapt and film Frank Herbert's 1965 science fiction novel Dune in the mid-1970s. In 1971, the production company Apjac International headed by film producer Arthur P. Jacobs optioned the rights to film Dune. However, Jacobs died in 1973. In December 1974, a French consortium led by Jean-Paul Gibon purchased the film rights from APJ, with director Alejandro Jodorowsky set to direct. Along with French producer Michel Seydoux, Jodorowsky proceeded to approach, among others, Virgin Records with the prog rock groups Tangerine Dream and Mike Oldfield before settling on Pink Floyd and Magma for some of the music. Jodorowsky intended his son Brontis, 12 years old at the start of pre-production, to star as Paul Atreides. Herbert traveled to Europe in 1976 to find that $2 million of the $9.5 million budget had been spent in pre-production and that Jodorowsky's script would result in a 14-hour film.

Jodorowsky took creative liberties with the source material, but Herbert said that he and Jodorowsky had an amicable relationship. After two and a half years in development, the project stalled for financial reasons since $5 million was still missing to round off the $15-million total budget. After the film rights lapsed in 1982, they were purchased by Italian producer Dino De Laurentiis, who released the 1984 film Dune, directed by David Lynch; the film notes that Jodorowsky's script, extensive storyboards and concept art were sent to all major film studios, argues that these inspired film productions, including the Alien, Star Wars and Terminator series. In particular, the Jodorowsky-assembled team of O'Bannon, Foss and Giraud went on to collaborate on the 1979 film Alien."It was a great undertaking to do the script," Jodorowsky says in the film. Speaking of Herbert's novel, he says: "It's it's like Proust, I compare it to great literature." The project was announced in May 2011. Director Pavich filmed an extensive series of interviews with the principal players involved in the failed 1970s adaptation, shooting in France, the United Kingdom, the United States.

Jodorowsky's Dune premiered at the Director's Fortnight at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival in May 2013. Sony Pictures Classics acquired the North American distribution rights to the film in July 2013, announced a theatrical release date of March 7, 2014; the film was released on DVD and on-demand on July 8, 2014. The film has received critical acclaim. Variety called it a "mind-blowing cult movie" and said that director Pavich "happens upon a compelling theory: that in its still-born form, the film manifested the sort of collective that Jodorowsky was trying to peddle through its plot, trickling down to influence other sci-fi films that followed"; the Hollywood Reporter declared the "entertaining documentary makes the case for this overblown epic as a legendary lost masterpiece". Entertainment Weekly named Jodorowsky's Dune as one of its 10 Best Movies of 2014. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gave Jodorowsky's Dune a 98% "Certified Fresh" rating based on reviews from 108 critics; the site's consensus states: "Part thoughtful tribute, part bittersweet reminder of a missed opportunity, Jodorowsky's Dune offers a fascinating look at a lost sci-fi legend."

Metacritic gives the film a 79/100 rating based on 31 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The film appeared on several critics' year-end lists. Official website Official website Jodorowsky's Dune on IMDb Jodorowsky's Dune at Box Office Mojo Jodorowsky's Dune at Rotten Tomatoes Jodorowsky's Dune at Metacritic "Doomed Dune Was Generations Ahead of Its Time". NPR. March 22, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2014. O'Connell, Max. "Jodorowsky's Dune Director Frank Pavich on 2,000 Defecating Extras and How Dune Became Part of the Cosmic Consciousness". Indiewire. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Corliss, Richard. "Jodorowsky's Dune: A Great Dream of Movie Madness". Time. Retrieved October 13, 2015

Mitropa Rally Cup

The Mitropa Rally Cup is an international annual car racing event termed the "European Championship for Non-Professional Drivers”. Established in 1965, drivers participate in races in several countries collecting points to determine the cup winner; the series is organised by the Deutscher Motor Sport Bund and takes place in countries all across Europe. The point score system is loaded so that drivers have the potential to score more points in rallies held in nations more distant from their home country making them able to score more points in rallies they are less to be familiar with it; the championship is held over six to eight events. The series has been dominated by Italian drivers; the most successful driver in the series history is German driver Hermann Gassner Sr. who has won the title six times between 2001 and 2015, all while driving Mitsubishi Lancers. Another German driver, Matthias Moosleitner won the title six times between 1984 and 2000; the event is not to be confused with a soccer competition.

Sourced in part from: Homepage

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park

Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is one of the national parks of Mongolia. The Terelj tourist zone has a number of "tourist camps", it is connected with Ulaanbaatar by a paved road. The road comes to the Gorkhiin Davaa pass. Most of the tourist camps and tourist attractions are before this pass; the road ends at the settlement of Terelj, which features small shops and restaurants. The Terelj settlement is located in the valley of the Terelj River 66 km from the Ulaanbaatar city center; the national park tourist zone is formally in Nalaikh düüreg part of Ulaanbaatar municipality, the rest of the protected zone beginning to the north of the Terelj River, is located in Mongolia's Töv Province. A small southern portion of the park is developed for tourists, with restaurants, souvenir shops and camels for rent, tourist ger camps, many of them run by the Juulchin corporation, the former state tourism company. However, most of the park is difficult to access. Attractions include Khagiin Khar Lake, a 20m deep glacial lake 80 km upstream from the tourist camps, Yestii Hot Water Springs, natural hot springs 18 km further upstream.

The park has a Buddhist monastery, open to visitors. Park wildlife includes over 250 species of birds; the Tuul River flows through the park. The park has many rock formations for rock climbers, includes two famous formations named for things they resemble: Turtle Rock and the Old Man Reading a Book. Many Westerners were introduced to Gorkhi-Terelj National Park when the CBS reality television program The Amazing Race visited the park in the second episode of its tenth season. Tourist review of the park MSNBC Travel article about the park USA Today Travel article about the park Official The Amazing Race website recapping the show's visit to Terelj