A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishing them from dessert bananas; the fruit is variable in size and firmness, but is elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. All modern edible seedless bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name for this hybrid, Musa sapientum, is no longer used. Musa species are native to tropical Indomalaya and Australia, are to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea, they are grown in 135 countries for their fruit, to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine, banana beer and as ornamental plants.
The world's largest producers of bananas in 2017 were India and China, which together accounted for 38% of total production. Worldwide, there is no sharp distinction between "bananas" and "plantains". In the Americas and Europe, "banana" refers to soft, dessert bananas those of the Cavendish group, which are the main exports from banana-growing countries. By contrast, Musa cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called "plantains". In other regions, such as Southeast Asia, many more kinds of banana are grown and eaten, so the binary distinction is not useful and is not made in local languages; the term "banana" is used as the common name for the plants that produce the fruit. This can extend to other members of the genus Musa, such as the scarlet banana, the pink banana, the Fe'i bananas, it can refer to members of the genus Ensete, such as the snow banana and the economically important false banana. Both genera are in Musaceae; the banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure called a "corm".
Plants are tall and sturdy, are mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is a "false stem" or pseudostem. Bananas grow in a wide variety of soils, as long as the soil is at least 60 cm deep, has good drainage and is not compacted; the leaves of banana plants are composed of a blade. The base of the petiole widens to form a sheath; the edges of the sheath meet. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart. Cultivated banana plants vary in height depending on growing conditions. Most are around 5 m tall, with a range from'Dwarf Cavendish' plants at around 3 m to'Gros Michel' at 7 m or more. Leaves may grow 2.7 metres long and 60 cm wide. They are torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look; when a banana plant is mature, the corm stops producing new leaves and begins to form a flower spike or inflorescence. A stem develops which grows up inside the pseudostem, carrying the immature inflorescence until it emerges at the top; each pseudostem produces a single inflorescence known as the "banana heart".
After fruiting, the pseudostem dies, but offshoots will have developed from the base, so that the plant as a whole is perennial. In the plantation system of cultivation, only one of the offshoots will be allowed to develop in order to maintain spacing; the inflorescence contains many bracts between rows of flowers. The female flowers appear in rows further up the stem from the rows of male flowers; the ovary is inferior, meaning that the tiny petals and other flower parts appear at the tip of the ovary. The banana fruits develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers, with up to 20 fruit to a tier; the hanging cluster is known as a bunch, comprising 3–20 tiers, or commercially as a "banana stem", can weigh 30–50 kilograms. Individual banana fruits average 125 grams, of which 75% is water and 25% dry matter; the fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". There is a protective outer layer with numerous long, thin strings, which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion.
The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety can be split lengthwise into three sections that correspond to the inner portions of the three carpels by manually deforming the unopened fruit. In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. Bananas are slightly radioactive, more so than most other fruits, because of their potassium content and the small amounts of the isotope potassium-40 found in occurring potassium; the banana equivalent dose of radiation is sometimes used in nuclear communication to compare radiation levels and exposures. The word banana is thought to be of West African origin from the Wolof word banaana, passed
Kale or leaf cabbage is one of certain cultivars of cabbage grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals. Kale plants have green or purple leaves, the central leaves do not form a head. Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea. Kale originates from Northern Middle English cale for various cabbages; the ultimate origin is Latin caulis'cabbage'. Kale originated in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, where it was cultivated for food beginning by 2000 BCE at the latest. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the 4th century BCE; these forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. The earliest record of cabbages in western Europe is of hard-heading cabbage in the 13th century. Records in 14th-century England distinguish between loose-leaf kale. Russian kale was introduced into Canada, into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century.
USDA botanist David Fairchild is credited with introducing kale to Americans, having brought it back from Croatia, although Fairchild himself disliked cabbages, including kale. At the time, kale was grown in Croatia because it was easy to grow and inexpensive, could desalinate soil. For most of the twentieth century, kale was used in the United States for decorative purposes. During World War II, the cultivation of kale in the U. K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients missing from a diet because of rationing. Kale is an annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of germination temperatures, it is hardy and thrives in wintertime, can survive in temperatures as low as –15° Celsius. Kale can become sweeter after a heavy frost. One may differentiate between kale varieties according to the low, intermediate, or high length of the stem, along with the variety of leaf types; the leaf colours range from light green to green, to dark green and violet-green, to violet-brown.
Classification by leaf type: Curly-leaf Bumpy-leaf Plain-leaf Leaf and spear, or feathery-type leaf Ornamental Because kale can grow well into winter, one variety of rape kale is called "hungry gap" after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little else could be harvested. An extra-tall variety is known as Jersey cow cabbage. Kai-lan or Chinese kale is a cultivar used in Chinese cuisine. In Portugal, the bumpy-leaved kale is called "couve galega". Many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, pink, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette; the different types of ornamental kale are peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale and chidori kale. Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, but not as palatable. Kale leaves are used as an ingredient for vegetable bouquets and wedding bouquets. Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, 1% fat. In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 calories and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value.
It is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese. Kale is a good source of thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium and phosphorus. Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, K, manganese remain substantial. Kale is high in oxalic acid but this can be reduced by cooking the leaves. Kale is a source of the carotenoids and zeaxanthin; as with broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, kale contains glucosinolate compounds, such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health. Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas steaming, microwaving or stir frying does not cause significant loss. Kale contains high levels of polyphenols, such as ferulic acid, with levels varying due to environmental and genetic factors. Flavored "kale chips" have been produced as a potato chip substitute.
In the Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called "boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, served with rookworst. In Italy, cavolo nero kale is an ingredient of the Tuscan soup ribollita. A traditional Portuguese soup, caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, olive oil and salt. Additional ingredients can include sliced, cooked spicy sausage. In Montenegro and Croatia and kale, locally known as raštika or raštan, is a favourite vegetable, it is popular in the winter, cooked with smoked mutton and potatoes. In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in some Scots dialects is synonymous with food. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat. In Ireland, kale is mixed with mashed pota
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine", from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin; the name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry". Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include: Rubus crataegifolius Rubus gunnianus Rubus idaeus Rubus leucodermis Rubus occidentalis Rubus parvifolius Rubus phoenicolasius Rubus rosifolius Rubus strigosus Rubus ellipticus Several species of Rubus called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including: Rubus deliciosus Rubus odoratus Rubus nivalis Rubus arcticus Rubus sieboldii Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common.
A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are dug and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they flower and produce a early season crop. Plants are planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil. All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots; the flowers can be a major nectar source for other pollinators. Raspberries can be locally invasive, they propagate using basal shoots, extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are propagated using cuttings, will root in moist soil conditions.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are sweetest. High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing prior to tunnel construction. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.
Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor. Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, have been found in the wild in a few places where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare. Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Canada for the cultivar'Columbian', a hybrid of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis. Fruits from such plants are called yellow raspberries. Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens. Red raspberries have been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of, the loganberry.
Notable hybrids include boysenberry, tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has been achieved. Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Two types of raspberry are available for domestic cultivation.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed; the translation of "nut" in certain languages requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous. Most seeds come from fruits that free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary; the general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, many nuts, such as almonds, pistachios and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Nuts are an nutrient-rich food source. A nut in botany is a simple dry fruit in which the ovary wall becomes hard as it matures, where the seed remains unattached or free within the ovary wall. Most nuts come from the pistils with inferior ovaries and all are indehiscent. True nuts are produced, by some plant families of the order Fagales.
Order Fagales Family Fagaceae Beech Chestnut Oak Stone-oak Tanoak Family Betulaceae Hazel, Filbert Hornbeam A small nut may be called a "nutlet". In botany, this term refers to a pyrena or pyrene, a seed covered by a stony layer, such as the kernel of a drupe. Walnuts and hickories have fruits, they are considered to be nuts under some definitions, but are referred to as drupaceous nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for hickory fruits. In common use, a "tree nut" is, as the name implies; this most comes up regarding allergies, where some people are allergic to peanuts, others to a wider range of nuts that grow in trees. A nut in cuisine is a much less restrictive and older meaning of the word than the narrow meaning of nut in botany. Any large, oily kernels found within a shell and used in food are called nuts. Nuts are an important source of nutrients for wildlife; because nuts have a high oil content, they are a prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible by humans and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted as a snack food, or pressed for oil, used in cookery and cosmetics.
Nuts used for food, are among the most common food allergens. Some fruits and seeds that do not meet the botanical definition but are nuts in the culinary sense are: Almonds are the edible seeds of drupe fruits – the leathery "flesh" is removed at harvest. Brazil nut is the seed from a capsule. Candlenut is a seed. Cashew is the seed of a drupe fruit with an accessory fruit. Chilean hazelnut or Gevuina. Macadamia is a creamy white kernel of a follicle type fruit. Malabar chestnut. Mongongo nut. Peanut is a seed and from a legume type fruit. Pecan is the seed of a drupe fruit. Pili nut is the seed of the tropical tree Canarium ovatum which grows in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Pine nut is the seed of several species of pine. Pistachio is the dehiscent seed of a thin-shelled drupe. Walnut is the seed of a drupe fruit. Yeheb nut is the seed of a desert bush, Cordeauxia edulis. Nuts are the source of energy and nutrients for the new plant, they contain a large quantity of calories, essential unsaturated and monounsaturated fats including linoleic acid and linolenic acid and essential amino acids.
Many nuts are good sources of vitamin E, vitamin B2, folate and the essential minerals magnesium, potassium and selenium. Nuts are most healthy in their raw unroasted form because roasting can damage and destroy fats during the process; this table lists the percentage of various nutrients in four unroasted seeds. Nuts are under preliminary research to assess whether their consumption may lower risk for some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nuts have a low glycemic index due to their high unsaturated fat and protein content and low carbohydrate content; the nut of the horse-chestnut tree, is called a conker in the British Isles. Conkers are inedible to many animals because they contain toxic glucoside aesculin, they are used in a popular children's game, known as conkers, where the nuts are threaded onto a strong cord and each contestant attempts to break their opponent's conker by hitting it with their own. Horse chestnuts are popular slingshot ammunition. List of culinary nuts List of edible seeds List of foods Nutmeg Achene Albala, Ken 2014.
Nuts A Global History. The Edible Series. ISBN 978-1-78023-282-9
Polyethylene glycol is a polyether compound with many applications, from industrial manufacturing to medicine. PEG is known as polyethylene oxide or polyoxyethylene, depending on its molecular weight; the structure of PEG is expressed as H−n−OH. PEG is the basis of a number of laxatives. Whole bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol and added electrolytes is used for bowel preparation before surgery or colonoscopy. PEG is used as an excipient in many pharmaceutical products; when attached to various protein medications, polyethylene glycol allows a slowed clearance of the carried protein from the blood. The possibility that PEG could be used to fuse nerve cells is being explored by researchers studying spinal cord injury; because PEG is hydrophilic molecule, it has been used to passivate microscope glass slides for avoiding non-specific sticking of proteins in single-molecule fluorescence studies. Polyethylene glycol is used in a variety of products; the polymer is used as a lubricating coating for various surfaces in aqueous and non-aqueous environments.
Since PEG is a flexible, water-soluble polymer, it can be used to create high osmotic pressures. It is unlikely to have specific interactions with biological chemicals; these properties make PEG one of the most useful molecules for applying osmotic pressure in biochemistry and biomembranes experiments, in particular when using the osmotic stress technique. Polyethylene glycol is commonly used as a polar stationary phase for gas chromatography, as well as a heat transfer fluid in electronic testers. PEG has been used to preserve objects that have been salvaged from underwater, as was the case with the warship Vasa in Stockholm, similar cases, it replaces water in wooden objects, making the wood dimensionally stable and preventing warping or shrinking of the wood when it dries. In addition, PEG is used when working with green wood as a stabilizer, to prevent shrinkage. PEG has been used to preserve the painted colors on Terracotta Warriors unearthed at a UNESCO World Heritage site in China; these painted artifacts were created during the Qin Shi Huang Di dynasty.
Within 15 seconds of the terra-cotta pieces being unearthed during excavations, the lacquer beneath the paint begins to curl after being exposed to the dry Xian air. The paint would subsequently flake off in about four minutes; the German Bavarian State Conservation Office developed a PEG preservative that when applied to unearthed artifacts has aided in preserving the colors painted on the pieces of clay soldiers. PEG is used in mass spectrometry experiments, with its characteristic fragmentation pattern allowing accurate and reproducible tuning. PEG derivatives, such as narrow range ethoxylates, are used as surfactants. PEG can be reacted with an isocyanate to make polyurethane. PEG has been used as the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers used to create some polymersomes. PEG is used as a crowding agent in in vitro assays to mimic crowded cellular conditions. PEG is used as a precipitant for plasmid DNA isolation and protein crystallization. X-ray diffraction of protein crystals can reveal the atomic structure of the proteins.
PEG is used to fuse two different types of cells, most B-cells and myelomas in order to create hybridomas. César Milstein and Georges J. F. Köhler originated this technique, which they used for antibody production, winning a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Polymer segments derived from PEG polyols impart flexibility to polyurethanes for applications such as elastomeric fibers and foam cushions. In microbiology, PEG precipitation is used to concentrate viruses. PEG is used to induce complete fusion in liposomes reconstituted in vitro. Gene therapy vectors can be PEG-coated to shield them from inactivation by the immune system and to de-target them from organs where they may build up and have a toxic effect; the size of the PEG polymer has been shown to be important, with larger polymers achieving the best immune protection. PEG is a component of stable nucleic acid lipid particles used to package siRNA for use in vivo. In blood banking, PEG is used as a potentiator to enhance detection of antibodies.
When working with phenol in a laboratory situation, PEG 300 can be used on phenol skin burns to deactivate any residual phenol. In biophysics, polyethylene glycols are the molecules of choice for the functioning ion channels diameter studies, because in aqueous solutions they have a spherical shape and can block ion channel conductance. PEG is the basis of personal lubricants. PEG is used in a number of toothpastes as a dispersant. In this application, it binds water and helps keep xanthan gum uniformly distributed throughout the toothpaste. PEG is under investigation for use in body armor, in tattoos to monitor diabetes. In low-molecular-weight formulations, it is used in Hewlett-Packard designjet printers as an ink solvent and lubricant for the print heads. PEG is one of the main ingredients in paintball fills, because of its thickness and flexibility. However, as early as 2006, some paintball manufacturers began substituting cheaper oil-based alternatives for PEG. PEG is used as an anti-foaming agent in food – its INS number is 1521 or E1521 in the EU.
A nitrate ester-plasticized polyethylene glycol is used in Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile solid rocket fuel. Dimethyl ethers of PEG are the key ingredient of Selexol, a solvent used by co
Human feces are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine of humans, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine. It contains bacteria and a small amount of metabolic waste products such as bacterially altered bilirubin, the dead epithelial cells from the lining of the gut, it is discharged through the anus during a process called defecation. Human feces have similarities to feces of other animals and vary in appearance, according to the state of the diet, digestive system and general health. Human feces are semisolid, with a mucus coating. Small pieces of harder, less moist feces can sometimes be seen impacted in the distal end; this is a normal occurrence when a prior bowel movement is incomplete, feces are returned from the rectum to the large intestine, where water is absorbed. In the medical literature, the term "stool" is more used than "feces". Human feces together with human urine are collectively referred to human excreta.
Containing human feces, preventing spreading of pathogens from human feces via the fecal–oral route, are the main goals of sanitation. The Bristol stool scale is a medical aid designed to classify the form of human feces into seven categories. Sometimes referred to in the UK as the Meyers Scale, it was developed by K. W. Heaton at the University of Bristol and was first published in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology in 1997; the form of the stool depends on the time. The seven types of stool are: Separate hard lumps, like nuts Sausage-shaped but lumpy Like a sausage but with cracks on the surface Like a sausage or snake and soft Soft blobs with clear-cut edges Fluffy pieces with ragged edges, a mushy stool Watery, no solid pieces. LiquidTypes 1 and 2 indicate constipation. Types 3 and 4 are optimal the latter, as these are the easiest to pass. Types 5 -- 7 are associated with increasing tendency to urgency. Meconium is a newborn baby's first feces. Human fecal matter varies in appearance, depending on diet and health.
Human feces ordinarily has a light to dark brown coloration, which results from a combination of bile, bilirubin derivatives of stercobilin and urobilin, from dead red blood cells. It is semisolid, with a mucus coating. Yellowing of feces can be caused by an infection known as giardiasis, which derives its name from Giardia, an anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasite that can cause severe and communicable yellow diarrhea. Another cause of yellowing is a condition known as Gilbert's Syndrome. Yellow stool can indicate that food is passing through the digestive tract quickly. Yellow stool can be found in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Stool, pale or grey may be caused by insufficient bile output due to conditions such as cholecystitis, giardia parasitic infection, chronic pancreatitis, or cirrhosis. Bile salts from the liver give stool its brownish color. If there is decreased bile output, stool is much lighter in color. Feces can be black due to the presence of red blood cells that have been in the intestines long enough to be broken down by digestive enzymes.
This is known as melena, is due to bleeding in the upper digestive tract, such as from a bleeding peptic ulcer. Conditions that can cause blood in the stool include hemorrhoids, anal fissures, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis; the same color change can be observed after consuming foods that contain a substantial proportion of animal blood, such as black pudding or tiết canh. Black feces can be caused by a number of medications, such as bismuth subsalicylate, dietary iron supplements, or foods such as beetroot, black liquorice, or blueberries. Hematochezia is the passage of feces that are bright red due to the presence of undigested blood, either from lower in the digestive tract, or from a more active source in the upper digestive tract. Alcoholism can provoke abnormalities in the path of blood throughout the body, including the passing of red-black stool. Hemorrhoids can cause surface staining of red on stools, because as they leave the body the process can compress and burst hemorrhoids near the anus.
Prussian blue, or blue, a coloring used in the treatment of radiation and thallium poisoning, can turn the feces blue. Substantial consumption of products containing blue food dye, such as blue curaçao or grape soda, can have the same effect. A tarnished-silver or aluminum paint-like feces color characteristically results when biliary obstruction of any type combines with gastrointestinal bleeding from any source, it can suggest a carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, which will result in gastrointestinal bleeding and biliary obstruction, resulting in silver stool. Feces can be green due to having large amounts of unprocessed bile in the digestive tract and strong-smelling diarrhea; this can be the result from eating liquorice candy, as it is made with anise oil rather than liquorice herb and is predominantly sugar. Excessive sugar consumption or a sensitivity to anise oil may cause green stools, it can result from consuming excessive amounts of blue or green dye, such as were found in Burger King's Halloween Whopper.
Violet or purple feces is a symptom of porphyria or more the consumption of beetroot. Feces possess physiological odor, which can vary according to health status. For example, meat protein contains a lot of the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine, a precu
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture