Théâtre du Palais-Royal (rue Saint-Honoré)
The Théâtre du Palais-Royal on the rue Saint-Honoré in Paris was a theatre in the east wing of the Palais-Royal, which opened on 14 January 1641 with a performance of Jean Desmarets' tragicomedy Mirame. The theatre was used by the troupe of Molière from 1660 to 1673 and as an opera house by the Académie Royale de Musique from 1673 to 1763, when it was destroyed by fire, it again was destroyed by fire in 1781 and not rebuilt. The Palais-Royal was known as the Palais-Cardinal, since it was built in the 1630s as the principal residence of Cardinal Richelieu. In 1637 Richelieu asked his architect Jacques Le Mercier to begin work on the theatre, which opened in 1641 and was known as the Great Hall of the Palais-Cardinal. Upon Richelieu's death in 1642, he left the property to King Louis XIII, it became known as the Palais-Royal, although the name Palais-Cardinal sometimes still continued to be used; the troupe of Molière and the troop of the Italians put on the shows here between 1660 and 1673. Molière's most notable plays were performed here, including L'École des femmes, Dom Juan, Le Misanthrope, L'Avare, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Le malade imaginaire.
On the death of his old collaborator, Lully ejected Molière's troupe to a new home at the Hôtel de Guénégaud and re-used the theatre as the opera house of the Académie royale de Musique. Lully had much building work done on it in order to allow the installation of new stage machinery designed by Carlo Vigarani, capable of supporting the imposing sets of the operas he would put on here; this replaced the old machinery designed by Giacomo Torelli in 1645. After Vigarani's modifications the theatre had a total capacity of about 1,270 spectators: a parterre for 600 standing, amphitheatre seating for 120, boxes with balconies accommodating another 550; the stage was 9.4 meters across and 17 meters deep, with space in front for the orchestra 7.6 meters across and 3 meters deep. Several of Lully's operas were premiered at the Palais-Royal, including Alceste and Armide. In the 18th century many of Rameau's works were first performed here, including Hippolyte et Aricie, Les Indes galantes, Castor et Pollux and Zoroastre.
The Opera's first theatre was destroyed by fire on 6 April 1763. The City of Paris, responsible for the opera house, decided to build a new theatre on a site further to the east. In the meantime the company performed in the Salle des Machines in the Tuileries Palace, first reduced to a size more suitable for opera by the architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot; the new theatre in the Palais-Royal was designed by architect Pierre-Louis Moreau Desproux and was the first purpose-built opera house in Paris. It had a capacity of more than 2,000 spectators; the new theatre opened on 20 January 1770 with a performance of Rameau's Zoroastre. It is noteworthy as the theatre where most of the French operas of Christoph Willibald Gluck were first performed, including Iphigénie en Aulide, Orphée et Eurydice, the revised version of Alceste, Iphigénie en Tauride, Echo et Narcisse. Among the many other works premiered here are Piccinni's Atys, Grétry's Andromaque, Philidor's Persée, Piccinni's Iphigénie en Tauride.
The theatre continued to be used by the Opera until 8 June 1781. The Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, much further to the north on the Boulevard Saint-Martin, was hurriedly built in two months to replace it. In the meantime the opera company performed in the Salle des Menus-Plaisirs on the rue Bergère. Architectural drawings of the second Salle du Palais-Royal Hôtel de Bourgogne Théâtre du Marais Notes SourcesAyers, Andrew; the Architecture of Paris. Stuttgart: Axel Menges. ISBN 9783930698967. Bjurström, Per. Giacomo Torelli and Baroque Stage Design, 2nd revised edition, translated from the Swedish. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. OCLC 10226792. Clarke, Jan; the Guénégaud Theatre in Paris. Volume One: Founding and Production. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773483927. Coeyman, Barbara. "Opera and Ballet in Seventeenth-Century French Theatres: Case Studies of the Salle des Machines and the Palais Royal Theater" in Radice 1998, pp. 37–71. Garreau, Joseph E.. "Molière", pp. 397–418 in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Drama, Stanley Hochman, editor in chief.
New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780070791695. Mead, Christopher Curtis. Charles Garnier's Paris Opera. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13275-6. Pitou, Spire; the Paris Opéra: An Encyclopedia of Operas, Ballets and Performers. Genesis and Glory, 1671–1715. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313214202. Pitou, Spire; the Paris Opera: An Encyclopedia of Operas, Ballets and Performers. Rococo and Romantic, 1715-1815. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313243943. Radice, Mark A. editor. Opera in Context: Essays on Historical Staging from the Late Renaissance to the Time of Puccini. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 9781574670325. Sadie, S
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris; the palace is now a Monument historique and UNESCO World Heritage site, notable for the ceremonial Hall of Mirrors, the jewel-like Royal Opera, the royal apartments. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower; the site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn.
His son, the future Louis XIII, came on his own hunting trip there in 1607. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November 1630 during the event known as the Day of the Dupes, when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici, tried to take over the government. The King sent his mother into exile. After this event, Louis XIII decided to make his hunting lodge at Versailles into a château; the King purchased the surrounding territory from the Gondi family, in 1631–1634 had the architect Philibert Le Roy replace the hunting lodge with a château of brick and stone with classical pilasters in the doric style and high slate-covered roofs, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV first visited the château on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but returned only until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he acquired a passion for the site. He decided to rebuild and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale; the first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north and west of the original château; these buildings had nearly-flat roofs covered with lead. The king commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, basins, geometric flower beds and groves of trees, he added two grottos in the Italian style and an immense orangerie to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals.
After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin, the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies, so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain, in imitation of the Chinese style. The King spent his days in Versailles, the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale, he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec
Pierre Beauchamp was a French choreographer and composer, the probable inventor of Beauchamp-Feuillet notation. Pierre Beauchamp was born at Versailles, into a family of French "dance masters", he débuted at the court of Louis XIV in 1648, in the Ballet du dérèglement des passions. He was made director of the Académie Royale de Danse in 1671. Beauchamp was principal choreographer to Molière's acting company during 1664-1673, as well as ballet master at the Académie Royale de Musique and Compositeur des Ballets du Roi, he gave dance lessons to Louis XIV for over twenty-two years. In these positions, he was influential in the development of French baroque dance, he continued to choreograph and dance at the Court of Versailles after the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully in 1687. He died at Paris in 1705. Writing some years after the actual events, Pierre Rameau credits Beauchamp with the codification of the five positions of the feet in classical ballet, as well as a role in the development of the use of arms.
The codification method was printed in 1700 by Raoul-Auger Feuillet, who published notated dance scores, became known as "Beauchamp-Feuillet notation." It was modified by Pierre Rameau in 1725, but continued to be used to record dances for the stage and for domestic use throughout the eighteenth century. Two choreographies survive in manuscript copies with attributions to Beauchamp: the ballroom duet Rigaudons de Mr Bauchand, the theatrical solo for a man Sarabande de Mr. de Beauchamp. The sarabande is unusual amongst the surviving male solos because, although it requires a virtuoso technique with its pirouettes and many ornamented steps, it contains no aerial beaten steps. Les Fâcheux, musical composition, orchestral director Le Mariage forcé Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, ballets Les Amants magnifiques Psyché, ballets Le Malade imaginaire, ballets Pomone L'Impatience La Naissance de Vénus Alceste Atys Isis Le Triomphe de l'amour, avec Pécour Ballet de la jeunesse Facsimile of a 1748 edition of Rameau's book from The Library of Congress' An American Ballroom Companion.
César UK Excerpt from Grove Dictionary entry on Pierre Beauchamp. Free scores by Pierre Beauchamp at the International Music Score Library Project
Müteferrika Süleyman Ağa, known as Suleiman Aga and Soleiman Agha in France, was an Ottoman Empire ambassador to the French king Louis XIV in 1669. Suleiman visited Versailles, but only wore a simple wool coat and refused to bow to Louis XIV, who banished him to Paris, away from Versailles. In Paris, Suleiman set up a beautiful house where he was credited for introducing coffee drinking to the Parisian society, with waiters dressed in Ottoman style, triggering enthusiastic responses thereby starting the fashion for coffee-drinking. Suleiman invited Parisian society women to his home for extravagant "coffee ceremonies", which were imitated throughout Parisian high society. Suleiman's activities in Paris were a trigger for the popularity of Turquerie and Orientalism in early modern France, in which Turkish fashions of the time such as turbans and caftans and decorations such as carpets and cushions became popular; the first French coffee shop, the Café Procope, opened in 1689, just 17 years after Suleiman's famed visit.
Franco-Ottoman alliance Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel Le Bourgeois gentilhomme The Embassy of Soliman Aga to Louis XIV: Diplomacy and Diamonds, by Garritt van Dyk
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order. In many states, the aristocracy included the upper class of people with hereditary rank and titles. In some—such as ancient Greece and India—aristocratic status came from belonging to a military caste, although it has been common, notably in African societies, for aristocrats to belong to priestly dynasties. Aristocratic status can involve legal privileges, they are below only the monarch of a country or nation in its social hierarchy. In modern European societies, the aristocracy has coincided with the nobility, a specific class that arose in the Middle Ages, but the term "aristocracy" is sometimes applied to other elites, is used as a more generic term when describing earlier and non-European societies; the term aristocracy derives from the Greek ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratia from ἄριστος "excellent," and κράτος "power." In most cases, aristocratic titles are hereditary. The term "aristokratia" was first used in Athens with reference to young citizens who led armies at the front line.
Due to martial bravery being regarded as a virtue in ancient Greece, it was assumed that the armies were being led by "the best." This virtue was called arete. Etymologically, as the word developed, it produced a more political term: aristoi; the term aristocracy is a compound word stemming from the singular of aristoi and the Greek word for power, kratos. From the ancient Greeks, the term passed to the European Middle Ages for a similar hereditary class of military leaders referred to as the nobility; as in Greece, this was a class of privileged men and women whose familial connections to the regional armies allowed them to present themselves as the most "noble" or "best" of society. The status and privileges of the aristocracy in Europe were below royalty and above all non-aristocrats; the French Revolution attacked aristocrats as people who had achieved their status by having been born in a wealthy family rather than by merit, this was considered unjust. In the United Kingdom and other European countries, such as Spain and Denmark, in which hereditary titles are still recognised, aristocrat still refers to the descendant of one of 7,000 families with hereditary titles, many still in possession of considerable wealth.
In the United Kingdom, members of the highest echelon of the aristocracy, the hereditary peers were, until 1999, members of the House of Lords—the upper house of the legislature, the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In 1999, most ceased to be members. However, the Duke of Norfolk, who always serves as Earl Marshal, the hereditary peer who serves as Lord Great Chamberlain, a further 90 Representative Hereditary Peers elected by the Hereditary Peers retained membership. Since 1958, non-hereditary "life peers" have been created, who are automatically members of the House of Lords for life with the right to be known by their title. For example, John Gummer became Lord Deben. However, life peers are not considered part of the aristocracy, nor are knights, unless born into an aristocratic or landed gentry family. Examples include James Douglas-Hamilton, Baron Selkirk of Douglas, Sir Winston Churchill—all born into aristocratic families. Besides the hereditary peers, the gentry are considered part of the aristocracy.
Unlike the Continental untitled nobility, British untitled families that belong to the gentry have no legal recognition of their aristocratic position. Under the rule of the Mughal Empire, the titles for those under a king were borrowed from Persia; these titles of landed aristocracy include jagirdar, thikanadar and zamindar. Many landholding families either held legal or administrative offices, were sometimes considered the Indian version of the Nobility of the Robe; the princes appointed officers, such as dewan and other state level ministers, to run their administrations, who were considered members of the regional nobility. Most of these officers were either relatives of the princes who appointed them, or were themselves substantial landlords under the sovereignty of the Princely States, most held hereditary titles. Sometimes, educated men belonging to the British Imperial Services were appointed to the high offices of the Princely States, but their positions were not hereditary and they were seen as career bureaucrats rather than noblemen by their employers.
Today, aristocratic titles like Taluqdar, Rao, Naidu, Thevar, Zaildar, Tarafdar, Nair, [[Madampi |Madampi, Chettiar of are still used in the Indian Subcontinent. Deriving from the pre-colonial states of the region that would become known as Nigeria, the recognised titles of the Nigerian aristocracy range from king to the ubiquitous chief, they give their bearers no political authority in theory, but in practice allow them to serve as immensely powerful patrons of the country's political leaders due to their control of popular opinion within its various tribes. Along with those of their titled relatives and courtiers, they serve as the guiding forces behind Nigerian cultural and religious ceremonies. Titles such as Oba, Mai, Sarki and Obi are used by the dynastic heads, while prince and princess are either used in their English forms or in their native ones by the dynasts of their houses, their privy counsellors, tend to be called either chiefs or elders depending on what their monarch
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their