Prince Shōtoku known as Prince Umayado or Prince Kamitsumiya, was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko. He was the son of Emperor Yōmei and his consort, Princess Anahobe no Hashihito, Yōmei's younger half-sister, his parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan and he was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe clan. The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki. Over successive generations, a devotional cult arose around the figure of Prince Shōtoku for the protection of Japan, the Imperial Family, for Buddhism. Key religious figures such as Saichō, Shinran and others claimed inspiration or visions attributed to Prince Shōtoku. According to tradition, Shōtoku was appointed regent in 593 by his aunt. Shōtoku, inspired by the Buddha's teachings, succeeded in establishing a centralized government during his reign. In 603, he established the Twelve Level Rank System at the court.
He is credited with promulgating a Seventeen-article constitution. The Prince was an ardent Buddhist and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Sangyō Gisho or "Annotated Commentaries on the Three Sutras"; the first of these commentaries, Hokke Gisho, is traditionally dated to 615 and thus regarded as "the first Japanese text", in turn making Shōtoku the first Japanese writer. A legend claims that when Bodhidharma came to Japan, he met with Prince Shōtoku whilst under the guise of a starving beggar; the Prince asked the beggar to identify himself. Instead of going ahead, Shōtoku gave him food and covered him with his purple garment, telling him to "lie in peace"; the Prince sang for the starving man. Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice On the hill of Kataoka Art thou become Parentless? Hast thou no lord Flourishing as a bamboo? Alas! For The wayfarer lying And hungered for rice! The second day, the Prince sent a messenger to the starving man, but he was dead. Hereupon, Shōtoku was grieved and ordered his burial.
Shōtoku thought the man was no ordinary man for sure, sending another messenger, discovered the earth had not been disturbed. On opening the tomb there was no body inside, the Prince's purple garment lay folded on the coffin; the Prince sent another messenger to claim the garment, he continued to wear it just as before. Struck by awe, the people praised the Prince: "How true it is that a sage knoweth a sage." This legend is linked with the temple of Daruma-dera in Ōji, where a stone stupa was found underground, exceedingly rare. Prince Shōtoku commissioned the Shitennō-ji in Settsu Province after his military victory against the powerful Mononobe clan, for he is said to have summoned them to crush his enemies. Shōtoku's name has been linked with Hōryū-ji, a temple in Yamato Province, numerous other temples in the Kansai region. Documentation at Hōryū-ji claims that Suiko and Shōtoku founded the temple in the year 607. Archaeological excavations in 1939 have confirmed that Prince Shōtoku's palace, the Ikaruga no miya, stood in the eastern part of the current temple complex, where the Tō-in sits today.
Despite being credited as the founder of Japanese Buddhism, it is said that the Prince respected Shinto and never visited Buddhist temples without visiting Shinto shrines. In his correspondence with Emperor Yang of Sui, the Prince's letter contains the earliest known written instance in which the Japanese archipelago is referred to by a term meaning "land of the rising sun." The Sui Emperor had dispatched a message in 605 that said, "the sovereign of Sui respectfully inquires about the sovereign of Wa," and Shōtoku responded by sponsoring a mission led by Ono no Imoko in 607, who brought along a note reading: "From the sovereign of the land of the rising sun to the sovereign of the land of the setting sun."He is said to have been buried at Shinaga in Kawachi Province. His face has appeared on 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 yen bills. Two tickets made with different types of materials and special inks with a face value of 100,000,000 were issued; the characteristic of these bills is. As characteristics, it has a seal and figures in different positions starting from the middle outwards.
The measurements of these 2 issues of bills are 35.3 cm x 16 cm and the other with a small variation of 34.3 by 16.5 cm. These cloth tickets were used for the exchange of important values at that time. A number of institutes are named after him, such as Shotoku Gakuen University and its associated junior college; the first syllable of his name, can be read shō in Go-on and can be read sei in Kan-on. The reading is found in Seitoku University and its associated junior college as well as Tokyo's defunct Seitoku Junior College of Nutrition, he features as a playable character, represented by a horse archer, in Age of Empires: Definitive Edition. Shōtoku is known by several titles, although his real name is Prince Umayado since he was born in front of a stable, he is known as Toyotomimi or Kamitsumiyaō. In the Kojiki, his name appears as Kamitsumiya no Umayado no Toyotomimi no Mikoto. In the Nihon Shoki, in addition to Umayado no ōji, he is referred to as Toyomimit
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, elements of Chinese philosophy have existed for several thousand years, it was during the Warring States era that what Sima Tan termed the major philosophical schools of China: Confucianism and Taoism, along with philosophies that fell into obscurity, like Agriculturalism, Chinese Naturalism, the Logicians. Early Shang dynasty thought was based upon cycles; this notion stems from what the people of the Shang Dynasty could observe around them: day and night cycled, the seasons progressed again and again, the moon waxed and waned until it waxed again. Thus, this notion, which remained relevant throughout Chinese history, reflects the order of nature. In juxtaposition, it marks a fundamental distinction from western philosophy, in which the dominant view of time is a linear progression.
During the Shang, fate could be manipulated by great deities translated as gods. Ancestor worship was universally recognized. There was human and animal sacrifice; when the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou, a new political and philosophical concept was introduced called the "Mandate of Heaven". This mandate was said to be taken when rulers became unworthy of their position and provided a shrewd justification for Zhou rule. During this period, archaeological evidence points to an increase in literacy and a partial shift away from the faith placed in Shangdi, with ancestor worship becoming commonplace and a more worldly orientation coming to the fore. Confucianism developed during the Spring and Autumn period from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a retransmitter of Zhou values, his philosophy concerns the fields of ethics and politics, emphasizing personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. The Analects stress the importance of ritual, but the importance of'ren', which loosely translates as'human-heartedness, along with Legalism, is responsible for creating the world’s first meritocracy, which holds that one's status should be determined by education and character rather than ancestry, wealth, or friendship.
Confucianism was and continues to be a major influence in Chinese culture, the state of China and the surrounding areas of East Asia. Before the Han dynasty the largest rivals to Confucianism were Chinese Legalism, Mohism. Confucianism became the dominant philosophical school of China during the early Han dynasty following the replacement of its contemporary, the more Taoistic Huang-Lao. Legalism as a coherent philosophy disappeared due to its relationship with the unpopular authoritarian rule of Qin Shi Huang, many of its ideas and institutions would continue to influence Chinese philosophy until the end of Imperial rule during the Xinhai Revolution. Mohism, though popular due to its emphasis on brotherly love versus harsh Qin Legalism, fell out of favour during the Han Dynasty due to the efforts of Confucians in establishing their views as political orthodoxy; the Six Dynasties era saw the rise of the Xuanxue philosophical school and the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, which had entered China from India during the Late Han Dynasties.
By the time of the Tang dynasty five-hundred years after Buddhism's arrival into China, it had transformed into a Chinese religious philosophy dominated by the school of Zen Buddhism. Neo-Confucianism became popular during the Song dynasty and Ming Dynasty due in large part to the eventual combination of Confucian and Zen Philosophy. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Chinese philosophy integrated concepts from Western philosophy. Anti-Qing dynasty revolutionaries, involved in the Xinhai Revolution, saw Western philosophy as an alternative to traditional philosophical schools. During this era, Chinese scholars attempted to incorporate Western philosophical ideologies such as democracy, socialism, republicanism and nationalism into Chinese philosophy; the most notable examples are Sun Yat-Sen's Three Principles of the People ideology and Mao Zedong's Maoism, a variant of Marxism–Leninism. In the modern People's Republic of China, the official ideology is Deng Xiaoping's "market economy socialism".
Although the People's Republic of China has been hostile to the philosophy of ancient China, the influences of past are still ingrained in the Chinese culture. In the post-Chinese economic reform era, modern Chinese philosophy has reappeared in forms such as the New Confucianism; as in Japan, philosophy in China has become a melting pot of ideas. It accepts new concepts, while attempting to accord old beliefs their due. Chinese philosophy still carries profound influence amongst the people of East Asia, Southeast Asia. Around 500 BCE, after the Zhou state weakened and China moved into the Spring and Autumn period, the classic period of Chinese philosophy began; this is known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. This period is considered the golden age of Chinese philosophy. Of the many schools founded at this time and during the subsequent Warring States period, the four most
The Isshi Incident takes its name from the zodiological name of the year 645 during which Taika Reform, a transformative event in the history of the Japanese Imperial history occurred. The incident was a successful plot by Nakatomi no Kamatari, Prince Naka no Ōe and others who conspired to eliminate the main branch of the Soga clan, beginning with the assassination of Soga no Iruka; the assassination of Iruka took place on July 10, 645, during a court ceremony at which memorials from the Three Kingdoms of Korea were being read to Empress Kōgyoku by Ishikawa no Maro. Prince Naka no Ōe had made elaborate preparations, including closing the palace gates, bribing several palace guards, hiding a spear in the hall where the ceremony was to take place and ordering four armed men to attack Iruka. However, when it became clear that the four men were too frightened to carry out the orders, Naka no Ōe rushed Iruka himself and cut open his head and shoulder. Iruka was not killed but protested his innocence and pleaded for an investigation.
Prince Naka no Ōe pleaded his case before Empress Kōgyoku, when she retired to consider the matter, the four guards rushed Iruka again and completed the killing. Shortly afterwards, Iruka's father Soga; the conflagration destroyed the manuscript copy of the Tennōki and many other Imperial treasures, taken for safe-keeping by the Soga, but Fune no Fubitoesaka grabbed the burning Kokki from the flames. He is said to have presented it to Naka no Ōe; the violence unfolded in Kōgyoku's presence. The Empress responded to this shock by determining to renounce the throne. Japanese society during the Asuka period was sensitive to issues of "pollution," both spiritual and personal. Deaths—especially a violent killing in close physical proximity to the Empress was considered to have been amongst the worst possible acts of pollution—an event so stunning that it would have warranted days of seclusion in an uncertain process attempting to redress what would have been construed as a kind of profanity. Although Kōgyoku wanted to abdicate in favor of Naka no Ōe, on the advice of Nakatomi no Kamatari, he insisted that throne should pass instead to his older brother, Furuhito no Ōe, or to his maternal uncle Prince Karu.
Furuhito no Ōe resolved the impasse by declaring his intention to renounce any claim to the throne by taking the tonsure of a Buddhist monk. That same day—traditionally said to be July 12, 645, Furuhito no Ōe shaved off his hair at Hōkō-ji, in the open air between the Hall of the Buddha and the pagoda. At this point, Kōgyoku did abdicate in favor of her brother who shortly thereafter acceded to the throne as Emperor Kōtoku. After Kōtoku's death Kōgyoku took the throne once more as Saimei, before Naka no Ōe himself took the throne as Emperor Tenji. Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Perez, Louis G.. Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847420. Sakamoto, Tarō, Ienaga Saburō, Inoue Mitsusada and Ōno Susumu..
Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Nihon Shoki. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-060068-0 Shimura, Izuru.. Kōjien, 5th edition. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 978-4-00-080111-9 Titsingh, Isaac, ed.. Nipon o daï itsi ran. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Varley, H. Paul, ed.. Jinnō Shōtōki. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4
Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has changed over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and North America. Strong 9,000 year old ancient Han Chinese cultural influences, including the 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing script, are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had been a global superpower, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of ancient Han Chinese culture first through what as the Imperial Chinese tributary vassal state of Korea later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties; the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled; the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, kanji, imported from China; the Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese for company names and logos and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are very common. Shintoism and Buddhism are the primary religions of Japan, though a secular Christmas is widespread, minority Christian and Islamic communities exist. Shintoism is an ethnic religion that focuses on rituals. In Shintoism, followers believe that kami, a Shinto deity or spirit, are present throughout nature, including rocks and mountains.
Humans can be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shintoism is to maintain a connection between humans and kami; the religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami. Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and spread through China and Korea, it arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, die, be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra; the suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are the concerns of sociology, history and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism. Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so; the flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, stories, or single characters; the style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter to the point of texture and stroke speed.
In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as'shodō' which means'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more known as'shūji"learning how to write characters'. Confused with calligraphy is the art form known as'sumi-e' meaning'ink painting', the art of painting a scene or object. Painting has been an art in Japan for a long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was natural. Japanese painters are categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West.
Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Empress Kōgyoku known as Empress Saimei, was the 35th and 37th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōgyoku's reign spanned the years from 642 to 645, her reign as Saimei encompassed 655 to 661. In other words, 642: She ascended the throne as Kōgyoku-tennō, she stepped down in response to the assassination of Soga no Iruka. 645: She abdicated in favor of her brother, who would become known as Emperor Kōtoku. 654: Kōtoku died and the throne was vacant. 655: She re-ascended, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennō. 661: Saimei ruled until her death caused the throne to be vacant again. The two reigns of this one woman spanned the years from 642 through 661. In the history of Japan, Kōgyoku/Saimei was the second of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the sole female monarch before Kōgyoku/Saimei was Suiko-tennō. The six women sovereigns reigning after Kōgyoku/Saimei were Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Takara.
As empress, her name would have been Ametoyo Takara Ikashi Hitarashi hime. Princess Takara was a great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. During her first reign the Soga clan seized power, her son Naka no Ōe planned a coup slew Soga no Iruka at the court in front of her throne. The Empress, shocked by this incident, abdicated the throne. Kōgyoku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Kōgyoku might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Empress Kōgyoku reigned for four years; the years of Kōgyoku's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – was yet to be initiated during her son's too-brief reign. In this context and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō.
In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."The years of Kōgyoku's reign are not more identified by more than one era name or nengō, an innovation of Kōtoku's brief reign. When Kōtoku died, his designated heir was Naka no Ōe; when Naka no Ōe's mother re-ascended, he continued in the role of her crown prince. In this role, he did remain active in the political life of Japan. In the fifth year of Saimei's reign, Paekche in Korea was destroyed in 660. Japan assisted Paekche loyals in an attempt to aid the revival of Paekche dynasty. Early in 661, Saimei responded to the situation by leaving her capital in Yamato Province, her plan was to lead a military expedition to Korea. The empress stayed in Ishiyu Temporary Palace in today Dōgo Onsen. In May she arrived at Asakura Palace in the north part of Tsukushi province in Kyūshū, today a part of Fukuoka Prefecture; the allied army of Japan and Baekje was preparing for war against Silla, but the death of the empress thwarted those plans.
In 661, Saimei died in the Asakura Palace. In October her body was brought from Kyūshū by sea to Port Naniwa-zu. Empress Saimei ruled for seven years; the years of Saimei's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701; the actual site of Kōgyoku/Saimei's grave is known, having been identified as the Kengoshizuka tomb in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kōgyoku/Seimei's mausoleum. It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career.
During Kōgyoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sadaijin UdaijinThe kugyō during Saimei's reign included: Sadaijin, Kose no Tokoda, 649–658 Udaijin Naidaijin, Nakatomi no Kamako, 645–669 First Husband: Prince Takamuku, Prince Tame’s son First Son: Prince Kara Second Husband: Prince Tamura Emperor Jomei, Prince Oshisaka-no-hikohito-no-Ōe‘s son Second Son: Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji) First Daughter: Princess Hashihito, married Emperor Kōtoku Third Son: Prince Ōama Emperor Tenmu Portrayed by Kim Min-kyung in the 2012–2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Japanese empresses Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Shueisha Inc. is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Japan. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan; the following year, Shueisha became a independent company. Magazines published by Shueisha include Weekly Shōnen Jump, Weekly Young Jump, Non-no and Ultra Jump. Shueisha, along with Shogakukan, owns Viz Media, which publishes manga from all three companies in North America. In 1925, Shueisha was created by major publishing company Shogakukan. Jinjō Shōgaku Ichinen Josei became the first novel published by Shueisha in collaboration with Shogakukan—the temporary home of Shueisha. In 1927, two novels titled Danshi Ehon, Joshi Ehon were created. In 1928, Shueisha was hired to edit a compilation. Gendai Humor Zenshū continued 12 volumes, some issues being Joshi Shinjidai Eishūji-chō and Shinjidai Eishūji-chō. In the 1930s another novel called Tantei-ki Dan was launched and Gendai Humor Zenshū was completed in 24 volumes.
In 1931 two more novels were launched, Danshi Joshi Yōchien. After World War II, Shueisha started publishing a manga line called Omoshiro Book. Omoshiro Book published a picture book called Shōnen Ōja, which became a huge hit among boys and girls; the first full volume of Shōnen Ōja was released as Shōnen Ōja Oitachi Hen, which became an instant best-seller. The first magazine published by Shueisha was Akaruku Tanoshii Shōnen-Shōjo Zasshi. In September 1949, Omoshiro Book was made into a magazine with all the contents of the former line. In 1950, a special edition of the magazine was published under the title Hinomaru. In addition to Omoshiro Book, a female version was published in 1951: Shōjo Book which featured manga aimed at adolescent girls; the Hitotsubashi building of Shueisha became independent in 1952. In that year, Omoshiro Book ceased Myōjō began publication as a monthly magazine; the series of Omoshiro Book were published in bunkoban editions under the Omoshiro Manga Bunko line. A novel called Yoiko Yōchien was published and Omoshiro Book was replaced with another children's manga magazine called Yōnen Book.
In 1955, the success of Shōjo Book led to the publication of running Ribon. The novel Joshi Yōchien Kobato began publication in 1958. On November 23, a special issue of Myōjō titled. In 1951, another male edition of Shōjo Book was released, Shōnen Book was made, Shōjo Book series were released in bunkoban editions under the Shōjo Manga Bunko imprint. In the 1960s, another spin-off issue of Myōjō was released called Bessatsu Weekly Myōjō. Shueisha continues to publish many novels. A compilation of many Omoshiro Book series was released as Shōnen-Shōjo Nippon Rekishi Zenshū complete in 12 volumes. Many other books were published including Hirosuke Yōnen Dōwa Bungaku Zenshū, Hatachi no Sekkei, Dōdō Taru Jinsei, Shinjin Nama Gekijō, Gaikoku kara Kita Shingo Jiten. In 1962, Shueisha published a female version of many more novels. In 1963, Shueisha began publication of the successful Margaret with the additional offshoot Bessatsu Margaret; the novel Ukiyo-e Hanga was released complete in seven volumes, the picture book Sekai 100 Nin no Monogatari Zenshū was released in the usual 12.
In 1964, Kanshi Taikei was released in 24 volumes plus a reprint. In that year a line of novels, Compact Books, was made and a line of manga called Televi-Books. In 1965, two more magazines were made: Cobalt and the Shōnen Book offshoot Bessatsu Shōnen Book. In 1966, Shueisha began publication of Weekly Playboy, Seishun to Shōsetsu Junior. A novel called. Another manga magazine was made titled Young Music. Deluxe Margaret began publication in the additional Margaret Comics and Ribon Comics lines. In 1968 the magazine Hoshi Young Sense began publication as spin-off to the short-lived Young Sense. In that year Margaret launched the Seventeen magazine as a Japanese version of the English edition. Shōnen Jump was created in the same year as a semi-weekly magazine. Another children's manga magazine was created in that year called Junior Comic and another Ribon spin-off called Ribon Comic. In 1969 the magazine Joker began publication along with guts. Several other novels were published; the magazine Bessatsu Seventeen began publication.
In that year Shōnen Jump changed its name to Weekly Shōnen Jump. Following up the end of Shōnen Book a spin-off of Weekly Shōnen Jump started at the same time as it became weekly called Bessatsu Shōnen Jump, it changed its name to Monthly Shōnen Jump with the second issue. The 1970s started with the launch of the novel magazine Subaru and in 1971 the Non-no and Ocean life magazines began publication; the novel series Gendai Nippon Bijutsu Zenshū became a huge seller. In 1972 Roadshow began publication and The Rose of Versailles begins in the Margaret Comics line gaining massive popularity. In 1973 Playgirl magazine began publication and the novel series Zenshaku Kanbun Taikei spawning a huge 33 volumes. In 1974 Weekly Shōnen Jump launched Akamaru Jump. Saison de Non-no launches. Shueisha announced that in the summer of 2011, it would launch a new manga magazine titled Miracle Jump. In October 2016, Shueisha announced that they had created a new department on June 21 called the Dragon Ball Room. Headed by V Jump editor-in-chief Akio Iyoku, it is dedicated to Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball and optimizing and expanding the brand.
Shueisha has published many kanzenban magazine